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McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1 5 Human Variation and Adaptation Anthropology: The Exploration of Human Diversity 11 th Edition Conrad Phillip Kottak
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2 Human Variation and Adaptation Race: A Discredited Concept in Biology Human Biological Adaptation
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 3 Race: A Discredited Concept in Biology –Members of race or subspecies share distinctive physical characteristics based on common ancestry and inheritance of same genes Human populations have not been isolated enough from one another to develop into discrete races Race refers to geographically isolated subdivision of a species
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 4 Race: A Discredited Concept in Biology Human biological variation distributed gradually between populations along clines –Human populations vary biologically, but because of extensive gene flow and interbreeding, there are no sharp breaks between populations
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 5 Race: A Discredited Concept in Biology Race is supposed to reflect shared genetic material Early scholars used phenotypical traits (skin color) for racial classification –Scientists have trouble grouping people into distinct racial units
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 6 Race: A Discredited Concept in Biology –Obvious problem with color-based racial labels is that terms dont accurately describe skin color –Another problem with tripartite scheme is that many populations dont neatly fit into one of the three great races Races Are Not Biologically Distinct
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 7 Race: A Discredited Concept in Biology –Racial classifications based on phenotype lack credibility because similarities and differences dont necessarily have genetic basis
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 8 Race: A Discredited Concept in Biology –Natural selectionprocess by which nature selects the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment Explaining Skin Color
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 9 Race: A Discredited Concept in Biology Melaninprimary determinant of human skin color; chemical substance manufactured in the epidermis Prior to 16th century, darker skinned populations closest to the equator Explaining Skin Color –Skin color influenced by several genes
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 10 Race: A Discredited Concept in Biology Unprotected humans in tropics face threat of severe sunburn –Increases susceptibility to disease –Impairs the bodys ability to withstand heat by reducing the skins ability to sweat –Light skin is more susceptible to skin cancer. Loomis suggested that in tropics, dark skin color protects body against overproduction of vitamin D Explaining Skin Color –Skin color influenced by several genes
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 11 Human Biological Adaptation Abundant evidence for human genetic adaptation and evolution through selection working in specific environments
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 12 Human Biological Adaptation –According to World Health Report, tropical diseases affect more than 10 percent of worlds population Malaria300 million to 500 million people Schistosomiasismore than 200 million Filarisasis120 million Genes and Disease
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 13 Human Biological Adaptation After food production emerged, infectious diseases pose mounting risk and became foremost cause of human mortality ABO blood groups vary in resistance to disease Genes and Disease –Microbes major selective agent for humans, particularly before arrival of modern medicine
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 14 Human Biological Adaptation There is probably genetic variation in susceptibility to HIV Genes and Disease –In diseases for which there are no effective drugs, genetic resistance maintains significance AIDS could cause large shifts in human gene frequencies
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 15 Human Biological Adaptation –Natural selection also affects facial features Long noses seem to be adaptive in arid areas and cold environments Thomsons Nose Ruleassociation between nose form and temperature Facial Features
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 16 Human Biological Adaptation –Allens rulerelative size of protruding body partsears, tails, bills, fingers, toes, and limbsincrease with temperature Size and Body Build –Bergmanns rulesmaller of two bodies similar in shape has more surface area per unit of weight Average body size tends to increase and cold areas and decrease in hot ones
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 17 Human Biological Adaptation Size and Body Build –Human populations use different, but equally effective, biological means of adapting to environmental stresses associated with high altitudes
McGraw-Hill © 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 18 Human Biological Adaptation –Phenotypical adaptationadaptive changes that occur during individuals lifetime –Genes and phenotypical adaptation work together to produce a biochemical difference between human groups in ability to digest large amounts of milk Adaptive advantage when other foods are scarce and milk available Lactose Tolerance
6 Human Variation and Adaptation Anthropology: Appreciating Human Diversity 14 th Edition Conrad Phillip Kottak.
Unit 2. Race: A Discredited Concept in Biology Races are not biologically distinct Explaining skin color Human Biological Adaptation Genes and.
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All right reserved. Window on Humanity Conrad Phillip Kottak Third Edition Chapter 1 What Is Anthropology?
© 2008 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All right reserved. Window on Humanity Conrad Phillip Kottak Third Edition Chapter 3 Evolution, Genetics, and Human.
Chapter 15 Modern Human Biology: Patterns of Adaptation.
