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Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Programming Languages 2nd edition Tucker and Noonan Chapter 18 Program Correctness To treat programming.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Programming Languages 2nd edition Tucker and Noonan Chapter 18 Program Correctness To treat programming."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Programming Languages 2nd edition Tucker and Noonan Chapter 18 Program Correctness To treat programming scientifically, it must be possible to specify the required properties of programs precisely. Formality is certainly not an end in itself. The importance of formal specifications must ultimately rest in their utility - in whether or not they are used to improve the quality of software or to reduce the cost of producing and maintaining software. J. Horning

2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Contents 18.1 Axiomatic Semantics 18.2 Formal Methods Tools: JML 18.2.1 JML Exception Handling 18.3 Correctness of Object-Oriented Programs 18.3.1 Design by Contract 18.3.2 The Class Invariant 18.3.3 Correctness of a Queue Application 18.3.4 Final Observations 18.4 Correctness of Functional Programs

3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Review JML JML ExpressionMeaning requires p;p is a precondition for the call ensures p;p is a postcondition for the call signals (E e) p; when exception e is raised by the call, p is a postcondition loop_invariant p;p is a loop invariant invariant p;p is a class invariant \result == e;e is the result returned by the call \old v the value of v at entry to the call (\product int x ; p(x); e(x)) the product of e(x) for all x that satisfy p(x) (\sum int x ; p(x); e(x)) the sum of e(x) for all x that satisfy p(x) p ==> qp q

4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 18.3.1 Design by Contract

5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The contract for a Stack class

6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 18.3.2 The Class Invariant A class C is formally specified if: 1. Every constructor and public method M in the classhas preconditions and postconditions, and 2. C has a special predicate called its class invariant INV which, for every object o in C, argument x and call o.M(x), must be true both before and after the call. Note: During a call, INV may temporarily become false. Why are we doing this??? i)Formal specifications provide a foundation for rigorous OO system design (e.g., design by contract). ii)They enable static and dynamic assertion checking of an entire OO system. iii)They enable formal correctness proof of an OO system.

7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 18.3.3 Correctness of a Stack Application public class Stack { private class Node { } private Node theStack = null; private int n = 0; public void push(int v) { } public int pop( ) {} public int top() {} public boolean isEmpty() {} public int size() {} } state variables help define INV public methods M public constructor C = Stack() helper class

8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Adding Class-Level Specifications /*@ public model Node S; private represents S <- theStack; public invariant S == null || n == this.size(); @*/ private /*@ spec_public @*/ Node theStack = null; private /*@ spec_public @*/ int n = 0; more JML JML model variable class invariant INV Notes: 1) JML model variables allow a specification to distance itself from the classs implementation details. 2) spec_public allows JML specifications to treat a Java variable as public without forcing the code to do the same.

9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Adding Method Specifications /*@ requires n > 0; ensures \result==\old(S).val && S==\old(S).next && n==\old(n)-1; @*/ public /*@ pure @*/ int pop( ) { int result = theStack.val; theStack = theStack.next; n = n-1; return result; } Notes: 1) \old denotes the value of S at entry to pop. 2)The ensures clause specifies that pop removes the top element and returns it.

10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Similar specifications for push //@ ensures S.next==\old(S) && S.val==v; public /*@ pure @*/ void push(int v) { theStack = new Node(v, theStack); n = n+1; }

11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Pure methods /*@ requires n > 0; ensures \result==S.val && S == \old(S); @*/ public /*@ pure @*/ int top() { return theStack.val; } Note: A method is pure if: 1) it has no non-local side effects, and 2) it is provably non-looping.

12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Test driving MyStack class public class myStackTest { public static void main(String[] args) { MyStack s = new MyStack(); int val; for (int i=0; i { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/2/685266/slides/slide_12.jpg", "name": "Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.", "description": "Test driving MyStack class public class myStackTest { public static void main(String[] args) { MyStack s = new MyStack(); int val; for (int i=0; i

13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Contract test 1: normal run % jmlrac myStackTest 4 5 6 Stack size = 3 Stack contents = 6 5 4 Is Stack empty? true %

14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Contract test 2: postcondition violation Exception in thread "main" org.jmlspecs.jmlrac.runtime.JMLNormalPostconditionError: by method MyStack.top regarding specifications at File "MyStack.java", line 31, character 26 when '\old(S)' is MyStack$Node@5ff48b '\result' is 5 'this' is MyStack@affc70 at MyStack.checkPost$top$MyStack(MyStack.java:999) at MyStack.top(MyStack.java:1078) at myStackTest.main(MyStackTest.java:15) Note: blame is with the callee MyStack, since a postcondition has been violated.

15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Contract test 3: invariant error Stack size = 3 Stack contents = 6 Exception in thread "main" org.jmlspecs.jmlrac.runtime.JMLInvariantError: by method MyStack.pop@post regarding specifications at File "MyStack.java", line 11, character 30 when 'this' is MyStack@9664a1 at MyStack.checkInv$instance$MyStack(MyStack.java:102) at MyStack.pop(MyStack.java:525) at myStackTest.main(MyStackTest.java:21) Note: blame is again with the callee MyStack, since an invariant has been violated.

16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Contract test 4: precondition violation Note: blame is with the caller MyQueueTest, since a precondition has been violated. Stack size = 3 Stack contents = 6 5 4 Is Stack empty? true Exception in thread "main" org.jmlspecs.jmlrac.runtime.JMLEntryPreconditionError: by method MyStack.pop regarding specifications at File "MyStack.java", line 16, character 21 when 'this' is MyStack@9664a1 at MyStack.checkPre$pop$MyStack(MyStack.java:330) at MyStack.pop(MyStack.java:479) at myStackTest.main(MyStacktest.java:24)

17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Class and System Correctness So far, we have only done testing; what about formal verification? 1. A class C is (formally) correct if: a. It is formally specified, and b. For every object o and every constructor and public method M in the class, the Hoare triple is valid for every argument x. 2. A system is correct if all its classes are correct.

18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Correctness of pop() /*@ requires n > 0; ensures \result==\old(S).val && S==\old(S).next && n==\old(n)-1; @*/ public /*@ pure @*/ int pop( ) { int result = theStack.val; theStack = theStack.next; n = n-1; return result; } 12341234 INV: n = size() P INV: n > 0 n = size() Q INV: result = old(S).val S = old(S).next n = size()

19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1.Loose because a.We assume the validity of size(), and b.We omit some details. 2.The assignments in pop (), together with, ensure the validity of : a.Steps 1 and 4 establish \result = \old(S).val b.Step 2 establishes S = \old(S).next c.Step 3 and our assumption establish n = size(): I.e., n = \old(n) -1 and size() = \old(size()) -1 So, n = size(), since \old(n) = \old(size()) A loose correctness proof for pop()

20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 18.3.4 Final Observations 1.Formal verification: a.is an enormous task for large programs. b.only proves that specifications and code agree. c.only proves partial correctness (assumes termination). 2.Tools exist for: a. Statically checking certain run-time properties of Java programs (ESC/Java2) b. formally verifying Ada programs (Spark) 3.Tools are being developed to help with formal verification of Java programs (Diacron, LOOP) 4. What is the cost/benefit of formal methods?


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