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1 Kick It Up A Notch! Promote Academic Honesty Through the School Library.

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1 1 Kick It Up A Notch! Promote Academic Honesty Through the School Library

2 2 Whats the problem? What is academic dishonesty? Why does it occur? When, where should we begin to teach about academic honesty? How do we encourage academic honesty? How can we kick it up a notch? to create plagiarism proof assignments? Questions

3 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Whats the problem? A recent study, conducted by Donald McCabe of Rutgers University, of about 4500 students at 25 high schools shows that cheating is a serious problem. 74% of respondents admitted to one or more instances of serious test cheating and 72% admitted to serious cheating on written assignments. Over half of the students admitted they have engaged in some level of plagiarism on written assignments using the Internet.

4 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Whats the problem? 15% have submitted material obtained, in large part, from a web site or internet paper mill 52% have copied several sentences from a web site without citing the source 90% of students who plagiarize from the Internet have also plagiarized from written sources Source: CAI Research Center for Academic Integrity. Duke University,2003.

5 5 Whats the problem? a new Canadian study conducted through the University of Guelph and Rutgers University of 14,913 undergrads from 11 campuses indicates that academic honesty is a serious problem 73 % of high school students 53% of university undergrads 35% of graduate students admit to practicing academic dishonesty!

6 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Whats the problem? Plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty have always existed. However, today: technology has made it so easy to plagiarize academic dishonesty – in its many forms – is a common occurrence (including text messaging on exams) plagiarism has become a game of cunning the integrity, ethics, and morality of our students are at stake

7 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Plagiarism: Then and Now Old Plagiarism Students: copied from books, encyclopedias, journals; misrepresented citations or bibliographic entries; exchanged or purchased essays. New Plagiarism Students: copy from one or more electronic sources; download material from the Internet without acknowledgement; locate essays in another language and then put them through translation programs.

8 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Plagiarism: Then and Now Old Plagiarism required time and effort to locate and copy; papers still had to be written or typed; required personal contact. New Plagiarism copying and pasting is quick and effortless, providing instant gratification; text fonts can be changed with a simple keystroke; requires no personal contact, creating a sense of anonymity.

9 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Three Variations of Plagiarism Unintentional –poorly developed literacy skills and poor understanding of acceptable documentation procedures –collaborate to ensure inclusion of these skills in assignments Intentional –deliberate attempt to achieve high end results with low end effort –teach to reinforce legal and ethical use of information Invitational –nature and scope of certain types of assignments encourage students to merely hunt, gather, replicate (Tom March) –collaborate to develop rich authentic task assignments

10 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Why Students Intentionally Plagiarize stress of a heavy workload and the competition for high marks poor time management and planning skills lack of understanding about concepts and ethics of intellectual property lack of confidence in their own research and writing skills project has no meaning for them - they are just getting it done

11 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports The Clues The paper, project or presentation: is just too good for the students level of understanding, knowledge and/or skill is consistently better when work is done at home rather than in class contains poorly written paragraphs at the beginning and end, and high quality work in between sounds familiar is suspicious in terms of appearance or topic

12 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports How to Become Informed Become informed on cheat sites and different methods of plagiarizing in the high tech world: Do your own reading concerning high tech forms of academic dishonesty Investigate Internet sites available to assist educators in preventing and identifying plagiarized work. Visit electronic paper mill web sites to familiarize yourself with essay retrieval methods.

13 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Paper Mills: Whats out there?

14 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports The High Tech Defense Use a comprehensive search engine (Google, Dogpile, Altavista, alltheweb) to locate possible sources of questionable papers Type in a phrase from the essay or the essay title Search full-text online subscription databases (EBSCO, Electric Library, Proquest) Type in a phrase from the essay or the essay title. This could take hundreds of hours per class assignment Install filtering software to block out cheat sites. This could create a false sense of security, as students can access cheat sites elsewhere

15 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports The Higher Tech Defense Anti-plagiarism programs exist that will compare any paper to those already available on the Internet and will add the paper to a vast database. Detection services: Turnitin.com (produces a colour coded originality report) Detection services: Glatt Plagiarism Program (has various screening devices) Detection services: Essay Verification Engine (produces colour coded annotated report)

16 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports

17 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports

18 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports

19 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports However, Catching Internet cheaters is not the best answer. Its a lot like doing an autopsy. No matter how terrific the coroner is at determining how or why a person died, the damage has been done. Bringing the culprit to light wont change that. Preventing the problem is a much better approach. Lisa Renard, Cut and Paste 101: Plagiarism and the Net.

20 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports The Best Defense: Be Proactive Rethink the very nature of research assignments and the purpose they serve in the curriculum. Emphasize the research process and the learning of lifelong information literacy skills. Collaborate with your teacher librarian to design rich, authentic assignments. Structure writing assignments to reduce plagiarism. Build a common understanding of academic honesty. Model academic integrity.

