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McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 19 Corporate Formation, Reorganization, and Liquidation.

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Presentation on theme: "McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 19 Corporate Formation, Reorganization, and Liquidation."— Presentation transcript:

1 McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 19 Corporate Formation, Reorganization, and Liquidation

2 19-2 Learning Objectives 1. Recall the general tax rules that apply to property transactions 2. Compute the tax consequences to the parties to a tax-deferred corporate formation 3. Identify the different forms of taxable and tax- deferred acquisitions

3 19-3 Learning Objectives 4. Compute the tax consequences to the parties to a corporate acquisition 5. Calculate the basic tax law consequences that apply to the parties to a complete liquidation of a corporation

4 19-4 Without any tax provision to the contrary, transfers of property to a corporation in return for the corporations stock would be taxable events if the property was appreciated or depreciated (§1001). Gain/loss to the transferor FMV of stock received –Basis of property transferred (+) Gain ( ) Loss A loss is disallowed under §267 if the transferor is related to the corporation (owned more than 50% after the transfer). Tax-Deferred Transfers of Property to a Corporation

5 19-5 §351 facilitates corporate formations by providing for gain and loss deferral on property transfers that meet its requisites. §351 was enacted in 1921 to remove tax consequences as an impediment to forming a corporation and allow flexibility in choosing the preferred form of doing business. Tax-Deferred Transfers of Property to a Corporation

6 19-6 §351 contemplates a transfer of property by a person or persons who maintain a continuity of proprietary interest in the assets transferred (through stock ownership in the corporation now holding the assets). Tax-Deferred Transfers of Property to a Corporation

7 19-7 Transactions Subject to Tax Deferral Meeting the Section 351 Tax Deferral Requirements Section 351 applies Only to the Transfer of Property to the Corporation (Services are excluded) Property transferred to the corporation must be exchanged solely for stock of the corporation Receipt of boot will cause the transferor to recognize gain, but not loss, realized on the exchange Boot – Adding additional property to equalize the exchange Transferor(s) of property to the corporation must be in Control, in aggregate, of the corporation immediately after the transfer. Tax-Deferred Transfers of Property to a Corporation

8 19-8 Tax consequences when a shareholder receives other property (boot) A shareholder recognizes gain (but not loss) in an amount not to exceed the lesser of Gain realized The fair market value of the boot received Boot in a §351 transaction must be allocated to the property exchanged on a pro rata basis using the relative fair market values of the properties. Tax-Deferred Transfers of Property to a Corporation

9 19-9 The character of gain recognized depends on the nature of the asset transferred on which gain is recognized. §1231 (capital) gain §1245 depreciation recapture Ordinary income Boot received has a tax basis equal to its fair market value. Tax-Deferred Transfers of Property to a Corporation

10 19-10 Assumption of shareholder liabilities by the corporation General rule – a shareholders liability attached to property transferred is not treated as boot received. Two exceptions in which liability assumed by the corporation is treated as boot Tax-avoidance transactions Liabilities in excess of Basis Tax-Deferred Transfers of Property to a Corporation

11 19-11 Other issues related to incorporating an ongoing business Depreciable assets transferred to a corporation Practitioners often advise against transferring appreciated property into a closely held corporation Helps shareholder in creating two assets with the same built in gain as of the original property The federal government can now collect taxes twice on the same gain When the corporation sells the property received and When shareholder sells the stock Tax-Deferred Transfers of Property to a Corporation

12 19-12 Contributions to Capital Transfer of property to a corporation by a shareholder/nonshareholder for which no stock or other property is received in return When property is contributed by a shareholder, corporation takes a carryover tax basis in the property When property is contributed by a nonshareholder, corporations tax basis in the property is zero Shareholder making a capital contribution gets a chance to increase the tax basis in existing stock to an amount equal to the tax basis of the property contributed Tax-Deferred Transfers of Property to a Corporation

13 19-13 Section 1244 Stock Corporation is Qualifying small business corporation (capitalized for less than $1 million) and Original holder of the stock Corporation must meet the active trade or business requirement for 5 years before the stock meets the §1244 requirements Tax-Deferred Transfers of Property to a Corporation

