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McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved Chapter 1 Whole Numbers: How to Dissect and Solve Problems

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved Use place values to read and write numeric and verbal whole numbers Round whole numbers to the indicated position Use blueprint aid for dissecting and solving a word problem Whole Numbers; How to Dissect and Solve Word Problems #1 Learning Unit Objectives Reading, Writing, and Rounding Whole Numbers LU1.1

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved Add whole numbers; check and estimate addition computations Subtract whole numbers; check and estimate subtraction computations Whole Numbers; How to Dissect and Solve Word Problems #1 Learning Unit Objectives Adding and Subtracting Whole Numbers LU1.2

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McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, All Rights Reserved Multiply whole numbers; check and estimate multiplication computations Divide whole numbers; check and estimate computations Whole Numbers; How to Dissect and Solve Word Problems #1 Learning Unit Objectives Multiplying and Dividing Whole Numbers LU1.3

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1-5 Figure 1.1 Whole-number place-value chart Hundred billions Hundred trillions Ten Thousands Hundred Thousands ThousandsHundredsComma Ten trillionsTrillions Ten billionsBillions Comma Hundred millions Ten millions Millions Comma Tens Ones 1, 6 0 5, 7 4 3, 8 9 1, Decimal Point TrillionsBillionsMillionsUnitsThousands

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1-6 Writing numeric and verbal whole numbers Hundred billions Hundred trillions Ten Thousands Hundred Thousands ThousandsHundredsComma Ten trillionsTrillions Ten billionsBillions Comma Hundred millions Ten millions Millions Comma Tens Ones 1, 6 0 5, 7 4 3, 8 9 1, One trillion, six hundred five billion, seven hundred forty three million, eight hundred ninety one thousand, four hundred twelve Decimal Point TrillionsBillionsMillionsUnitsThousands

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1-7 Converting parts to a regular whole number 2,4 Convert 2.4 billion to a regular whole number Step 2. Add zeros so the leftmost digit ends in the word name of the amount you want to convert. Be sure to add commas as needed. Step 1. Drop decimal point and insert a comma 2,400,000,000

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1-8 Rounding Whole Numbers Step 1. Identify the place value of the digit you want to round Step 2. Identify the digit to the right. If 5 or more, increase the identified digit by 1, if less than 5 do not change Step 3. Drop all digits to the right of the identified digit 9400

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1-9 Rounding all the way 9362 Step 1. Identify leftmost digit Step 2. Identify the digit to the right. If 5 or more, increase the identified digit by 1, if less than 5 do not change Step 3. Change all other digits to zero 9000

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1-10 How to Dissect and Solve a Word Problem Organization and persistence

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1-11 General Problem-Solving Procedure Step 1. State the problem(s) Step 2. Decide on the best methods to solve the problem(s) Step 3. Does the solution make sense? Step 4. Evaluate results

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1-12 How to Dissect and Solve a Word Problem Tootsie Roll Industries sales reached one hundred ninety- four million dollars and a record profit of twenty-two million, five hundred fifty six thousand dollars. Round the sales and profit figures all the way. Sales: One hundred ninety-four million dollars. Profit: Twenty-two million, five hundred fifty-six thousand dollars. Sales and profit rounded all the way. Express each verbal form in numeric form. Identify leftmost digit in each number. Rounding all the way means only the leftmost digit will remain. All other digits become zeros. Sales: One hundred ninety-four million dollars >$194,000, > $200,000,000 Profit: Twenty-two million, five hundred fifty-six thousand dollars > $22,556, > $20,000,000

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1-13 Adding Whole Numbers 3 Steps 1. Align the numbers according to their place values 2. Add the units column. Write the sum below the column. If the sum is more than 9, write the units digit and carry the tens digit. 3. Moving to the left, repeat Step 2 until all place values are added. Example ,362 5,913 8,924 6,594 22,793

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1-14 Alternative check Add each column as a separate total and then combine. The end result is the same. 1,362 5,913 8,924 6, ,793

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1-15 Estimate Addition by Rounding All the Way Example ,362 5,913 8,924 6,594 22,793 Example 211 1,000 6,000 9,000 7,000 23,000 *Final answer could have more than one non- zero since total is not rounded all the way.