21 21 Research Project Design Authentic Learning engages in real world issues or problems to demonstrate learning allows students to utilize their learning styles and strengths focuses on both process and product

22 22 GRASP - Rich Performance Tasks Goal: focus for enduring understanding Role: multi perspectives Audience: authentic tone and voice Situation: real-life context Product: varied - presentations, reports, brochure

23 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Dr. David Loertscher Carol Koechlin Sandi Zwaan BAN those BIRD UNITS 15 Models for Teaching and Learning in Information-rich and Technology-rich Environments Stories

24 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Research Assignments Rethink research assignments. Structure them so that they: are examples of authentic learning emphasize critical thinking skills emphasize creative thinking emphasize metacognition so that students can think about the what and how of their learning We CAN structure assignments so they are meaningful and cheat proof

25 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Research Assignments Focus on time (e.g. write an obituary for a civilization, change a historical decision and predict the possible consequences. Change format (e.g. debates, simulations, role plays, trials, newspapers, editorials) Incorporate technology (e.g. TV talk show, PowerPoint, web pages) Create a game (i.e., with rules similar to Jeopardy, Trivial Pursuit, Survivor) Create visual products (e.g. dioramas, models) Create a Webquest Rethink Traditional Research Products

26 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Research Assignments Explain why the French Revolution was inevitable. You are a merchant living in Paris in Explain why you support the French Revolution. Change Point of View in Traditional Assignments

27 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Research Assignments Describe the relationship between Anne Frank and her mother. Write a letter as Mrs. Frank to your daughter, Anne, explaining the problems you are having with her. Change Point of View in Traditional Assignments

28 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Research Assignments Write a report on xyz city. Which city is the best city for…. -the Winter Olympics -a new theme park -a familys new home Change Point of View in Traditional Assignments

29 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Research Assignments Write a report on a National Park of your choice. Include information about its location, wildlife, activities, and landforms. You are to go on a trip to a National Park in Canada with your family. Determine the interests of each member of your family. Gather and record information about two national parks. Determine the park that most closely meets those interests and create a multimedia advertisement that sells us on your choice of park. Change Point of View in Traditional Assignments

30 30 Why Teach A Research Process? Structure or plan for students Consistency and common language Transferable to all subjects and grade Framework for: design of project skills assessing & evaluating

31 Information Studies K-12 Four Stage Research Process 1 Preparing For Research 2 Accessing Resources 3 Processing Information 4 Transferring Learning

32 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Using The Research Process Identify meaningful steps within the structure of each assignment Use an assessment scheme giving appropriate weight to process and product Assess and evaluate the research process at various stages Teach students the meaning of academic honesty, plagiarism, intellectual property, and copyright.

33 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Using The Research Process Teach students how to use quotations and paraphrasing effectively and how to cite sources correctly. Require students to submit a research portfolio of notes, sources, and drafts along with their finished product for marking. Use your schools Student Research Guide as the standard.

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35 How to Practice Academic Honesty Use G.E.A.R.S. for: n project management skills n help in developing HOT research questions n finding and using great resources n templates for key-word webs, note-taking sheets, thesis statement creation, editing and revising work n how tos - citing, creating a list of works cited - in both MLA and APA, writing an essay or report etc. G.E.A.R.S. is NPC Library. Sign one out today!

36 G.E.A.R.S. Strategies Project Management Skills: n Time management - the journey n Start with a calendar - set work dates and times n Choose a work location - spread out and focus n Create a research or work folder- sort, date and organize, clip like information together

37 G.E.A.R.S. Strategies HOT Questions: n great research questions are Higher Order Thinking questions because these result in answers which are rich in depth and scope n using HOT questions in research helps you engage with information by thinking about it critically and using it to create thoughtful, original work which inspires academic honesty

38 G.E.A.R.S. Strategies GEARS Note-taking sheets: n take notes in point form, in your own words n use a new sheet for each resource used n write the bibliographic information from each source in the area provided n record the page number for quoted and paraphrased information n record the specific URL for web information

39 G.E.A.R.S. Strategies Cite your sources: n when you quote, paraphrase, summarize, use graphics, pictures, photos n some teachers prefer internal citations, some footnotes - ask for format n bibliography or list of works cited does not take the place of citations n access MLA or APA through GEARS and/or the librarys web site

40 G.E.A.R.S. Strategies Observe Copyright Laws: n as soon as an idea is recorded it is copyright protected n applies to all original creations n as long as credit is given, some materials used for educational purposes may be copied n access GEARS to learn more

41 Academic Honesty n Give credit where credit is due… n Acknowledge your sources of ideas and information when you write a research paper, create a poster, post a web site, or do a presentation. n Use information in a legal and ethical way to stay In the Groove - protect yourself and others!

