3Chapter 1 Communication: Mass and Other Forms Books
4Chapter 1 Communication: Mass and Other Forms Early Book HistoryHand copied and lavishly decoratedExpensive and time consuming to make (1 year avg.)Johann Gutenberg’s invention of moveable type in 1455 allows books to be mass producedPrinting spreads rapidly throughout Europe; helps foster Protestant ReformationEarly Book HistoryThe history of books in ancient times until the Middle Ages was a history of clay tablets, scrolls, and hand-copied manuscripts. Early books were inscribed by hand and lavishly decorated, often by monks in monasteries, and many books were valued as works of art. As such, there was generally little to read, and the few people who were reading belonged largely to the religious, military, or ruling elite.Gutenberg’s invention of moveable type in 1453 set in motion forces that changed all that. Once books were being mass produced, demand for them rose; new book ideas emerged along with new audiences to read about them. Some of those ideas challenged prevailing religious and political, spawning the Protestant Reformation and prompting rulers like Henry VIII to adopt an authoritarian position on books which required printers to obtain government approval before setting up shop.
5Chapter 1 Communication: Mass and Other Forms Books in Early AmericaColonial publishers often their own writer and printerReligious and political works dominate the 1700sIn early 1800s, mass audiences, new technologies, libraries, and a better educated public spark book publishing during the Penny Press eraCivil War years help start paperback boomColonial AmericaEarly printers were often their own writers and publishers. Benjamin Franklin, for example, sold about 10,000 copies of his own Poor Richard’s Almanack. Religious themes and sentimental fiction dominated modest book sales. Political pamphlets became popular around the Revolution, Thomas Paine’s Common Sense selling 100,000 copies in just ten weeks.The Penny Press EraThe changes in print technology and content that popularized mass appeal newspapers in the early 1800s had a parallel affect on the emerging book industry. Public education, penny papers, and a three-fold increase in libraries helped support demand for new writers during this period. In the non-fiction area, reference books and technical texts became increasingly popular. Book reading had become a new social symbol of education, knowledge, and social change.The Paperback BoomFor soldiers, one pundit observed, most of war consists of waiting for it. As such, many Civil War soldiers with lots of time on their hands created a huge demand for the so-called “dime novels” of the time. These cheap new paperbacks stressed a common theme: virtue, hard work, and resolution; particularly successfully were the Horatio Alger novels which sold over 250 million copies. Also popular were pirated novels from Europe, which eventually spawned new copyright laws designed to protect the original publishers’ rights and helped cool down this era of paperback proliferation.
6Chapter 1 Communication: Mass and Other Forms Books in the 20th CenturyA move to commercialization brought on by:literary agents focused on getting authors top dollarbooks expand further into the mass appeal marketdemand by financial backers to be profit orientedPaperbacks debut again in post WW II marketFeature: low prices, varied content, mass sales, quality worksMore leisure time and income spur readingBook industry becomes an attractive investmentThe Early Twentieth CenturyThe book industry is perhaps best known for a move towards commercialization. Family owned shops gave way to conglomerates, book agents focused on getting top dollar for their author clients, bank industry backers demanded closer attention to profitability, and mass marketing tools and audiences came more into play.Postwar Books: Paperbacks and ConsolidationPaperbacks re-emerge in mass distributed 25-cent editions. Content varies widely, including both mass appeal, specialized fields, and serious “quality” works. Reading and literacy levels rise along with consumer leisure time and incomes; reading becomes an attractive pass time. Financial backers invest new capital as they sense a solid and growing industry.
7The Contemporary Book Industry Chapter 1Communication: Mass and Other FormsThe Contemporary Book IndustryA consolidation trend starts in the 1970sBig companies begin dominating industryThe Internet opens up new a marketing and distribution approach with amazon.com et alContent gets more specialized and variedContemporary Book IndustryThe book industry’s trends toward consolidation and specialization continue during our present era. Publishing houses are still dominated by large corporations. In the late 1990s the Internet provided the industry with new opportunities to market and distribute books through web sites such as amazon.com and barnesandnoble.com. The expanding range of book content mirrors the increasing eclectic reading tastes of the American public.
8Books in the Digital Age Chapter 1Communication: Mass and Other FormsBooks in the Digital AgeMost manuscripts are now produced and edited with word processors and distributed viaThe emerging all-digitally processed e-books will establish all new approaches to book production, distribution, marketingE-books: new challenges to an old industry -- authors as their own publishers, promoters, and distributorsAuthors as Publishers and RetailersAlthough the book industry has used computer technology for two decades (word processing, composing, file transfers, and so on), nothing compares with the advent of digitized e-books. The e-book technology easily has the potential to change the entire structure of the industry, with authors now conceivably able to write, compose, promote, publish, and distribute their own works, totally eliminating the need for a traditional publisher.In an approach somewhat similar to the vanity press, authors could also employ existing web services that can publish, sell, collect funds, and then distribute a book title; publicity would be left to the authors themselves. This is an example of the disintermediation process mentioned in Chapter 1.New DevicesPersonal Desk Assistants (PDAs), e-book readers, and high-resolution “flexible” screens are but a few of the new and coming technologies that could significantly impact the traditional paper base of the book industry (and all its inherent problems: composing, printing, and mass distribution). The new electronic technologies would allow us to carry more books (at no extra weight), do word searches, annotate passages, enlarge text or graphics, copy and paste text, and much more.