14 19-14 If the §1244 requirements are met The shareholder can recognize up to $50,000 per year of loss ($100,000 in the case of married, filing jointly) on subsequent sale of the stock as an ordinary loss, rather than as a capital loss The balance amount of loss is treated as a capital loss, which can offset other capital gains plus $3,000 of ordinary income. Tax-Deferred Transfers of Property to a Corporation

15 19-15 Motivation for Business Acquisitions Decision to acquire an existing business can be motivated by many factors Desire to diversify Acquire a source of raw materials (vertical integration) Expand into new product or geographic markets Acquire specific assets or technologies Providing improved distribution channels Taxable and Tax-deferred Corporate Acquisitions

16 19-16 Buyer can purchase either stock or assets in a transaction that is either taxable or tax-deferred to the seller Allows the acquiring corporation to step-up the tax basis of the assets acquired to fair value Stock acquisitions and tax-deferred asset acquisitions Tax basis of the target corporations assets remain at their carryover basis (generally, cost less any depreciation) Taxable and Tax-deferred Corporate Acquisitions

17 19-17 Taxable Acquisitions Cash purchases of stock are the most common form of acquisition of publicly held corporations Using cash to acquire another company has several nontax advantages Acquiring corporation does not acquire the target corporations shareholders in the transaction Does not increase the denominator in its calculation of earnings per share If one company acquires another company through a stock acquisition for cash, then acquired company retains its tax and legal identity unless acquiring company liquidates acquired company into itself or merges it into an existing subsidiary Computing the tax consequences to the parties from a Corporate Acquisition

18 19-18 Tax-Deferred Acquisitions Tax law allows Taxpayers to organize a corporation in a tax-deferred manner under §351 Taxpayers to reorganize their corporate structure in a tax deferred manner For tax purposes, reorganizations encompass Acquisitions and dispositions of corporate assets (including subsidiaries stock) Corporations restructuring of its capital structure Place of incorporation Company name Computing the tax consequences to the parties from a Corporate Acquisition

19 19-19 Judicial principles that underlie all Tax-deferred Reorganizations Continuity of Interest (COI) Shareholders of the acquired corporation retain a continuing ownership interest in the target corporations assets or historic business through ownership of stock in the acquiring corporation Computing the tax consequences to the parties from a Corporate Acquisition

20 19-20 Continuity of Business Enterprise (COBE) For a transaction to qualify as a tax-deferred reorganization, the acquiring corporation must Continue the target corporations historic business or Continue to use a significant portion of the target corporations historic business assets Business Purpose Test Acquiring corporation must be able to show a significant nontax avoidance purpose for engaging in the transaction for meeting business purpose test Computing the tax consequences to the parties from a Corporate Acquisition

21 19-21 Type A Asset Acquisitions One corporation acquires the assets and liabilities of another corporation in return for stock or a combination of stock and cash Acquisition is tax-deferred if the transaction satisfies the continuity of interest, continuity of business, and business purpose requirements Must meet state law requirements to be a merger or consolidation Computing the tax consequences to the parties from a Corporate Acquisition

22 19-22 Forward Triangular Type A Merger Acquiring corporation uses stock of its parent corporation to acquire the target corporations stock, after which the target corporation merges into the acquiring corporation For tax-deferred purpose, the transaction must meet the requirements to be a Type A merger Acquiring corporation must use solely the stock of its parent corporation and acquire substantially all of the target corporations property in the transaction Target corporation merges into an 80 percent or more owned acquisition subsidiary of the acquiring corporation Acquisition subsidiary must acquire substantially all of the target corporations properties in the exchange Computing the tax consequences to the parties from a Corporate Acquisition

23 19-23 Reverse Triangular Type A Merger Acquiring corporation uses stock of its parent corporation to acquire the target corporations stock, after which the acquiring corporation merges into the target corporation For tax-deferred purpose, the transaction must satisfy three requirements Surviving corporation must hold substantially all of the properties of both the surviving and the merged corporations Target shareholders must transfer in exchange an amount of stock in the target that constitutes control of the target (80 percent or more of the targets stock) Target shareholders must receive parent corporation voting stock in return Computing the tax consequences to the parties from a Corporate Acquisition

