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Chapter 31 Cerebellum Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 31.1 Cerebellar structure and functional subdivisions. (A) Dorsal view of the human cerebellum. (B) Functional subdivisions. Adapted from Nieuwenhuys, Voogd, and van Huijzen (1979).
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 31.2 Cerebellar inputs and outputs. The cerebellumis shown schematically with the flocculonodular (FN) lobe unfolded and represented at the inferior surface. Green arrows indicate excitatory projections into and out of the cerebellum; red arrows indicate the inhibitory projections from cerebellar cortex to the deep cerebellar nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. Adapted from Thach, Fig. 31-3. In Mountcastle, J. B. (1980). Medical Physiology, Volume I. 14 Ed. C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 31.3 Major deficits produced by microinjection of muscimol and kainic acid into different regions of the cerebellum. F indicates the standing and walking deficit seen after muscimol injections into the fastigius. I indicates armposition (tremor) during reaching after muscimol injection into the interpositus. D indicates the deficits in reaching and pinching after muscimol injection into the dentate. Adapted from Thach et al. (1980).
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 31.4 Schematic view of cerebellar cortex. This section shows the three-dimensional relationship between the different cell types specifically, the medullary layer or white matter, granular layer, basket cells, stellate cells, Purkinje cells, Golgi cells, granular cells, parallel fibers, climbing fibers, mossy fibers, deep cerebellar nuclei, and recurrent collaterals. Adapted from Fox, C. A. (1962). The structure of the cerebellar cortex. In Correlative Anatomy of the Nervous System. New York, MacMillan. [Fig. 16.10A].
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 31.5 Whole-cell recording of a Purkinje cell at the soma (top) and cellattached recording from its axon (bottom). The Purkinje cell fires simple spikes spontaneously, all of which are transmitted down the axon. At the times indicated by arrows, a complex spike is elicited by climbing fiber stimulation. Two to three of the spikes associated with the complex spike drive axonal spiking. Adapted from Khaliq and Raman (2005).
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 31.6 Whole-cell recordings from Purkinje cells showing the synaptic result of parallel fiber stimulation over time. (A) After a baseline period, parallel fiber stimulation is paired with conjunctive climbing fiber stimulation every 1 s for 5 min (arrow). Afterwards, the parallel fiber synaptic amplitude is depressed (LTD). (B) The parallel fiber is stimulated as in A, but in the absence of climbing fiber input potentiated (LTP). Adapted from Coesmans et al. (2004).
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 31.7 Simple and complex spikes recorded during motor learning task. Adapted from Ito; original reference Gibert & Thach (1977).
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 31.8 Eyelid conditioning. (A) Top, schematic of the training procedure. A tone is presented for a brief duration (usually ~500 ms), coterminating with a brief air puff to the eye. Bottom, traces of eyelid movement during training. Each line represents one trial; the period in blue is the tone presentation. On the first day of training, animals only blink in response to the air puff; by the second day, the eyelid begins to move before the end of the tone, eventually reaching peak movement that is well timed to block the air puff. (B) Animals can learn a range of tone durations, with appropriately timed blinks regardless of the interval between tone onset and air puff. (C) Extinction of prior learning. A well-trained animal blinks at the appropriate time even when the air puff is not presented, but after repeated trials with no air puff, the animal ceases to blink in response to the tone alone.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 31.9 Circuit underlying eyelid conditioning. The conditioned (CS; tone) and unconditioned stimuli (US; air puff) activate mossy and climbing fibers, respectively. Some mossy fibers fire throughout the duration of the tone, while others fire only at the onset (green). Mossy fibers diverge to granule and Golgi cells in the granule layer, and to neurons in the anterior interpositus nucleus (AIN). The granule cells influence basket/stellate (B/S) and Purkinje cells, which in turnmodulate AIN firing. Plasticity at the granule cell to Purkinje synapse, as well as the mossy fiber to nucleus synapse, appears to occur during learning. As a result, AIN neurons are thought to see a powerful barrage of Purkinje inhibition during the beginning of the tone. The relief of inhibition combined with mossy fiber excitation at the appropriate time triggers AIN firing, which (via the red nucleus; not shown) causes motor neuron firing to close the eyelid.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. FIGURE 31.10 Feedback and feedforward control. (A) An example of a feedback-regulated thermostat. Though simple and accurate, feedback regulation tends to be slow, and attempts to speed it up cause oscillations. In this example, an attempted correction by a powerful heating system (in response to a decrease in temperature caused by opening a window) overshoots the mark, forcing another attempted adjustment by a powerful cooling system that also overshoots the mark, and so on. The upper and lower boundaries of the yellow area indicate the thresholds for detecting temperature change. (B) An example of a feedforward thermostat, which counteracts (orange lines) the changes in temperature predicted by the opening of windows (green lines). Though much quicker than feedback control, feedforward control is more complicated, requiring the ability to detect errorpredicting stimuli (windows opening) and to delay anticipatory responses appropriately. Here, the opening of a large window (unbroken green line) predicts a faster decrease in temperature than does the opening of a small window (broken green line). The anticipatory response (increasing room temperature; broken or unbroken orange lines) must therefore be appropriately delayed in response to the predictive stimulus (opening a large or small window). This type of calibration requires associative learning that is temporally specific. Modified from Ohyama et al. (2003).
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