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1 Downloadable from & 1 Gaia Engineering – An Economic Approach to Solving Planetary Problems Developed Countries Undeveloped Countries Global population, consumption per capita and our footprint on the planet are exploding. ? ? A Planet in Crisis This presentation describes an economic approach to solving the greatest problems facing this planet. John Harrison B.Sc. B.Ec. FCPA. FAICD Managing director of TecEco and Chair of AASMIC Demographic Explosion =>

2 Downloadable from & 2 Scientific consensus global warming Emissions reduction Efficiency Cost of alternative energy Cost of reducing emissions Cost of not reducing emissions Wrong Think Again! Earth is a homeostatic system The impact of anthropogenic materials flows on planetary system slows Runaway change? Risk management A Holistic approach with nature as our mentor? Gaia Engineering Presentation Messages The main natural sinks are oceans, plants etc. Abatement Sequestration The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them." Albert Einstein

3 Downloadable from & 3 Our Ecological Footprint Exceeds Capacity Our footprint is exceeding the capacity of the planet to support it. We are not longer sustainable and the environment is no longer sustainable – we must change our ways to survive. Source: WWF State of the Planet, 2005 View further to discover how

4 Downloadable from & 4 The Carbon Cycle and Emissions After: David Schimel and Lisa Dilling, National Centre for Atmospheric Research 2003 Emissions from fossil fuels and cement production are a significant cause of global warming. Units: GtC GtC/yr 4.5 billion years of geological sequestration have resulted in 7% of the crust being carbonate We need to increase the sedimentary carbon sink

5 Downloadable from & 5 Global Warming Rises in the levels of greenhouse gases Are thought to be causing a rapid rise in temperature Correlation is not causation but---

6 Downloadable from & 6 CO 2 and Temperature Even if emissions reductions were to succeed we must still get the CO 2 out of the air. There are thermodynamic limits. Carbon rationing is a frightening adjunct and alternative. Who will be the global police? Source of graphic: Hansen, J et. al. Climate Change and Trace Gases The correlation between temperature and CO 2 in the atmosphere over the last 450,000 years is very good. All things being equal the simple answer is usually the right answer (Occams razor) The best plan is a holistic one that reduces emissions and profitably balances the inevitable releases from our activities with massive sequestration.

7 Downloadable from & 7 Global Oxygen Bruce C. Douglas (1997). "Global Sea Rise: A Redetermination". Surveys in Geophysics 18: 279- 292 Dr. Simon Torok CSIRO OxygenMeasurements.htm Oxygen levels have fallen.03% in the last 20 years and sea levels are rising.

8 Downloadable from & 8 Water Source of Graphic: Lean, Geoffrey, and Don Hinrichsen, 1994. Atlas of the Environment, Santa Barbara, CA: ABC- CLIO, Inc. 1/3 of the worlds population are presently living in water stressed countries. Depending on the emission scenarios, climate scenarios and population change, it is estimated that up to 2/3 of the worlds population will be living in water stressed countries by 2050 as a result of climate change Source: Defra (2004). Scientific and Technical Aspects of Climate Change, including Impacts, Adaptation and Associated Costs. UK, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

9 Downloadable from & 9 Waste & Pollution Ill health. Contamination of global commons with dangerous molecules. Increased traffic, noise, odours, smoke, dust, litter and pests. There are various estimates. The consensus is that we produce about 5-600 billion tonnes of waste each year. Tec and Eco-Cements use waste.

10 Downloadable from & 10 TecEco are in the BIGGEST Business on the Planet – Economic Solutions to our Energy, Global Warming, Water and Waste Problems. One Planet, Many People, Many Interconnected Problems

11 Downloadable from & 11 Urgent Fixes are Needed Water –1/3 of world population stressed for water –By 2050 2/3 due to global warming Waste –Around 600 million tonnes. –The underlying moleconomic flow is poisoning our world CO 2 –Causing global temperature rises Energy –Peak oil has passed and fossil fuel energy costs set to rise. To solve these problems we need to change the way we do things and what we do them with! All these problems are interconnected

12 Downloadable from & 12 Correlation Between WIP and Emissions World Industrial Product (deflated world `GDP' in real value - i.e. World physical production). CO2 emissions (in CO2 mass units: Doubling time = 29 years. Data: CDIAC; statistics: GDI. The correlation between the WIP and the CO2 emissions is very high. The correlation coefficient r= 0.995, i.e. practically 1 (total correlation). Di Fazio, Alberto, The fallacy of pure efficiency gain measures to control future climate change, Astronomical Observatory of Rome and the Global Dynamics Institute