24 19-24 Type B Stock-for-Stock Reorganizations Acquiring corporation must exchange solely voting stock for stock of the target corporation Acquiring corporation must control the target corporation after the transaction Acquiring corporation takes a carryover tax basis in the target corporation stock received in the exchange For tax-deferred purpose, the target shareholders must receive solely voting stock of the acquiring corporation Computing the tax consequences to the parties from a Corporate Acquisition

25 19-25 Type C Acquiring corporation uses its voting stock to acquire substantially all of the target corporations assets End result of a Type C reorganization resembles a Type A reorganization Major difference between Type C and Type A is that state law governs the form of the Type A merger, while the IRC governs the form of the Type C reorganization Type D Corporation transfers all or part of its assets to another corporation, and immediately after the transfer the shareholders of the transferor corporation own at least 50 percent of the voting power or value of the transferee corporation and own at least 80 percent of the transferee corporation Computing the tax consequences to the parties from a Corporate Acquisition

26 19-26 Type E Often referred to as recapitalizations Recapitalizations can range from an amendment in the corporate charter to a change in the redemption price or liquidating value of stock to an actual exchange of stock between the corporation and its shareholders Type F Described as a mere change in identity, form, or place of organization of a single corporation Corporation uses this type of reorganization to change its corporate name or its state of incorporation Type G Often referred to as bankruptcy reorganizations Computing the tax consequences to the parties from a Corporate Acquisition

27 19-27 Cash mergers generally are carried out through an acquisition (merger) subsidiary. An acquisition subsidiary isolates the liabilities of T in a separate corporation apart from the parent company. The transfer of cash to the Target shareholders is taxable to the shareholders. Computing the tax consequences to the parties from a Corporate Acquisition

28 19-28 Complete Liquidation of a Corporation Occurs when a corporation acquires all of its stock from all of its shareholders in exchange for all of its net assets, after which time the corporation ceases to do business For tax purposes, Form 966 needs to be filed by corporation in order to inform IRS of its intention to liquidate its tax existence Form should be filed within 30 days after the owners resolve to liquidate the corporation

29 19-29 Tax Consequences to the Shareholders in a Complete Liquidation Depends on Shareholders identity Ownership percentage in the corporation All noncorporate shareholders receiving liquidating distributions have a fully taxable transaction Shareholders treat the property received as in full payment in exchange for the stock transferred Complete Liquidation of a Corporation

30 19-30 A noncorporate shareholder computes capital gain or loss by subtracting the stocks tax basis from the money and FMV of property received in return Shareholders tax basis in the property received equals the propertys fair market value Complete Liquidation of a Corporation

31 19-31 Corporate shareholders owning 80 percent or more of the stock of the liquidating corporation do not recognize gain or loss on the receipt of liquidating distributions. The tax basis in the property transferred carries over to the recipient which allows a group of corporations under common control to reorganize their organizational structure without tax consequences. Complete Liquidation of a Corporation

32 19-32 Taxable Liquidating Distributions Liquidating corporation recognizes all gains and certain losses on taxable distributions of property to shareholders Liquidating corporation does not recognize loss if the property is Distributed to a related party Distribution is non-pro rata Asset distributed is disqualified property Complete Liquidation of a Corporation

33 19-33 Disqualified property is property acquired within five years of the date of distribution in a tax deferred §351 transaction or as a nontaxable contribution to capital. Loss on the complete liquidation of such property is not recognized if the property distributed was acquired in a §351 transaction or as a contribution to capital, and a principal purpose of the contribution was to recognize a loss by the liquidating corporation. Complete Liquidation of a Corporation

34 19-34 This rule prevents a built-in loss existing at the time of the distribution from being recognized by treating the basis of the property distributed as being its FMV at the time it was contributed to the corporation. This provision is designed as an anti-stuffing provision to prevent shareholders from contributing property with built-in losses to a corporation shortly before a liquidation to offset gain property distributed in the liquidation. Complete Liquidation of a Corporation

35 19-35 Nontaxable Liquidating Distributions The liquidating corporation does not recognize gain or loss on tax-free distributions of property to an 80 percent corporate shareholder. Liquidation-related expenses, including the cost of preparing and effectuating a plan of complete liquidation, are deductible by the liquidating corporation on its final Form Deferred or capitalized expenditures such as organizational expenditures also are deductible on the final tax return. Complete Liquidation of a Corporation


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