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1A + 1B 1C + 1D Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of each species when 150 ml 2.0 M A is mixed with 100.0 ml 2.0 M B. K c = 0.25
Properties of Acids ·Sour taste, Change color of dyes, Conduct electricity in solution, React with many metals, React with bases to form salts
Properties of Bases ·Bitter taste, Feel slippery, Change color of dyes, Conduct electricity in solution, React with acids to form salts
Arrhenius ·Acids: release H + or H 3 O + in solution ·Bases: release OH - in solution
Arrhenius ·Acid: HA --> H + + A - ·HCl --> H + + Cl - ·Base: MOH --> M + + OH - ·NaOH -->Na + + OH -
Bronsted-Lowry ·Acid: Proton donor ·Base: Proton Acceptor
Bronsted-Lowry ·HA + H 2 O --> H 3 O + + A - ·HI + H 2 O --> H 3 O + + I - ·Acid Base CA CB ·NH 3 + H 2 O --> NH 4 + + OH - ·Base Acid CA CB
Lewis Acid/Base ·Acid: Electron Acceptor ·Base: Electron Donor
Lewis Acid/Base H 3 N: + BF 3 --> H 3 N-BF 3 Base Acid Neutral
Drill: List 3 properties each of both acids & bases
Common Names ·H + Hydrogen ion ·H 3 O + Hydronium ion ·H - Hydride ion ·OH - Hydroxide ion ·NH 3 Ammonia ·NH 4 + Ammonium ion
Define acids & bases by each of the three methods
Naming Bases ·Almost all bases are metal hydroxides ·Name by normal method ·Ammonia (NH 3 ) as well as many amines are bases
Strong Acids or Bases ·Strong acids or bases ionize 100 % in solution ·Weak acids or bases ionize <100 % in solution
Strong Acids ·HClO 4 Perchloric acid ·H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid ·HNO 3 Nitric acid ·HClHydrochloric acid ·HBrHydrobromic acid ·HIHydroiodic acid
Strong Bases ·All column I hydroxides ·Ca(OH) 2 Calcium hydroxide ·Sr(OH) 2 Strontium hydroxide ·Ba(OH) 2 Barium hydroxide
Strong Acid/Base Ionizes 100 % (1 M) HAH + + A - 1 M – all1 1
Monoprotic Acids ·Acids containing only one ionizable hydrogen ·HBr Hydrobromic acid ·HCNHydrocyanic acid ·HC 2 H 3 O 2 Acetic acid
Diprotic Acids ·Acids containing 2 ionizable hydrogens ·H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid ·H 2 SO 3 Sulfurous acid ·H 2 CO 3 Carbonic acid
Triprotic Acids ·Acids containing 3 ionizable hydrogens ·H 3 PO 4 Phosphoric acid ·H 3 PO 3 Phosphorus acid ·H 3 AsO 4 Arsenic acid
Polyprotic Acids ·Acids containing more than one ionizable hydrogens ·H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid ·H 4 SiO 4 Silicic acid ·H 2 CO 2 Carbonous acid
Monohydroxic Base ·A base containing only one ionizable hydroxide ·NaOHSodium hydroxide ·KOHPotassium hydro. ·LiOHLithium hydroxide
Neutralization Rxn ·A reaction between an acid & a base making salt & H 2 O ·HA (aq) + MOH (aq) MA (aq) + H 2 O (l)
Neutralization Rxn HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l)
Titration ·When titrating acids against bases, the end point of the titration is at the equivalence point
Equivalence Point ·The point where the H + concentration is equal to the OH - concentration
Equivalence Point [ H + ] = [OH - ] Molarity (M) acid =Molarity(M) base
Titration No changes will be observed when titrating acids against bases; thus, one must use an indicator to see changes
Indicator ·An organic dye that changes color when the pH changes
Make Calculations ·Calculate the molarity of 25.0 mL HCl when it’s titrated to its equivalence point with 50.0 mL 0.200 M NaOH
Make Calculations ·Calculate the mL of 12.5 M HCl required to make 2.5 L of 0.200 M HCl
Drill: ·Calculate the mL of 16.0 M HNO 3 it takes to make 4.0 L of 0.100 M HNO 3
Molarity ·Moles of solute per liter of solution (M)
Make Calculations ·Calculate the molarity of 30.0 mL H 2 CO 3 when it’s titrated to its equivalence point with 75.0 mL 0.200 M NaOH
Make Calculations ·Calculate the molarity of 40.0 mL H 3 PO 4 when it’s titrated to its equivalence point with 30.0 mL 0.20 M Ba(OH) 2
Calculate the volume of 0.250 M HCl needed to titrate 50.00 mL 0.200 M NaOH to its equivalence point
Calculate the molarity 25.0 mL H 3 PO 4 that neutralizes 50.00 mL 0.200 M Ca(OH) 2 to its equivalence point
Drill: Calculate the volume of 0.10 M H 3 PO 4 that neutralizes 50.00 mL 0.200 M Ca(OH) 2 to its equivalence point
pH ·The negative log of the hydrogen or hydronium ion concentration ·pH = -log[H + ] ·pOH = -log[OH - ]
Calculate the pH of each of the following: 1) [HCl] = 0.0025 M 2) [H + ] = 0.040 M 3) [HBr] = 0.080 M
Calculate the pOH of each of the following: 1) [OH - ] = 0.030 M 2) [KOH] = 0.0025 M 3) [NaOH] = 4.0 x 10 -12 M
Drill: Calculate the molarity of 25.00 mL of H 3 PO 4 that was titrated to its equivalence point with 75.00 mL of 0.125 M Ba(OH) 2.
Properties of acids Taste Sour (kids, don’t try this at home).
Arrhenius Definition of Acids Bases - Substances that produce hydrogen ions, H + when dissolved in water - Substances that produce hydroxide ions, OH -
Modern Chemistry Chapter 14
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Acids and Bases Chapter 19. Ions in Solution Aqueous solutions contain H + ions and OH - ions If a solution has more H + ions than OH - ions it is.
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Acid/Base. Properties of Acids ·Sour taste, Change color of dyes, Conduct electricity in solution, React with many metals, React with bases to form salts.
1A + 2B 1C + 1D Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of each species when 150 mL 2.5 M A is mixed with mL 2.5 M B. K c = 2.0 x
I. Introduction to Acids & Bases
THIS IS With Host... Your Misc.Acid misc.Base misc.Acid base definitions Titration pH/pOH.
Ch. 14 Acids & Bases.
Acids and Bases. Properties of Acids/Bases Acids are substances which… Bases are substances which…
Properties of acids n Taste Sour (kids, don’t try this at home). n Conduct electricity. n Some are strong, some are weak electrolytes. n React with metals.
1 Some Properties of Acids þ Produce H + (as H 3 O + ) ions in water (the hydronium ion is a hydrogen ion attached to a water molecule) þ Taste sour þ.
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