 # 1A + 1B  1C + 1D Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of each species when 150 ml 2.0 M A is mixed with 100.0 ml 2.0 M B. K c = 0.25.

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1A + 1B  1C + 1D Calculate the equilibrium concentrations of each species when 150 ml 2.0 M A is mixed with 100.0 ml 2.0 M B. K c = 0.25

Acid/Base

Properties of Acids ·Sour taste, Change color of dyes, Conduct electricity in solution, React with many metals, React with bases to form salts

Properties of Bases ·Bitter taste, Feel slippery, Change color of dyes, Conduct electricity in solution, React with acids to form salts

Arrhenius ·Acids: release H + or H 3 O + in solution ·Bases: release OH - in solution

Arrhenius ·Acid: HA --> H + + A - ·HCl --> H + + Cl - ·Base: MOH --> M + + OH - ·NaOH -->Na + + OH -

Bronsted-Lowry ·Acid: Proton donor ·Base: Proton Acceptor

Bronsted-Lowry ·HA + H 2 O --> H 3 O + + A - ·HI + H 2 O --> H 3 O + + I - ·Acid Base CA CB ·NH 3 + H 2 O --> NH 4 + + OH - ·Base Acid CA CB

Lewis Acid/Base ·Acid: Electron Acceptor ·Base: Electron Donor

Lewis Acid/Base H 3 N: + BF 3 --> H 3 N-BF 3 Base Acid Neutral

Drill: List 3 properties each of both acids & bases

Common Names ·H + Hydrogen ion ·H 3 O + Hydronium ion ·H - Hydride ion ·OH - Hydroxide ion ·NH 3 Ammonia ·NH 4 + Ammonium ion

Define acids & bases by each of the three methods

Naming Bases ·Almost all bases are metal hydroxides ·Name by normal method ·Ammonia (NH 3 ) as well as many amines are bases

Strong Acids or Bases ·Strong acids or bases ionize 100 % in solution ·Weak acids or bases ionize <100 % in solution

Strong Acids ·HClO 4 Perchloric acid ·H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid ·HNO 3 Nitric acid ·HClHydrochloric acid ·HBrHydrobromic acid ·HIHydroiodic acid

Strong Bases ·All column I hydroxides ·Ca(OH) 2 Calcium hydroxide ·Sr(OH) 2 Strontium hydroxide ·Ba(OH) 2 Barium hydroxide

Strong Acid/Base Ionizes 100 % (1 M) HAH + + A - 1 M – all1 1

Monoprotic Acids ·Acids containing only one ionizable hydrogen ·HBr Hydrobromic acid ·HCNHydrocyanic acid ·HC 2 H 3 O 2 Acetic acid

Diprotic Acids ·Acids containing 2 ionizable hydrogens ·H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid ·H 2 SO 3 Sulfurous acid ·H 2 CO 3 Carbonic acid

Triprotic Acids ·Acids containing 3 ionizable hydrogens ·H 3 PO 4 Phosphoric acid ·H 3 PO 3 Phosphorus acid ·H 3 AsO 4 Arsenic acid

Polyprotic Acids ·Acids containing more than one ionizable hydrogens ·H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid ·H 4 SiO 4 Silicic acid ·H 2 CO 2 Carbonous acid

Monohydroxic Base ·A base containing only one ionizable hydroxide ·NaOHSodium hydroxide ·KOHPotassium hydro. ·LiOHLithium hydroxide

Neutralization Rxn ·A reaction between an acid & a base making salt & H 2 O ·HA (aq) + MOH (aq)  MA (aq) + H 2 O (l)

Neutralization Rxn HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq)  NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l)

Titration ·When titrating acids against bases, the end point of the titration is at the equivalence point

Equivalence Point ·The point where the H + concentration is equal to the OH - concentration

Equivalence Point [ H + ] = [OH - ] Molarity (M) acid =Molarity(M) base

Titration No changes will be observed when titrating acids against bases; thus, one must use an indicator to see changes

Indicator ·An organic dye that changes color when the pH changes

Make Calculations ·Calculate the molarity of 25.0 mL HCl when it’s titrated to its equivalence point with 50.0 mL 0.200 M NaOH

Make Calculations ·Calculate the mL of 12.5 M HCl required to make 2.5 L of 0.200 M HCl

Drill: ·Calculate the mL of 16.0 M HNO 3 it takes to make 4.0 L of 0.100 M HNO 3

Molarity ·Moles of solute per liter of solution (M)

Make Calculations ·Calculate the molarity of 30.0 mL H 2 CO 3 when it’s titrated to its equivalence point with 75.0 mL 0.200 M NaOH

Make Calculations ·Calculate the molarity of 40.0 mL H 3 PO 4 when it’s titrated to its equivalence point with 30.0 mL 0.20 M Ba(OH) 2

Calculate the volume of 0.250 M HCl needed to titrate 50.00 mL 0.200 M NaOH to its equivalence point

Calculate the molarity 25.0 mL H 3 PO 4 that neutralizes 50.00 mL 0.200 M Ca(OH) 2 to its equivalence point

Drill: Calculate the volume of 0.10 M H 3 PO 4 that neutralizes 50.00 mL 0.200 M Ca(OH) 2 to its equivalence point

pH ·The negative log of the hydrogen or hydronium ion concentration ·pH = -log[H + ] ·pOH = -log[OH - ]

Calculate the pH of each of the following: 1) [HCl] = 0.0025 M 2) [H + ] = 0.040 M 3) [HBr] = 0.080 M

Calculate the pOH of each of the following: 1) [OH - ] = 0.030 M 2) [KOH] = 0.0025 M 3) [NaOH] = 4.0 x 10 -12 M

Drill: Calculate the molarity of 25.00 mL of H 3 PO 4 that was titrated to its equivalence point with 75.00 mL of 0.125 M Ba(OH) 2.

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