Chapter 15 & 16 Human Variation and Adaptation. Chapter Outline Historical Views of Human Variation The Concept of Race Racism & Intelligence
Copyright © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Exploring Biological Anthropology: The Essentials, 3 rd Edition CRAIG STANFORD JOHN S. ALLEN.
Chapter 12 Human Variation and Adaptation Key Terms.
Introduction to Evolution Biology – Ch 16 Where did all organisms come from? Why such variety? 1.
Human Diversity and “Race” This chapter discusses the concept of “race” as it is applied to humans. It shows how the biological and social categories of.
Chapter 12 Human Variation and Adaptation. How do you define “race” and do you think it’s a useful concept in understanding variation in our species?
Evolution Choice 1Choice 2Choice 3Choice
Answer the following questions (p ) What argument does Monte Verde produce? Reasons/Evidence List the ways humans migrated to America.
Chapter 22 Descent With Modification. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection Darwin’s theory explained what had once been a bewildering.
1.Stream A and Stream B are located on two isolated islands with similar characteristics. How do these two stream beds differ? 2.Suppose a fish that varies.
McGraw-Hill © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
Population Genetics and Speciation Chapter 16 Table of Contents Section 1 Genetic Equilibrium Section 2 Disruption of Genetic Equilibrium Section 3 Formation.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.
Chapter 16 Modern Human Biology: Patterns of Adaptation.
Lesson Overview 17.2 Evolution as Genetic Change in Populations.
Lesson Overview 17.2 Evolution as Genetic Change in Populations Insect populations often contain a few individuals that are resistant to a particular pesticide.
Deme : local, interbreeding population that is defined in terms of its genetic composition (for example allele frequencies). Subspecies : group of.
Higher Biology Speciation. 2 By the end of this lesson you should be able to: Explain what a species is Know what is meant by a gene pool Know what happens.
What is natural selection? It’s the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. The theory.
DAY 3 1. Population Genetics and Evolution Darwin developed his theory of natural selection without knowing about genes. The principles of today’s.
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Chapter 22 Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View.
ESR 173 Unit 7 Lecture Biodiversity Evolution Species Interactions.
Main Points of Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection 1.Over production. Most organisms produce more offspring than can survive. 2.Competition. Organisms.
Population Evolution Biology Chapter Genetic Variation Populations always show variation in traits – no two individuals are EXACTLY the same Variations.
Speciation Genetic Equilibrium Disruption of Genetic Equilibrium Formation of Species Genetic Equilibrium Disruption of Genetic Equilibrium Formation of.
Discover Biology FIFTH EDITION CHAPTER 18 Evolution of Populations © 2012 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Anu Singh-Cundy Michael L. Cain.
Chapter 13 Vocabulary 12 Words Quiz Friday April 5th.
The image shows the changes of beak shape in the Galapagos finch to suit the different food sources available on different islands in the archipelago.
Chapter 13 Modern Human Diversity. Chapter Outline What are the causes of physical variability in animals? Is the biological concept of race useful.
Evidence for Biological Evolution. Evolution results from 4 factors: Potential for a species to increase in number Heritable genetic variation Due.
Chapter 17 Genetics and Speciation. Section1: Genetic Variation Preview Bellringer Key Ideas Population Genetics Phenotypic Variation Measuring Variation.
BIOLOGY: Characteristics of Living Things. What is Biology? ology study of Bio life Biology: Study of life.
Unit 3 Notes Evolution and Adaptations. Selective Pressure Selective Pressures are the factors that cause young plants and animals in nature to fail.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell.
Chapter 12 Human Variation and Adaptation. Chapter Outline Historical Views of Human Variation The Concept of Race Racism Intelligence Contemporary Interpretations.
Natural Selection. In science, theories are statements or models that have been tested and confirmed many times.
Natural Variation Even within a species individuals vary from each other.
What is the Theory of Evolution? Evolution is the change in a population over time Scientific theory that all organisms share a common ancestor.
Population Genetics Chapter 13 – Part 1. Variation Variation means differences between individuals within a species or population. A population is considered.
Chapter 23 Evolutionary Change in Populations. Population Genetics Evolution occurs in populations, not individuals Darwin recognized that evolution occurs.
The Theory of Evolution Biology B/Evolution. Important Concepts Natural Variation = Differences among individual organisms of the same species. Exists.
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