42 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Structure writing assignments to reduce plagiarism Rewrite tired assignments so that they emphasize critical thinking rather than hunting and gathering Change topic lists often Evaluate both the research process and the product Work with the teacher librarian to make sure there are adequate resource materials for topics to encourage research success and eliminate student frustration Start research projects in class/school library, not at home

43 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Structure writing assignments to reduce plagiarism Meet with the student at several points in the project to monitor progress. Monitor a working bibliography as the assignment progresses. Require an annotated bibliography during the first part of the research process and also at the end. Keep samples of in-class student writing for comparison. Require rough notes and drafts to be submitted with final essay for marking.

44 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Structure writing assignments to reduce plagiarism Personalize assignments by incorporating an interview, a visit, an opinion component, or an authentic application. Have students do a metalearning reflection for major research assignments. In this exercise, students reflect on their personal research experience--what strategies they used, what confused them, what skills they have acquired, how they managed time, etc.

45 4th Gear Stage 4 - Transferring Learning Student Reflection Now that you have arrived at your destination, its time for self- reflection and self - assessment. Take some time to reflect on the journey you have taken for this project. 1. What do I know now about my topic that I didnt know before I began my research? 2. What aspects of the research process did I find the easiest or most comfortable to do? 3. What aspects of the research process did I find the most challenging? 4. What am I able to accomplish now that I couldnt before I began this assignment? 5. What specific research skills do I still need to work on? 6. What did I learn by doing this assignment that I can apply to other research assignments?

46 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Academic Honesty Policies Use the Academic Honesty Policy, created by some boards as part of their Code of Student Behaviour. Establish a school-wide policy of Academic Integrity, including consequences for cheating, if a Board policy does not exist. Create a student presentation to use with classes. Apply the policies consistently in your school.

47 North Park Collegiate In the Groove to promote and to practice Academic Honesty

48 n Practicing academic honesty means you use information ethically and legally n You acknowledge your source when using other peoples ideas, words, pictures, other graphics, music, etc.

49 Academic Dishonesty n When you dont give credit for information you take from books, newspapers, magazines, internet web sites, on- line databases in any format, you are practicing Academic Dishonesty.

50 Academic Dishonesty n When you buy a paper from the internet n When you use an essay from another course n When you copy homework n When you copy and paste from an electronic source n When you fake a citation n When you pass off someone elses ideas as your own All are academically dishonest.

51 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Model Academic Integrity Two ways you can model Academic Integrity in the classroom are by: - comply with Canadian copyright regulations when photocopying print materials - show only videos for which public performance rights have been purchased - talk about Cancopy and public performance licenses used in your school

52 52 Academic Honesty at the Elementary Level

53 53 Who needs to be involved in promoting academic honesty? Students Parents Teachers

54 54 Students should: be encouraged to do their own work on projects and homework be taught and expected to follow citation conventions understand the meaning of academic honesty be familiar with the schools policy

55 55 Why Teach Academic Honesty at the Elementary level? Students form research habits in early years Plagiarism on projects could carry over to students thinking other forms of dishonesty (cheating, lying etc.) are acceptable Teachers cant assess student learning accurately if academic honesty is not practiced

56 56 Parents can help by: checking homework regularly helping with and encouraging, but not doing, schoolwork for children being aware of the schools academic honesty policy communicating clear values re cheating, plagiarism etc. modeling core ethical values

57 57 Teachers should: design authentic assignments that require students to construct personal meaning design assignments that ask for analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating teach note-making skills provide and teach use of visual organizers

58 1st Gear Stage 1 - Preparing for Research Defining Your Topic KWL - Organizer #1 My topic: ___________________________ My thoughts and feelings about my topic: Topic: _____ What I already know What I need to find out Where I can look __books __pictures __computer __interview How will I share what I learned: __oral report __picture __poster __other __written report __story __slide show

59 3rd Gear Stage 3 - Processing Information Note Making Jot Notes Using a Dollar Figure Australian Spiders Jot Note Page You have $4.00 to spend. Your job is to take notes from the handout on Australian Spiders, writing down enough information so that you can write two paragraphs about spiders, but without writing down ANYTHING you dont need to. Each word you write down will cost you ten cents. How many words can you write down before you are out of money? I can write down _____________ words.

60 3rd Gear Stage 3 - Processing Information Jot Notes Australian Spiders Jot Note Page You have $4.00 to spend. Your job is to take notes from the handout on Australian Spiders, writing down enough information so that you can write two paragraphs about spiders, but without writing down anything you dont need. Each word you write down will cost you 10 cents. How many words can you write down before you are out of money? I can write down __________ words.