13 Downloadable from & 13 We are Hooked On Fossil Fuel Energy Emissions targets are unlikely to be met whilst fossil fuels remain Assuming Kyoto commitments are met (which is unlikely) it is estimated that global emissions will be 41% higher in 2010 than in 1990 ( Ford, M., Matysek, A, Jakeman, G., Gurney, A & Fisher B. S. 2006, Perspectives on International Climate Change, paper presented at the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics society 50 th Annual Conference. pdf. A solution is needed of the utmost urgency to preserve history for many, many generations to come. Sir Richard Branson at the launch of the Virgin Earth Prize Gaia Engineering is the way to do so – John Harrison

14 Downloadable from & 14 Synopsis We are too many and our influence too great. We must therefore accept our role of maintaining spaceship earth as planetary engineers and find ways of maintaining the level of carbon dioxide, oxygen and other gases in the atmosphere at desirable levels. We are too hooked on fossil fuels and cannot possibly arrest the alarming increases in carbon dioxide currently occurring through efficiency, emissions reduction or substitution by renewables. We have a good chance of preserving the future if we mimic nature by finding uses for carbon and other wastes. Uses for carbon and other wastes must result in a real value that puts profit in the pocket of a large number who will as a consequence wish to engage otherwise they cannot be implemented on the massive scale required. The markets created must be insatiable, large and indefinitely continuing. Building with anthropogenically created man made carbonate as promoted in this presentation is doable and most likely presents the only option we have for saving the planet from runaway global warming until such time as safe and reliable forms of energy alternative to fossil fuels can be developed, we more seriously take our relationship with the planet and our role as planetary engineers and custodians.

15 Downloadable from & 15 The Earth System Anthropo- sphere The earth system consists of positive and negative feedback loops. Small changes caused by man such as CO 2 and other climate forcing as well as pollution impact right across all interconnected systems throughout the global commons.

16 Downloadable from & 16 Earth Systems Science Source graphic: NASA Earth system science treats the entire Earth as a system in its own right, which evolves as a result of positive and negative feedback between constituent systems (Wiki). These systems are ideally homeostatic. Earth Systems Atmospheric composition, climate, land cover, marine ecosystems, pollution, coastal zones, freshwater salinity etc.

17 Downloadable from & 17 The Techno-Process Underlying the techno-process that describes and controls the flow of matter and energy through the supply and waste chains are molecular stocks and flows. If out of synch with earth systems these moleconomic flows have detrimental affects. To reduce the impact on earth systems new technical paradigms need to be invented and cultural changes evolve that result in materials flows with underlying molecular flows that mimic or at least do not interfere with natural flows and that support rather than detrimentally impact on earth systems. Detrimental affects on earth systems Move 500-600 billion tonnes Use some 50 billion tonnes Take Waste Materials I am contemplating profitable bottom up change of immense proportion and importance. John Harrison, TecEco

18 Downloadable from & 18 Detrimental Impacts of the Techno-Process Takemanipulateand makeimpacts End of lifecycle impacts Greater Utility Less Utility Materials are everything between the take and waste and affect earth system flows. There is no such place as away Use impacts. Materials are in the Techno- Sphere Utility zone Detrimental Linkages that affect earth system flows

19 Downloadable from & 19 Under Materials Flows in the Techno-Processes are Molecular Flows Take Manipulate Make Use Waste [ Materials flow ] [ Underlying molecular flow ] If the underlying molecular flows are out of tune with nature there is damage to the environment e.g. heavy metals, cfcs, c=halogen compounds and CO 2 Moleconomics is the study of the form of atoms in molecules, their flow, interactions, balances, stocks and positions. What we take from the environment around us, how we manipulate and make materials out of what we take and what we waste result in underlying molecular flows that affect earth systems. These flows should mimic, balance or minimally interfere with natural flows. To fix the molecular flows that are impacting our planet we must first fix the materials flows in a bottom up approach

20 Downloadable from & 20 Building and Construction Represents an Insatiable, Large and Indefinitely Continuing Market. The built environment is made of materials and is our footprint on earth. –It comprises buildings and infrastructure. Construction materials comprise –70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.) –40-50% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.) Around 25 billion tonnes of building materials are used annually on a world wide basis. The single biggest materials flow (after water) is concrete at around 17 billion tonnes or > 2 tonnes per man, woman and child on the planet. Why not use magnesium carbonate aggregates and building components from Greensols and Eco-Cements from TecEco to bind them together?

21 Downloadable from & 21 Innovative New Materials - the Key to Sustainability By changing how we make things and what we make them with we can fix the underlying molecular flows that are destroying the natural homeostasis of our planet The choice of materials for building and construction controls emissions, lifetime and embodied energies, user comfort, use of recycled wastes, durability, recyclability and the properties of wastes returned to the bio-geo-sphere.

22 Downloadable from & 22 Economically Driven Sustainability New, more profitable technical paradigms are required that result in more sustainable and usually more efficient moleconomic flows that mimic natural flows or better, reverse our damaging flows. $ - ECONOMICS - $ Change is only possible economically. It will not happen because it is necessary or right.

23 Downloadable from & 23 Consider Sustainability as Where Culture and Technology Meet Increase in demand/price ratio for greater sustainability due to cultural change. # $ Demand Supply Increase in supply/price ratio for more sustainable products due to technical innovation. Equilibrium Shift ECONOMICS Greater Value/for impact (Sustainability) and economic growth A measure of the degree of sustainability is where the demand for more sustainable technologies is met by their supply. We must rapidly move both the supply and demand curves for sustainability

24 Downloadable from & 24 Changing the Technology Paradigm By enabling us to make productive use of particular raw materials, technology determines what constitutes a physical resource 1 1.Pilzer, Paul Zane, Unlimited Wealth, The Theory and Practice of Economic Alchemy, Crown Publishers Inc. New York.1990 It is not so much a matter of dematerialisation as a question of changing the underlying moleconomic flows. We need materials that require less energy to make them, do not pollute the environment with CO 2 and other releases, last much longer and that contribute properties that reduce lifetime energies. The key is to change the technology paradigms Or more simply – the technical paradigm determines what is or is not a resource!

25 Downloadable from & 25 Cultural Change is Happening! Al Gore (SOS) CSIRO reports STERN Report Lots of Talkfest IPCC Report Political change Branson Prize Live Earth (07/07/07) The media have an important growing role

26 Downloadable from & 26 Changing the Techno-Process Reduce Re-use Recycle => Materials => Take => manipulate => make => use => waste The Flow of Atoms and Molecules in the global commons Driven by fossil fuel energy with take and waste impacts. This is biomimicry! By changing the technology paradigms we can change the materials flows and thus the underlying molecular flows. Moleconomics

27 Downloadable from & 27 Nature is our Mentor (Biomimicry) All that is alive is very efficiently in balance with surrounding conditions including all else that is alive. –The waste from one plant or animal is the food or home for another. –Photosynthesis balances respiration. –Growth balances disintegration. There is a strong need for similar efficiency and homeostatic balance in the techno process. –To balance emissions of carbon dioxide with uses and waste nothing that has no natural role on the planet. By studying Nature we learn who we are, what we are and how we are to be. (Wright, F.L. 1957:269) Nature provides us with survival knowledge from a four billion year old experiment. It is this knowledge, not our genetics that is the key. John Harrison

28 Downloadable from & 28 Biomimicry - Geomimicry All natural processes are very economical. We must also be MUCH more economical The term biomimicry was popularised by the book of the same name written by Janine Benyus Biomimicry is a method of solving problems that uses natural processes and systems as a source of knowledge and inspiration. It involves nature as model, measure and mentor. Geomimicry is similar to biomimicry but models geological rather than biological processes. The theory behind biomimicry is that natural processes and systems have evolved over several billion years through a process of research and development commonly referred to as evolution. A reoccurring theme in natural systems is the cyclical flow of matter in such a way that there is no waste of matter and very little of energy. Geomicry is a natural extension of biomimicry and applies to geological rather than living processes

29 Downloadable from & 29 Biomimicry - Ultimate Recyclers As peak oil starts to cut in and the price of transport rises sharply –We should not just be recycling based on chemical property requiring transport to large centralised sophisticated and expensive facilities –We should be including CO 2 and wastes based on physical properties as well as chemical composition in composites whereby they become local resources. Jackdaws and bower bird recycle all sorts of things they find nearby based on physical property. The birds are not concerned about chemical composition and the nests they make could be described as a composite materials. TecEco cements are benign binders that can incorporate all sort of wastes without reaction problems and bind strongly to them by polar bonding with them. We can do the same as the Jackdaw or bower bird

30 Downloadable from & 30 Localized Low Transport Embodied Energy Materials No longer an option? As the price of fuel rises past peak oil, the use of localised low embodied energy materials for construction will have to be considered. We will have to mimic the jackdaw or bower bird.

31 Downloadable from & 31 Utilizing Carbon and Wastes During earth's geological history large tonnages of carbon were put away as limestone and other carbonates and as coal and petroleum by the activity of plants and animals. Sequestering carbon in calcium and magnesium carbonate materials and other wastes in the built environment mimics nature in that carbon is used in the homes or skeletal structures of most plants and animals. In eco-cement concretes the binder is carbonate and the aggregates are preferably carbonates and wastes. This is geomimicry CO 2 C Waste CO 2 Pervious pavement

32 Downloadable from & 32 Geomimicry There are 1.2-3 grams of magnesium and about.4 grams of calcium in every litre of seawater. There is enough calcium and magnesium in seawater with replenishment to last billions of years at current needs for sequestration. To survive we must build our homes like these seashells using CO 2 and alkali metal cations. This is geomimicry Carbonate sediments such as these cliffs represent billions of years of sequestration and cover 7% of the crust.

33 Downloadable from & 33 Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? Large tonnages of carbon (7% of the crust) were put away during earths geological history as limestone, dolomite and magnesite, mostly by the activity of plants and animals. –Orders of magnitude more than as coal or petroleum! Shellfish built shells from carbon and trees turn it into wood. These same plants and animals wasted nothing –The waste from one is the food or home for another. Because of the colossal size of the flows involved the answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both in an insatiable, large and indefinitely continuing market. Such a market exists for building and construction materials.

34 Downloadable from & 34 Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? Such a paradigm shift in resource usage will not occur because it is the right thing to do. It can only happen economically. To put an economic value on carbon and wastes –We have not choice but to invent new technical paradigms such as offered by TecEco and the Global Sustainability Alliance (Gaia Engineering). –Evolving culturally to effectively use these technical paradigms By using carbon dioxide and other wastes as building materials we can economically reduce their concentration in the global commons. Materials are very important!

35 Downloadable from & 35 Why Magnesium Carbonates? Because of the low molecular weight of magnesium, it is ideal for scrubbing CO 2 out of the air and sequestering the gas into the built environment: More CO 2 is captured than in calcium systems as the calculations below show. At 2.09% of the crust magnesium is the 8th most abundant element Sea-water contains 1.29 g/l compared to calcium at.412 g/l Magnesium compounds have low pH and polar bond in composites making them suitable for the utilisation of other wastes. Seawater Reference Data g/l H 2 0 Cation radius (pm) Chloride (Cl -- )19167 Sodium (Na + )10.5116 Sulfate (S04 -- )2.7? Magnesium (Mg ++ )1.2986 Calcium (Ca ++ )0.412114 Potassium (K + )0.399152

36 Downloadable from & 36 Making Carbonate Building Materials to Solve the Global Warming Problem Magnesium materials from Gaia Engineering are potential low cost. New kiln technology from TecEco will enable easy low cost simple non fossil fuel calcination of magnesium carbonate to make binders with the CO 2 recycling to produce more carbonate building material to be used with these binders. How much magnesium carbonate would have to be deposited to solve the problem of global warming? –The annual flux of CO 2 is around 12 billion tonnes ~= 22.99 billion tonnes magnesite –The density of magnesite is 3 gm/cm3 or 3 tonne/metre3 22.9/3 billion cubic metres ~= 7.63 cubic kilometres of magnesite would have to be deposited each year. Compared to the over seven cubic kilometres of concrete we make every year, the problem of global warming looks surmountable. If magnesite was our building material of choice and we could make it without releases as is the case with Gaia Engineering, we have the problem as good as solved! We must build with carbonate and waste

37 Downloadable from & 37 Only the Built Environment is Big Enough Source of graphics: Nic Svenningson UNEP SMB2007 The built environment is our footprint, the major proportion of the techno-sphere and our lasting legacy on the planet. It comprises buildings and infrastructure

38 Downloadable from & 38 Building is Going Balistic! The relative impact of the built environment is rising as the East catches up with the West! Source of graphic: Rick Fedrizzi SMB 2007

39 Downloadable from & 39 Huge Potential for Sequestration and Waste Utilisation in the Built Environment Reducing the impact of the take and waste phases of the techno-process by. –including carbon in materials they are potentially carbon sinks. –including wastes for physical properties as well as chemical composition they become resources. –re engineering materials to reduce the lifetime energy of buildings A durable low pH high bonding binder system is required for effective waste utilisation such as TecEco Tec and Eco-Cements Many wastes including CO 2 can contribute to physical properties reducing lifetime energies CO 2 C Waste CO 2 Pervious pavement

40 Built Environment Gaia Engineering Flowchart MgCO 3 and CaCO 3 Stone Extraction Valuable Commodity Salts or hydrochloric acid. Industrial CO 2 MgO TecEco Tec-Kiln Eco- Cements Building components & aggregates TecEco Cement Manufacture CaO Clays Portland Cement Manufacture Brine or Sea water Tec- Cements Building waste Other waste Waste Acid or Bittern s Fresh Water Extraction inputs and outputs depending on method chosen

41 Downloadable from & 41 The Gaia Engineering Tececology Industrial Ecologies are generally thought of as closed loop systems with minimal or low impacts outside the ecology The Gaia Engineering tececology could be thought of as an open technical ecology designed to reverse major damaging moleconomic and other system flows outside the tececology The Gaia Engineering tececology is not closed and is designed to reverse damaging moleconomic flows outside the ecology - LIKE A GIANT ECOLOGICAL PUMP

42 Downloadable from & 42 The Gaia Engineering Process Extraction Process Fossil fuels Solar or solar derived energy Oil MgO CO 2 Coal CO 2 Inputs: Atmospheric or industrial CO 2, brines, waste acid or bitterns, other wastes Outputs: Carbonate building materials, potable water, valuable commodity salts. Carbon or carbon compounds Magnesium compounds 1.29 gm/l Mg.412 gm/l Ca Gaia Engineering delivers profitable outcomes whilst reversing underlying undesirable moleconomic flows from other less sustainable techno-processes outside the tececology. TecEco MgCO 2 Cycle Carbonate building components Eco-Cement TecEco Kiln MgCO 3

43 Downloadable from & 43 Gaia Engineering Introduction Gaia engineering is a combination of new technologies including –A Carbon capture process –TecEcos Tec-Kiln technology and cements –Carbon dioxide scrubbing technologies –TecEco' Eco-Cements Gaia engineering profitably geomimics past planetary geological processes and adopted on a large scale will: –Sequester significant amounts of atmospheric CO2 –Produce valuable by-products –Convert large volumes of waste to valuable resource

44 Downloadable from & 44 Carbon Capture Front End Gaia Engineering starts with a process to sequester carbon dioxide using the magnesium contained in bitterns, seawater or brine and to date there are many candidate methods that all require further research and development. –The Greensols process which involves chemical precipitation –A pyrohydrolysis process that can be run in association with salt manufacture –An ultra high speed centrifuge process and a –Biomimetic process. Outputs will vary according to the ultimate process selected for the concentration of CO2 needed for both Gaia Engineering and Clean Coal and are as hereunder: –Greensols - sodium bicarbonate, mineral salts, carbonate building materials and aggregates, Eco-Cements and fresh water –Ultra Centrifuges - provided materials can be found to withstand the forces involved, potentially similar outputs as the Greensols process. –Hydropyrolysis - magnesium oxide and hydrochloric acid. The magnesium oxide can be used for sequestration and hydrochloric acid is used in industry. –Biomimetic Routes – calcium and magnesium carbonates.

45 Downloadable from & 45 CO 2 from power generation, industry or out of the air Magnesia (MgO) Other Wastes Simplified TecEco Reactions Tec-Kiln MgCO3 MgO + CO2 - 118 kJ/mole Reactor Process MgO + CO 2 MgCO 3 + 118 kJ/mole (usually more complex hydrates) (MgCO2) Cycle Waste Acid 1.354 x 10 9 km3 Seawater containing 1.728 10 17 tonne Mg or suitable brines from other sources Tonnes CO2 sequestered per tonne magnesium with various cycles through the TecEco Tec-Kiln process. Assuming no leakage MgO to built environment (i.e. complete cycles). Billion Tonnes Tonnes CO 2 sequestered by 1 billion tonnes of Mg in seawater1.81034 Tonnes CO 2 captured during calcining (same as above)1.81034 Tonnes CO 2 captured by eco-cement1.81034 Total tonnes CO 2 sequestered or abated per tonne Mg in seawater (Single calcination cycle). 3.62068 Total tonnes CO 2 sequestered or abated (Five calcination cycles.)18.1034 Total tonnes CO 2 sequestered or abated (Ten calcination cycles).36.20 Gypsum (CaSO 4 ) Gypsum + carbon waste (e.g. sewerage) = fertilizers Sewerage compost Magnesite (MgCO 3 ) Solar Process to Produce Magnesium Metal Bicarbonate of Soda (NaHCO 3 ) Eco-Cement Tec-Cement Other salts Na +,K +, Ca 2+,Cl - CO 2 from power generation or industry Sequestration Table – Mg from Seawater CO 2 CO 2 + H 2 O => Energy rich biomass using blue green algae Greensols Seawater Carbonation Process. Tec-Reactor Hydroxide / Carbonate slurry process MgO Production using solar energy Gaia Engineering – Greensols Front End

46 Downloadable from & 46 Gaia Engineering – Greensols Front End Inputs Brines Waste Acid Wastes CO2 Outputs Gypsum, Sodium bicarbonate, Salts, Building materials, Potable water

47 Downloadable from & 47 Greensols Carbon Capture The hydrogen bonding in water keeps oppositely charged ions from combining. Water dissolves them. Strongly charged ions such as calcium, magnesium and carbonate attract hydration shells of water around them. For example magnesium and calcium ions polar bond to oxygen and the negative carbonate ion polar bonds to hydrogen. These bonds can propagate through several layers of water and are strong enough to prevent the formation of calcium and magnesium carbonates even from supersaturated solutions. The Greensols process uses waste acid to de-polarise a statistical proportion of water molecules by attaching a proton to them whereby positively charged sodium, calcium or magnesium ions as well as negatively charged ions including carbonate ions are released, can combine and thus precipitate.

48 Downloadable from & 48 Greensols Carbon Capture Hydration shelling of water occurs around calcium or magnesium ions because of the strong charge of especially magnesium to the oxygen end of water Similar hydration shelling occurs around the negative carbonate ion through polar bonding to the hydrogen ends of water

49 Downloadable from & 49 Greensols Carbon Capture The addition of a proton to water using strong waste acid results in its de polarisation whereby it no longer electronically holds as many ions (sodium, calcium, magnesium or carbonate etc.) statistically releasing them and allowing them to combine and precipitate as carbonates and other more valuable salts leaving behind essentially fresh water

50 Downloadable from & 50 Greensols Carbon Capture The statistical release of both cations and anions results in precipitation of for example magnesium carbonate as shown above. + = Mg ++ + CO 3 _ _ => MgCO 3

51 Downloadable from & 51 Advantages of Greensols over Reverse Osmosis GREENSOLSREVERSE OSMOSIS DE- SALINATION Low energy costs - Does not work against the electronic forces in water. Relatively high energy costs - Works against the hydrogen bonding of water to separate it from its ions Low maintenance - The plant consists of low cost replaceable pumps High Maintenance - The membranes need cleaning and changing at regular intervals. No damaging or dangerous outputs Highly saline water is potentially damaging Value adds include fresh water, sequestration, valuable salts and building products The only value add is fresh water Tell somebody with influence today!

52 Downloadable from & 52 The Tec-Reactor Hydroxide Carbonate Slurry Process The solubility of carbon dioxide gas in seawater –Increases as the temperature approached zero and –Is at a maxima around 4 o C This phenomenon is related to the chemical nature of CO 2 and water and Can be utilised in a carbonate – hydroxide slurry process to capture CO 2 out of the air and release it for storage or use in a controlled manner

53 Downloadable from & 53 The MgCO 2 Process (Magnesium Thermodynamic Cycle) The MgCO2 (magnesium thermodynamic cycle) is very important for sequestration and results in the formation of valuable building product Representative of other hydrated mineral carbonates CO 2 Carbonation Mg(OH) 2.nH 2 O +CO 2 +2H 2 O => MgCO 3.3H 2 O ΔH = - 37.04 kJ.mol ΔG = - 19.55 kJ.mol Eco-Cements Nesquehonite Magnesite Dehydration Carbonation Brucite TOTAL CALCINING ENERGY Relative to MgCO3 Theoretical = 1480 kJ.Kg With inefficiencies = 1948 kJ.Kg-1 Magnesia Calcination Tec-Kiln Hydration MgO + H 2 O => Mg(OH) 2.nH 2 O ΔH = - 81.24 kJ.mol ΔG = - 35.74 kJ.mol Calcification MgCO 3 => MgO + CO 2 ΔH = 118.28 kJ.mol -1 ΔG = 65.92 kJ.mol -1 Tec, Eco and Enviro-Cements CO 2 + H 2 O => Hydrocarbons compounds using algae

54 Downloadable from & 54 The TecEco Tec-Kiln Technology Runs at low temperatures minimising the development of lattice energy. Can be powered by various non fossil sources of energy such as solar energy or waste heat. Grinds and calcines at the same time thereby operating 25% to 30% more efficiently. Captures CO 2 for return to the Greensols process, bottling or use for fuel manufacture using algae and other life forms or other purposes. The products – CaO and/or MgO can be used to sequester more CO 2 in the MgCO2 process which can be repeated. Suitable for making the reactive MgO used in TecEco cements. CO 2 + H 2 O => Hydrocarbons compounds using algae MgO Production using solar energy

55 Downloadable from & 55 Eco-Cement – With Capture during Manufacture Eco-Cement – No Capture during Manufacture Eco-Cement CO 2 Release and Capture CO 2 CO2 from atmosphere CO2 capture (Greensols process etc) Carbon neutral except for carbon from process emissions Net sequestration less carbon from process emissions Use of non fossil fuels => Low or no process emissions MgO Mg(OH)2 H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O MgCO3.3H2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O

56 Downloadable from & 56 Gaia Engineering will Modify the Carbon Cycle Photosynthesis by plants and algae Consumed by heterotrophs (mainly animals) Organic compounds made by autotrophs Organic compounds made by heterotrophs Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration burning and decay Limestone coal and oil burning Gaia Engineering, (Greensols, TecEco Kiln and Eco-Cements) Decay by fungi and bacteria CO 2 in the air and water

57 Downloadable from & 57 Outcomes from Gaia Engineering CO 2 in the atmosphere will start to fall. As the proportion of man made carbonate used in the built environment increases. These figures are obviously rubbery, but we hope you get the idea! Critical 450 ppm, level =>

58 Downloadable from & 58 TecEco Binder Systems Hydration of the various components of Portland cement for strength. SUSTAINABILITY DURABILITYSTRENGTH TECECO CEMENTS Reaction of alkali with pozzolans (e.g. lime with fly ash.) for sustainability, durability and strength. Hydration of magnesia => brucite for strength, workability, dimensional stability and durability. In Eco-cements carbonation of brucite => nesquehonite, lansfordite and an amorphous phase for sustainability. PORTLAND POZZOLAN REACTIVE MAGNESIA TecEco concretes are a system of blending reactive magnesia, Portland cement and usually a pozzolan with other materials and are a key factor for sustainability.

59 Downloadable from & 59 Emissions from Cement Production Chemical Release –The process of calcination involves driving off chemically bound CO 2 with heat. CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2 Process Energy –Most energy is derived from fossil fuels. –Fuel oil, coal and natural gas are directly or indirectly burned to produce the energy required releasing CO 2. The production of cement for concretes accounts for around 10% of global anthropogenic CO 2. –Pearce, F., "The Concrete Jungle Overheats", New Scientist, 19 July, No 2097, 1997 (page 14). Arguments that we should reduce cement production relative to other building materials are nonsense because concrete is the most sustainable building material there is. The challenge is to make it more sustainable. CO 2 CO 2

60 Downloadable from & 60 Embodied Energy of Building Materials Downloaded from (last accessed 07 March 2000) Concrete is relatively environmentally friendly and has a relatively low embodied energy

61 Downloadable from & 61 Average Embodied Energy in Buildings Downloaded from (last accessed 07 March 2000) Because so much concrete is used there is a huge opportunity for sustainability by reducing the embodied energy, reducing the carbon debt (net emissions), incorporating waste and improving properties that reduce lifetime energies. Most of the embodied energy in the built environment is in concrete.

62 Downloadable from & 62 Cement Production ~= Carbon Dioxide Emissions Tec, Eco and Enviro-Cements TecEco can provide a viable much more sustainable alternative. Source data: USGS Minerals Yearbook Exponential growth

63 Downloadable from & 63 Tec & Eco-Cement Theory Portlandite (Ca(OH) 2 ) is too soluble, mobile and reactive. –It carbonates, reacts with Cl - and SO 4 - and being soluble can act as an electrolyte. TecEco generally (but not always) remove Portlandite using the pozzolanic reaction and TecEco add reactive magnesia –which hydrates, consuming significant water and concentrating alkalis forming B rucite which is another alkali, but much less soluble, mobile or reactive than Portlandite. In Eco-Cements brucite carbonates forming hydrated compounds with greater volume

64 Downloadable from & 64 TecEco Cements Tec-cements (Low MgO) –contain more Portland cement than reactive magnesia. Reactive magnesia hydrates in the same rate order as Portland cement forming Brucite which uses up water reducing the voids:paste ratio, increasing density and possibly raising the short term pH. –Reactions with pozzolans are more affective. After all the Portlandite has been consumed Brucite controls the long term pH which is lower and due to its low solubility, mobility and reactivity results in greater durability. –Other benefits include improvements in density, strength and rheology, reduced permeability and shrinkage and the use of a wider range of aggregates many of which are potentially wastes without reaction problems.

65 Downloadable from & 65 TecEco Cements Eco-cements (High MgO) –contain more reactive magnesia than in tec-cements. Brucite in permeable materials carbonates forming stronger fibrous mineral carbonates and therefore presenting huge opportunities for waste utilisation and sequestration. The low pH and high hydrogen bonding make Eco-Cements ideal for binding other materials including most wastes. Enviro-cements (High MgO) –contain similar ratios of MgO and OPC to eco-cements but in non permeable concretes brucite does not carbonate readily. –Higher proportions of magnesia are most suited to toxic and hazardous waste immobilisation and when durability is required. Strength is not developed quickly nor to the same extent.

66 Downloadable from & 66 Strength with Blend & Porosity High OPC High Magnesia High Porosity STRENGTH ON ARBITARY SCALE 1-100 Tec-cement concretes Eco-cement concretes Enviro-cement concretes

67 Downloadable from & 67 Converting Waste to Resource TecEco cements represent a cost affective option for using localised low impact materials and wastes –Reducing transports costs and emissions Magnesium hydroxide in particular and to some extent the carbonates are less reactive and mobile and thus result in much more durable concretes –Lower solubility –Lower reactivity –Bleed less –Lower pH The incredible stick as a result of polar bonding also adds to their ability to bind wastes. TecEco Technology - Converting Waste to Resource

68 Downloadable from & 68 Carbonation of Eco-Cements Have high proportions of reactive magnesium oxide Carbonate like lime but generally used in a 1:5-1:12 paste basis because much more carbonate binder is produced. Consider nesquehonite the main phase: MgO + H 2 O Mg(OH) 2 + CO 2 + 2H 2 O MgCO 3. 3H 2 O 40.31+ liquid 58.31 + gas 138.36 molar mass (at least!) 11.2 + liquid 24.29 + gas 74.77 molar volumes (at least!) 668% expansion relative to MgO or 308 % expansion relative to Mg(OH) 2 (ex water or gas volume reduction) Total volumetric expansion from magnesium oxide to lansfordite is even more at 811%. MgO + H 2 O Mg(OH) 2 + CO 2 + 4H 2 O MgCO 3.5H 2 O Because magnesium has a low molecular weight, proportionally a much greater amount of CO 2 is captured per mole of MgO than lime or any other carbonate. Carbonation adds considerable strength and some steel reinforced structural concrete could be replaced with fibre reinforced permeable carbonated concrete. As Fred Pearce reported in New Scientist Magazine (Pearce, F., 2002), There is a way to make our city streets as green as the Amazon rainforest. Mostly CO2 and water

69 Downloadable from & 69 Carbonation is Proportional to Porosity an Time Carbonation Rate Macro Porosity % Carbonation Time

70 Downloadable from & 70 Eco-Cement Strength Development Eco-Cements gain early strength from the hydration of PC. Later strength comes from the carbonation of brucite forming an amorphous phase, lansfordite and nesquehonite. Strength gain in Eco-Cements is mainly microstructural because of –More ideal particle packing (Brucite particles at 4-5 micron are under half the size of cement grains.) –The natural fibrous and acicular shape of magnesium carbonate minerals which tend to lock together. –Both the carbonates and hydroxide of magnesium have strong polar bonding.

71 Downloadable from & 71 Cements Net Emissions/Sequestration Compared

72 Downloadable from & 72 CO 2 Abatement in Eco-Cement Blocks Eco-cements in permeable products absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Brucite carbonates forming lansfordite, nesquehonite and an amorphous phase, completing the thermodynamic cycle. No Capture 11.25% mass% reactive magnesia, 3.75 mass% Portland cement, 85 mass% aggregate. Emissions.37 tonnes to the tonne. After carbonation. approximately.241 tonne to the tonne. Portland Cements 15 mass% Portland cement, 85 mass% aggregate Emissions.32 tonnes to the tonne. After carbonation. Approximately.299 tonne to the tonne..299 >.241 >.140 >.113 Bricks, blocks, pavers, mortars and pavement made using eco-cement, fly and bottom ash (with capture of CO 2 during manufacture of reactive magnesia) have 2.65 times less emissions than if they were made with Portland cement. Capture CO 2 11.25% mass% reactive magnesia, 3.75 mass% Portland cement, 85 mass% aggregate. Emissions.25 tonnes to the tonne. After carbonation. approximately.140 tonne to the tonne. Capture CO 2. Fly and Bottom Ash 11.25% mass% reactive magnesia, 3.75 mass% Portland cement, 85 mass% aggregate. Emissions.126 tonnes to the tonne. After carbonation. Approximately.113 tonne to the tonne. For 85 wt% Aggregates 15 wt% Cement Greater Sustainability

73 Downloadable from & 73 TecEco Technology in Practice By Taus Larsen, (Architect, Low Carbon Network Ltd.) The Low Carbon Network ( was established to raise awareness of the links between buildings, the working and living patterns they create, and global warming and aims to initiate change through the application of innovative ideas and approaches to construction. Englands first Earthship is nearly completed in southern England outside Brighton at Stanmer Park and TecEco technologies have been used for the floors and some walling. Earthships are exemplars of low-carbon design, construction and living and were invented and developed in the USA by Mike Reynolds over 20 years of practical building exploration. They are autonomous earth- sheltered buildings independent from mains electricity, water and waste systems and have little or no utility costs. For information about the Earthship Brighton and other projects please go to the TecEco web site. => