# 1A + 2B  1C + 1D Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of each species when 150 mL 2.5 M A is mixed with 100.0 mL 2.5 M B. K c = 2.0 x 10 -10.

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1A + 2B  1C + 1D Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of each species when 150 mL 2.5 M A is mixed with 100.0 mL 2.5 M B. K c = 2.0 x 10 -10

Drill: 1A + 2B  1C + 1D Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of each species when a solution is made with 1.0 M A & 1.0 M B. K c = 2.0 x 10 -12

Acid/Base

Properties of Acids ·Sour taste, Change color of dyes, Conduct electricity in solution, React with many metals, React with bases to form salts

Properties of Bases ·Bitter taste, Feel slippery, Change color of dyes, Conduct electricity in solution, React with acids to form salts

Arrhenius ·Acids: release H + or H 3 O + in solution ·Bases: release OH - in solution

Arrhenius ·Acid: HA  H + + A - ·HCl  H + + Cl - ·Base: MOH  M + + OH - ·NaOH  Na + + OH -

Bronsted-Lowry ·Acid: Proton donor ·Base: Proton Acceptor

Bronsted-Lowry ·HA + H 2 O  H 3 O + + A - ·HI + H 2 O  H 3 O + + I - ·Acid Base CA CB ·NH 3 + H 2 O  NH 4 + + OH - ·Base Acid CA CB

Lewis Acid/Base ·Acid: Electron Acceptor ·Base: Electron Donor

Lewis Acid/Base H 3 N: + BF 3  H 3 N-BF 3 Base Acid Neutral

Common Names ·H + Hydrogen ion ·H 3 O + Hydronium ion ·H - Hydride ion ·OH - Hydroxide ion ·NH 3 Ammonia ·NH 4 + Ammonium ion

Amphiprotism ·Can act like an acid or a base ·Can donate or accept protons

Strong Acids or Bases ·Strong acids or bases ionize 100 % in solution ·Weak acids or bases ionize <100 % in solution

Drill: Name each of the following: KOHHBr Al(OH) 3 H 2 CO 3 HClO 4 NH 3

Naming Acids ·All acids are H-anion ·If the anion is: ·-ides  hydro___ic acids ·-ates  ___ic acids ·-ites  ___ous acids

Naming Bases ·Almost all bases are metal hydroxides ·Name by normal method ·Ammonia (NH 3 ) as well as many amines are bases

Strong Acids or Bases ·Strong acids or bases ionize 100 % in solution ·Weak acids or bases ionize <100 % in solution

Strong Acids ·HClO 4 Perchloric acid ·H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid ·HNO 3 Nitric acid ·HClHydrochloric acid ·HBrHydrobromic acid ·HIHydroiodic acid

Strong Bases ·All column I hydroxides ·Ca(OH) 2 Calcium hydroxide ·Sr(OH) 2 Strontium hydroxide ·Ba(OH) 2 Barium hydroxide

Strong Acid/Base Ionizes 100 % (1 M) HAH + + A - 1 M – all1 1

Binary Acids ·Acids containing only 2 elements ·HClHydrochloric acid ·H 2 SHydrosulfuric acid

Ternary Acids ·Acids containing 3 elements ·H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid ·HNO 3 Nitric acid

Monoprotic Acids ·Acids containing only one ionizable hydrogen ·HBr Hydrobromic acid ·HC 2 H 3 O 2 Acetic acid

Diprotic Acids ·Acids containing 2 ionizable hydrogens ·H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid ·H 2 CO 3 Carbonic acid

Triprotic Acids ·Acids containing 3 ionizable hydrogens ·H 3 PO 4 Phosphoric acid ·H 3 AsO 4 Arsenic acid

Polyprotic Acids ·Acids containing more than one ionizable hydrogens ·H 4 SiO 4 Silicic acid ·H 2 CO 2 Carbonous acid

Monohydroxic Base ·A base containing only one ionizable hydroxide ·NaOHSodium hydroxide ·LiOHLithium hydroxide

Neutralization Rxn ·A reaction between an acid & a base making salt & H 2 O ·HA (aq) + MOH (aq)  MA (aq) + H 2 O (l)

Neutralization Rxn HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq)  NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l)

pH ·The negative log of the hydrogen or hydronium ion concentration ·pH = -log[H + ] ·pOH = -log[OH - ]

Calculate the pH of each of the following: 1) [H + ] = 0.040 M 2) [HCl] = 0.0025 M 3) [HBr] = 0.080 M

Calculate the pOH of each of the following: 1) [OH - ] = 0.030 M 2) [KOH] = 0.0025 M 3) [NaOH] = 4.0 x 10 -7 M

Standard Solution ·A solution with known concentration

Drill: Identify: acid, base, CA, & CB HCO 3 - + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 + OH -

Titration ·A method of determining the concentration of one solution by reacting it with a standard solution

Titration Formula for monoprotic solutions M A V A = M B V B

Titration Fact When titrating acids against bases, the end point of the titration is at the equivalence point

Equivalence Point ·The point where the concentrations of the two solutions in the titration are equal

Acid/Base Equivalence Point The point where the H + concentration is equal to the OH - concentration

Titration Fact No changes will be observed when titrating acids against bases; thus, one must use an indicator to see changes

Indicator ·An organic dye that changes color when the pH changes

·Calculate the molarity of 25.0 mL HCl when it’s titrated to its equivalence point with 50.0 mL 0.200 M NaOH

Titration Formula for monoprotic solutions M A V A = M B V B

Dilution Formula M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2

·Calculate the mL of 16.0 M HNO 3 it takes to make 4.0 L of 0.100 M HNO 3

Make Calculations ·Calculate the mL of 12.5 M HCl required to make 2.5 L of 0.200 M HCl

Molarity ·Moles of solute per liter of solution (M)

Normality ·Number of moles of hydrogen or hydroxide ions per liter of solution (N)

Titration Formula for Acid/Base ·N A V A = N B V B ·Elliott’s Rule: ·# H M A V A = # OH M B V B

Make Calculations ·Calculate the molarity of 30.0 mL H 2 CO 3 when it’s titrated to its equivalence point with 75.0 mL 0.200 M NaOH

Make Calculations ·Calculate the molarity of 40.0 mL H 3 PO 4 when it’s titrated to its equivalence point with 30.0 mL 0.20 M Ba(OH) 2

Calculate the volume of 0.250 M HCl needed to titrate 50.00 mL 0.200 M NaOH to its equivalence point

Calculate the molarity 25.0 mL H 3 PO 4 that neutralizes 50.00 mL 0.200 M Ca(OH) 2 to its equivalence point

Titration Curve: Strong acid vs strong base

Titration Curve: Strong acid vs strong base; then weak acid vs strong base

Titration Curve: Strong base vs strong acid; then weak base vs strong acid

3.2 g HI is dissolved in a 1250 mL aqueous solution. Calculate its pH.

Calculate the volume of 0.10 M H 3 PO 4 that neutralizes 50.00 mL 0.200 M Ca(OH) 2 to its equivalence point

Drill: Calculate the molarity of 25.00 mL of H 3 PO 4 that was titrated to its equivalence point with 75.00 mL of 0.125 M Ba(OH) 2.

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