61 61 Provide students with a clear definition of academic dishonesty make clear citation conventions geared to student understanding conference with students throughout the process value the process and the product model academic honesty

62 3rd Gear Stage 3 - Processing Information Academic Honesty Record Chart Resource Chart for Whole Class Project Desert Fox Resource List

63 4th Gear Stage 4 – Transferring Learning Editing Your Work (Primary) Once you have finished writing your project, you need to edit it. This checklist will help you to be sure you have taken all the steps to have a great report! Research Mark when done I have used at least two sources to get my information I have written down my sources on my resources page I have answered all the questions I wrote on my organizer I have all the diagrams and pictures I need to illustrate my project I have practised Academic Honesty Editing I have checked the spelling of unfamiliar words in a dictionary I have read my project out loud to listen for mistakes I have checked my punctuation My writing is in complete sentences My project is neat My project has pizzazz!

64 64 At which grade do we begin to to address academic honesty? Even students in K or grade 1 can grasp the idea that credit should be given for work someone else has created Children know that it is wrong to take what doesnt belong to them We can begin with a very simple form of crediting a source (spoken), and build on that format

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66 66 Activity #1 Are these assignments plagiarism proof?

67 Do these assignments inspire academic honesty? Civics - Gr.10 Students are to write a 500 word research report which outlines the political contributions made by a Canadian Prime Minister of their choice.

68 English Gr. 9 Applied Students are to assume the role of the main character in their independent reading novel. Students will research the main issue in their book, and, as the main character, write a letter to their antagonist explaining why they feel/react/act toward that character in the way they do. Explain what the antagonist could do to help resolve the conflict between the two characters in a peaceful and satisfactory manner based on your research.

69 Geography - Gr. 12M Students will write a descriptive paper examining one of the world biomes from a specific continent. Inclusions: - a definition of the term biome - the limiting factors of your biome - a precise description of the location of your biome - other significant illustrations - genera and specific biota of your biome (indcator species, climax communities, etc.) - specific adaptations of flora and fauna in your biome - human impact on the biome - a list of resources used in an informal bibliography

70 Art - Gr.12 Students will study the landscape as a primary source and images of the landscape in books and on the internet as secondary sources. Students will take photographs of urban and/or rural landscapes which they will draw in colour. Students will select images from secondary sources which they will identify and draw in colour. Students will create design ideas from the research drawings and formulate design development drawings followed by a final design. The culminating project will include source drawings, design development drawings, the final design, two practice paintings and a final piece completed using either watercolour or acrylic on canvas.

71 Daily and Seasonal Cycles - Grade 1 Students will produce a picture web showing the characteristics of plants and animals in one of the four seasons. Students will research seasonal changes in living things, including humans, by watching videos, sharing their own experiences, building groups of words, writing cooperative chart stories. Students will present their research findings in a template using Kidspiration software

72 Fact and Fiction - Kindergarten Students will contribute to a class brainstorm What do I know about turtles chart guided by the teacher- librarian. Students will research facts about turtles using books, pictures, and a video, then help add facts to the class chart. Students will listen to a story about Franklin the Turtle and identify their learning about Franklin. Using the chart students will compare what was real and what was imaginary about turtles in the Franklin story.

73 Early Civilizations - Gr. 5 Each student will choose an early civilization to research. Students will prepare a poster which shows the following: location of the civilization climate facts living conditions clothing transportation cultural beliefs Students will provide captions for each component listed.

74 Connecting Music with History - Gr. 8 Much music is written by artists who are responding to their culture, their community, and the events of their lives. 1. Research a selected period of history to become familiar with the events of the time. 2. Select a piece of music written in response to these events. 3. Analyze the lyrics and the musical style and critically assess why the piece was written at this time. 4. Document your findings using visual formats. 5. Document your thoughts and feelings about the song. 6. Create a slideshow which ties the historical period, the song and your response to it.

75 Activity # 2 How can you kick it up a notch to make your assignments inspire academic honest?

76 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports References Material for this presentation was adapted from the following sources: Bowman, Vibiana, ed. The Plagiarism Plague: A Resource Guide and CD-ROM Tutorial for Educators and Librarians, Grand Erie District School Board. G.E.A.R.S., Lathrop,Ann and Kathleen Foss. Student Cheating and Plagiarism in the Internet Era, Loertscher, David V., Carol Koechlin and Sandi Zwann. BAN those BIRD UNITS, Ontario School Library Association. Curriculum Supports, Preate, Suzanne. Internet Plagiarism. Syracuse University Library. Renard, Lisa. Cut and Paste 101: Plagiarism and the Net, Educational Leadership, Dec. 1999/Jan

77 Ontario School Library Association: Curriculum Supports Kick it up a notch to inspire higher achievement and Academic Honesty! Sharon P. Armstrong Head of Library North Park Collegiate Grand Erie District School Board


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