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The Spec# programming system K. Rustan M. Leino Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA, USA Lunch seminar, Praxis Bath, UK 6 Dec 2005 joint work with Mike Barnett,

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Presentation on theme: "The Spec# programming system K. Rustan M. Leino Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA, USA Lunch seminar, Praxis Bath, UK 6 Dec 2005 joint work with Mike Barnett,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Spec# programming system K. Rustan M. Leino Microsoft Research, Redmond, WA, USA Lunch seminar, Praxis Bath, UK 6 Dec 2005 joint work with Mike Barnett, Robert DeLine, Manuel Fähndrich, Wolfram Schulte, Herman Venter, Bor-Yuh Evan Chang, Bart Jacobs, Daan Leijen, Peter Müller, David A. Naumann

2 Software engineering problem Building and maintaining large systems that are correct

3 Approach Specifications record design decisions –bridge intent and code Tools amplify human effort –manage details –find inconsistencies –ensure quality

4 Research goals Build the best such system we can build today Experiment with the system to get a feel for what it is like to use Advance the state of the art

5 Spec# Experimental mix of contracts and tool support Aimed at experienced developers who know the high cost of testing and maintenance Superset of C# –non-null types –pre- and postconditions –object invariants Tool support –more type checking –compiler-emitted run-time checks –static program verification C# contracts everywhere type checking static verification into the future run-time checks degree of checking, effort familiar

6 Spec# demo

7 Some design issues 0.Non-null types 1.C# compatibility 2.Preconditions 3.Object invariants 4.Program verifier architecture 5.Verification-condition generation

8 T x; The value of x is null or a reference to an object whose type is a subtype of T. T ! y; The value of y is a reference to an object whose type is a subtype of T, not null. 0. Non-null types

9 Non-null escape hatch: cast object o; string s; … string! a = (string!)o; string! b = (!)s;

10 Comparing against null public void M( T x ) { if (x == null) { … } else { int y = ((!)x).f; … } }

11 Comparing against null public void M( T x ) { if (x == null) { … } else { int y = x.f; … } } Spec# performs a data-flow analysis to allow this (similar to definite assignment)

12 Non-null instance fields class C : B { T ! x; public C(T ! y) :base() { this.x = y; } public override int M() { return x.f; } } Is this code type safe?No! abstract class B { public B() { this.M(); } public abstract int M(); } null dereference

13 Non-null instance fields class C : B { T ! x; public C(T ! y) { this.x = y; base(); } public override int M() { return x.f; } } Spec# allows x to be assigned before base constructor is called.

14 Static field initialization class C { … static S ! s ; static T ! t ; static C() { s = new S(…); t = new T(…); } } What if this call re-enters class C? One design choice: Impose a partial order on classes In Spec#: enforce all writes check that static constructor assigns to the static non-null fields do checking at some reads

15 Spec# is superset of C# From C# to Spec#: –accept every C# program –compile it to have the same behavior Consequences –Possible null dereference is just a warning –Must initialize non-null fields before calling base constructor is an error –Support for out-of-band contracts 1. C# compatibility

16 From Spec# to C# or: Leveraging wiz-bang features of Visual Studio 2005 class B : A { string! src; public B(string! source, int x) requires 0 <= x; { this.src = source; base(x); }

17 From Spec# to C# or: Leveraging wiz-bang features of Visual Studio 2005 class B : A { string! src; public B(string! source, int x) //^ requires 0 <= x; { this.src = source; base(x); }

18 From Spec# to C# or: Leveraging wiz-bang features of Visual Studio 2005 class B : A { string/*!*/ src; public B(string/*!*/ source, int x) //^ requires 0 <= x; { this.src = source; base(x); }

19 From Spec# to C# or: Leveraging wiz-bang features of Visual Studio 2005 class B : A { string/*!*/ src; public B(string/*!*/ source, int x) //^ requires 0 <= x; : base(x) { this.src = source; //^ base; }

20 2. Preconditions

21 StringBuilder.Append Method (Char[], Int32, Int32) Appends the string representation of a specified subarray of Unicode characters to the end of this instance. public StringBuilder Append(char[] value, int startIndex, int charCount); Parameters value A character array. startIndex The starting position in value. charCount The number of characters append. Return Value A reference to this instance after the append operation has occurred. Exceptions Exception TypeCondition ArgumentNullExceptionvalue is a null reference, and startIndex and charCount are not zero. ArgumentOutOfRangeExceptioncharCount is less than zero. -or- startIndex is less than zero. -or- startIndex + charCount is less than the length of value. Contracts today

22 Contract in Spec# public StringBuilder Append(char[ ] value, int startIndex, int charCount ); requires 0 <= startIndex; …

23 Otherwise clauses public StringBuilder Append(char[ ] value, int startIndex, int charCount ); requires 0 <= startIndex otherwise ArgumentOutOfRangeException; …

24 Inheriting contracts interface J { void M(int x); requires P; } class A { public abstract void M(int x); requires Q; } class B : A, J { public override void M(int x) { … } }

25 3. Object invariants

26 When do object invariants hold? class C { private int x; private int y; invariant x < y; public C() { x = 0; y = 1; } public void M() { int t = 100 / (y – x); x = x + 1; P(t); y = y + 1; } … } invariant assumed to hold on entry to method invariant checked to hold on exit from method invariant checked to hold at end of constructor invariant may be temporarily broken here invariant is restored here what if P calls back into M?

27 Object states Mutable –Object invariant may not hold –Field updates allowed Valid –Object invariant holds –Field updates not allowed

28 Valid vs. mutable objects class C { private int x; private int y; invariant x < y; public void M() requires this.inv == Valid; { expose (this) { x = x + 1; P(…); y = y + 1; } } … } represent explicitly that invariant holds (without revealing what the invariant is) change this.inv from Valid to Mutable check invariant; then, change this.inv from Mutable to Valid field updates allowed only on Mutable objects

29 Summary of object invariants invariant … inv : { Mutable, Valid } expose updates of o.f require o.inv = Mutable ( o o.inv = Mutable Inv (o))

30 4. Spec# verifier architecture V.C. generator automatic theorem prover verification condition Spec# correct or list of errors Spec# compiler MSIL (bytecode) translator Boogie PL inference engine Spec# program verifier (aka Boogie)

31 BoogiePL Intermediate language Semantics of Spec# is encoded in BoogiePL Can be used for other program-verification tasks, like other source languages

32 Analyzing verification conditions Automatic theorem prover –can be hidden from programmer –generates counterexamples Interactive theorem prover –requires gurus –not limited by built-in decision procedures

33 5. Verification conditions Generate verification conditions that the theorem prover can handle quickly We use a new linear technique

34 VC generation: example B E F CD (A ok wp(Body_A, B ok F ok ) (B ok wp(Body_B, C ok D ok ) (C ok wp(Body_C, E ok ) (D ok wp(Body_D, E ok ) (E ok wp(Body_E, F ok ) (F ok wp(Body_F, true ) A ok Linear technique: A

35 download Spec# from here Conclusions Because of tool support, were ready for programming at the next level of rigor Some ingredients –language design, program semantics, specification techniques, inference algorithms, decision procedures, … Methodology is underdeveloped –Can programming theory yet fully explain why real big programs work? –programming theory has not kept up with practice


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