9The e-book: Authors as Publishers and Retailers Chapter 1Communication: Mass and Other FormsThe e-book: Authors as Publishers and RetailersE-book technology easily has the potential to change the entire structure of the book industry, with authors now conceivably able to write, compose, promote, publish, and distribute their own works, eliminating the need for a traditional publisher.
10Chapter 1 Communication: Mass and Other Forms Printing on DemandEssentially a new way to distribute, buy, and print books right at the retail outletChoose your book at the storeStore downloads it from publisher’s databaseBook printed within 15 minutes at the storePublisher saves print and distribution costsPrinting on DemandPrinting on demand is essentially another way of easily and quickly distributing books. You go to a bookstore, select a book, a computer downloads your book from the publisher’s database, and a machine at the bookstore quickly prints out your book while you wait (about 15 minutes).This method frees the publisher from guessing just how many hard copies of a book the public might buy, which in turn eliminates needless production and distribution costs. This method could also prompt the publishing of “marginal” books that might otherwise be too risky (read “expensive”) to otherwise publish. Lastly, a book would never go “out of print,” since it would always be only a download away. Less expenses, more profits.What Is a Book?Digital books now raise the question of what exactly constitutes a book? Multimedia programs would make it possible—almost certain—that e-books would also include sound (voice and/or music), animated graphics on, video clips, and links to sources outside the book itself.Are print books dead? No. As Dick Brass, Microsoft’s e-book CEO said in a Newsweek article, “[Traditional] books will persist because they’re beautiful and useful. They’re 쁬馲Åe horses after the automobile—not gone but transformed into a recreational beast.”
11DEFINING FEATURES OF BOOKS Chapter 1Communication: Mass and Other FormsDEFINING FEATURES OF BOOKSLeast “mass-like” of the mass mediaPotential to have profound social effectsAuthoritativePermanentDefining Features of BooksBooks are the least “mass” of the mass media, but they can have a profound impact on society that far outweighs their relatively modest audience size, binging to mind books such as Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Das Kapital, On the Origin of Species, and Silent Spring. Books are among the oldest and most enduring of the mass media, and chances are excellent that they will still be around—probably in a variety of forms—in the next century.
12ORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK INDUSTRY Chapter 1Communication: Mass and Other FormsORGANIZATION OF THE BOOK INDUSTRYThe publishing industry has three main segments:PublishersDistributorsRetailers
13Chapter 1 Communication: Mass and Other Forms PublishersThe Association of American Publishers lists 12 major publishing divisions:Trade booksReligious booksProfessional booksBook clubsMail order publicationsPublishersThere are 2,000 or so American publishers printing some 55,000 books each year. It’s a highly segmented industry based largely upon the targeted market being served. The Association of American Publishers lists 12 major divisions:1. Trade books Aimed at the general consumer and sold primarily through book stores. The trade book division, those booksdestined for the average consumer, dominates all other book publishing segments with its current 27 percent share of sales. 2. Religious books Bibles, hymnals, prayer books, theology, devotional inspiration.3. Professional books Aimed at doctors, scientists, engineers, and other professionals who need up-to-date reference materials intheir respective fields.4. Book clubs Listed here because many publishers publish their own books and print special editions of titles obtained from otherpublishers.5. Mail order publications Books created for the general public and marketed by direct mail. These differ from book clubs becausethey require no ongoing membership.
14Chapter 1 Communication: Mass and Other Forms Publishing Divisions (Con’t)Mass market paperbacksUniversity pressesElementary and secondary textsCollege textbooksStandardized testsSubscription reference booksAudiovisual and other mediaPublishing Divisions (Con’t)6. Mass market paperback Softbound volumes on all subjects that have their major sale points in places other than bookstores.7. University presses Publish mostly scholarly books with cultural or artistic merit.8. Elementary and secondary textbooks Also known as “elhi” publishers (from ELementary and HIgh School), this divisionincludes texts designed for classroom use.9. College textbooks Publishes books targeted at college students.Standardized tests Publishers who specialize in tests of ability, aptitude, interest, personality, and other traits; for example,Educational Testing Service publishes the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Exams (GRE).11. Subscription reference books Encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, and so on.12. Audiovisual and other media Supplies tapes, films, slides, transparencies, etc. to schools and training organizations.
15Chapter 1 Communication: Mass and Other Forms DistributorsThanks to the Internet, there are now two main channels by which books can get to consumers:The traditional methodThe online methodDistributorsThanks to the Internet, there are now two main channels by which books can get to consumers: the traditional method (publisher to wholesaler to retailer) and the online approach used by dot.com companies such as amazon.com In this case you simply visit their website, choose a book, pay for it with a credit card, and your book is shipped right from the seller’s warehouse.
16Chapter 1 Communication: Mass and Other Forms Retailers20,000 traditional book storesMajor chain storesOnline vendorsCollege bookstoresBook clubs and mail-order salesdirect-to-consumer book-sellersRetailersBooks are sold in some 20,000 traditional bookstores and other chain retail outlets in the U.S., not to mention the major online vendors. Other retail channels include college bookstores and direct-to-consumer book-sellers such as book clubs and mail-order sales.
17Chapter 1 Communication: Mass and Other Forms OwnershipThe industry is dominated by large conglomerates with interests in other media. The top five companies as of mid-2000 were:Pearson PublishingRandom HouseHarper-CollinsSimon & SchusterTime-Warner PublishingThe book industry is dominated by large conglomerates with interests in other media. The top five companies as of mid-2000 were:. Pearson Publishing, global media company and world’s largest educational publisher. Random House, part of Bertelsmann media empire, with 600 companies in 53 countries. Harper-Collins, part of Rupert Murdoch’s worldwide multi-media empire. Simon & Schuster, part of CBS/Viacom, a huge broadcasting conglomerate. Time-Warner Publishing, part of AOL empire, together the world’s biggest media firm
18Chapter 1 Communication: Mass and Other Forms PRODUCING THE BOOKDepartments and StaffEditorialProductionMarketingGeneral administration of the businessE-booksPRODUCING THE BOOKDepartments and Staff There are four major departments in a publishing company:. editorial deals with authors; two-fold responsibility: select and prepare manuscripts. production oversees the planning and design of the physical book. marketing supervises sales, promotion, and generates publicity for books, authors. general administration of the business self-explanatory. e-book publishing new area devoted to collecting, converting titles to e-book formats
19Chapter 1 Communication: Mass and Other Forms PUBLISHING THE BOOKBook ideas come from three main sources:Agent recommendationsUnsolicited books a.k.a. “slush”Ideas generated by editors themselvesPublishing the BookEditors get their books from three main sources:. agent recommendations. unsolicited books. ideas generated by editorsMost trade book ideas come from agents since agents are industry savvy and will not generally submit manuscripts they know will be unacceptable. Unsolicited manuscripts, a.k.a. slush, are put in a slush pile and eventually screened by an editorial assistant. When book editors have an idea for a book themselves, they’ll generally contact a book agent who can in turn suggest a potential author.
20General Steps in Getting a Book Published Chapter 1Communication: Mass and Other FormsGeneral Steps in Getting a Book PublishedAuthor submits a book proposal which can include:. cover letter and a brief description of the planned book. a list of reasons why the book should be published. an analysis of the potential readership market. an outline or a table of contents (and a sample chapter)Proposal forwarded to acquisitions editor for evaluation. If favorable, contract is signed and author begins work
21General Steps in Getting a Book Published (Con’t) Chapter 1Communication: Mass and Other FormsGeneral Steps in Getting a Book Published (Con’t)As chapters come in, editors review book for sense and achievement of original intentBook mechanics checked (writing, footnotes, grammar, permissions to reproduce other published materials)Design decisions made and production schedules setBook printed, sent to warehouses to await distribution
22Chapter 1 Communication: Mass and Other Forms ECONOMICSCultural factors continue to cast promising economic growth for the book industryTwo main sources of industry income:money from book salessubsidiary rightsEconomicsDespite economic swings, changing lifestyles and predictions that reading is a lost art, the book industry continues to prosper. There are several reasons for this continued growth:. the population is getting older, and the biggest readership occurs with the year olds. people currently have more disposable income and leisure time to spend on books. government continues to make education a priority, thus encouraging new book sales In other areas, book prices for both hard- andsoft-cover titles continue to rise (average price of a hard-cover book in 1999 was $46, and an average mass paperback sold for $6.00.Publishers have two main sources of income: (a) money from book sales and (b) money from subsidiary rights (book clubs, foreign markets, Hollywood, and paperbacks). Return on their investments for book publishers runs only about five percent, the majority of expenses going to production costs, author royalties, administrative expenses, and credits for book returns.
23Chapter 1 Communication: Mass and Other Forms FEEDBACKThe primary form of audience feedback for the industry continues to be the best seller lists compiled by newspapers such as USA Today, the New York Times, and Publisher’s Weekly.Internet services like amazon.com are providing new feedback alternatives such as their “purchase circles” database and interactive reader reviewsFeedbackThe most important form of audience feedback in the book industry is the best seller lists compiled by newspapers such as the New York Times, USA Today, and the trade magazine Publisher’s Weekly. Though tabulating methods vary, making the best seller list is important since many bookstores automatically order large numbers of all the books that make these lists. Amazon.com offers a unique feedback arrangement called “purchase circles,” in which best-seller lists are based on the zip codes of the customers who order books from amazon.com; the lists are then categorized by geography, by organizations, by companies, and by educational settings.