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. Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity 2-1 Chapter 2 Workforce diversity in.

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Presentation on theme: ". Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity 2-1 Chapter 2 Workforce diversity in."— Presentation transcript:

1 . Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity 2-1 Chapter 2 Workforce diversity in Australia John Burgess, Erica French and Glenda Strachan

2 . The average worker? The average worker is likely to be male; white; working in a capital city; born in Australia; with no disability; working full time; part of a family. Many workers deviate from this norm. Major workforce developments and marginalisation of some groups needs to be addressed through MD programs. Examples include disabled workers, older workers and Indigenous Australians. Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity 2-2

3 . Workers with disabilities Disability is defined as any limitation, restriction or impairment, which has lasted, or is likely to last, for at least 6 months and restricts everyday activities (ABS 2003: 3). In terms of the Australian population, the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2003) reported that 20 per cent of the population had a reported disability in Different degrees of disability were reported. Specific findings included the following: –The rate of disability is directly related to age. –Those with a profound core activity limitation had a much lower labour force participation rate (15%) than those without a disability (81%). –Those with a disability were more likely to work part-time (37%) than those without a disability (29%). –Disability is associated with very low incomes – nearly one third of those with profound and severe core activity limitations were located in the lowest quintile of the population distribution. For those without a disability, around 10 per cent were reported as being in the lowest income quintile. –Many of the disabled are not in the labour force. Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversitya 2-3

4 . Addressing workforce disability What programs could organisations develop? Issues regarding physical access should be considered. Flexible employment and leave arrangements should be provided. Special facilities should be provided. Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity 2-4

5 . An ageing workforce Global workforce trends indicate that the workforce share of developed economies is declining, that younger workers are predominantly located in developing economies and in developed economies the workforce is ageing. In developed economies the ratio of the population aged over 65 years to those aged between 20 and 64 years will double over the next 50 years. The proportion of the Australian population aged over 65 years is projected to increase from the current 12% of the population to 18% in the year 2021 and 26% by the year Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity 2-5

6 . An ageing workforce (cont.) By international standards Australias relative ageing process is moderate. The Australian Bureau of Statistics (2006) indicates that the factors generating ageing include declining fertility rates, improved health and longevity and immigration rates. An ageing population means more people are dependent upon income transfers and there is greater pressure on the health and social security systems. With an ageing workforce there are issues surrounding health and well-being at the workplace; challenges related to sickness and absences from the workplace; and the potential loss of skilled workers. Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity 2-6

7 . Addressing workforce ageing Organisations will also have to confront the implications of an ageing workforce for such issues as recruitment, retention and maintaining a skills base. Workforce ageing implies that organisations will have to confront the following problems: retaining staff maintaining and improving the skill base of the organisation workforce recruitment workforce planning, especially for succession older staff have different lifestyle preferences as compared to younger staff, and have caring responsibilities for elderly relatives In the past some organisations have seen older workers as constituting a problem. There are opportunities and pressures for recognising and accommodating the needs and preferences of older workers. Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity 2-7

8 . Indigenous Australians Issues regarding Indigenous Australians in the workforce: Indigenous Australians have a record of workforce marginalisation and poor labour market outcomes. Indigenous Australians face major problems regarding workforce entry – e.g. housing, health, education, remote location. Federal and state governments have initiated a range of programs to assist Indigenous employment. These include training programs, wage subsidy programs, job support programs and job placement programs. Important programs at the Federal level include the Community Development Employment Projects and at the state level include the Indigenous Training and Employment Support in Queensland. At the private sector level there are formal programs such as the Corporate Leaders for Indigenous Employment Program. There is development of training and partnership models in the mining sector – often in remote locations. Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity 2-8

9 . Organisational responses Job placement and recruitment Training and mentoring Partnerships with Indigenous communities Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity 2-9

10 . Women workers Women workers constitute a growing share of the workforce. Formal EEO programs for women are in place in large organisations. Particular challenges: high part-time employment share; workforce discontinuity over the life cycle; balancing work and family care; workforce segregation; under-representation in senior positions; lower average earnings Check EOWA website (www.eowa.gov.au) for examples of organisational responses to the above challenges such as flexible employment arrangements; paid maternity leave; womens leadership programswww.eowa.gov.au Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity 2-10

11 . Migrant workers Australia has a long history of migrant labour – one of the largest immigrant workforces within the OECD. Immigration programs for: skills and workforce; family reunion; refugees Changing composition of migrant workforce in terms of country of origin Differences in workforce outcomes for those migrants from English- and non-English-speaking backgrounds Challenges facing migrant workers from a non-English- speaking background Opportunities for organisations in recognising and developing their migrant workforce – language skills; links to migrant and overseas markets Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity 2-11

12 . Those outside of the workforce MD programs apply to those in employment, however MD programs can attract and make it easier for diverse groups to be recruited and retained. Groups with low workforce representation are the disabled; Indigenous Australians; newly arrived migrants from a non-English-speaking background and those with young children. See the discussion around family-friendly employment arrangements. Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity 2-12

13 . Emerging workplace and workforce developments Changes in workforce composition; changes in work; changes in the workplace Introduction of information and communications technology (ICT) across the workforce – new mobile and home work possibilities; new forms of workplace such as call centres Long hours and diverse hours; and unsociable working hours Changes to employment regulations Falling trade union density Growth in temping and agency work Growth in contracting and franchising Identifying the employee and the employer can be problematic under some conditions Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity 2-13

14 . Organisational challenges Respond to and meet the needs and expectations of a diverse workforce. Attract and retain workers; especially with a growing economy and skill shortages. Recognise the potential and opportunities offered by a diverse workforce. Respond to institutional, legislative and structural developments that impact on the workforce and on employment conditions. Copyright 2010 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs to accompany Strachan, French and Burgess, Managing Diversity 2-14


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