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1-16 Subtracting Whole Numbers 3 Steps 1. Align the minuend and subtrahend by place values 2. Begin the subtraction with the units digits. Write the difference below the column. If the units digit in the minuend is smaller than the digit in the subtrahend, borrow 1 from the tens digit in the minuend. 3. Moving to the left, repeat Step 2 until all place values in the subtrahend are subtracted Example ,327 ( Minuend) -1,340 ( Subtrahend) 2,987 Difference Check 2,987 +1,340 4,327

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1-17 Multiplication of Whole Numbers 4 Steps 1. Align the multiplicand and multiplier at the right. 2. Multiplying the right digit of the multiplier with the right digit of the multiplicand. Keep multiplying as you move left through the multiplicand. 3. Your partial product right digit or first digit is placed directly below the digit in the multiplier that you used to multiply. 4. Continue steps 2 and 3 until multiplication process is complete. Add the partial products to get the final product. Example 418 (Multiplicand) x 52 (Multiplier) (Partial Product) 21,736 (Product)

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1-18 Checking and Estimating Multiplication Check 52 x ,736 Estimate 50 x ,000 Check the multiplication process by reversing the multiplicand and multiplier and then multiplying

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1-19 Multiplication Shortcut with Numbers Ending in Zero 3 Steps 1. When zeros are at the end of the multiplicand or the multiplier, or both, disregard the zeros and multiply (4) 2. Count the number of zeros in the multiplicand and multiplier. (4) 3. Attach the number of zeros counted in Step 2 to your answer Solution 65 x ,300,000 Example (3 zeros) x 420 (1 zeros) (4 zeros)

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1-20 Multiplying a Whole Number by a Power of 10 2 Steps 1. Count the number of zeros in the power of Attach that number of zeros to the right side of the other whole number to obtain the answer. Insert commas as needed. 99 x 10 = 990 = 990 <----Add 1 Zero 99 x 100 = 9,900 = 9,900 <----Add 2 Zero 99 x 1,000 = 99,000 = 99,000 <----Add 3 Zero

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1-21 Division of Whole Numbers How many times one number (Divisor) is contained in another number (Dividend). The result is the Quotient. Example 18 Quotient Divisor Dividend

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1-22 Division of Whole Numbers How many times one number (Divisor) is contained in another number (Dividend). The result is the Quotient. Example 36 R 111 Quotient Divisor 138 5,079 Dividend

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1-23 Estimating and Checking Division Example 36 R 111 Quotient Divisor 138 5,079 Dividend Check 138 x , ,079 Estimate ,000

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1-24 Division Shortcut with Numbers Ending in Zeros 2 Steps 1. Count the number of ending zeros in the divisor. 2. Drop the same number of zeros in the dividend as in the divisor, counting from right to left. 95,000 / ,000 = 9,500 <----Drop 1 Zero 95,000 / ,000 = 950 <----Drop 2 Zeros 95,000 / 1, ,000 = 95 <----Drop 3 Zeros

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1-25 Problem , R18 Check: 46 x 42 = 1, (R) 1,950 Solution:

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1-26 Problem 1-53: Website:Average daily unique visitor: 1.Orbitz.com1,527,000 2.Mypoints.com1,356,000 3.Americangreetings.com 745,000 4.Bizrate.com 503,000 5.Half.com 397,000 1,527,000 1,356, , , ,000 4,528,000 visitors Solution: 54,528, ,600 average

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1-27 Problem 1-54: 5,000 shares bought - 1,990 shares sold = 1,990 3,010 3,010 shares x $48=$144,480 Solution:

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: = 535 customers x $9 $4,815 Solution (a): Solution (b): $4,815 x 52 = $250,380

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: $61, ,128 ($1,462 + $3,782 + $884) $54,872 Solution:

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: $ ,200 $2, ($350 + $44 + $160 + $60) $1,486 Solution:

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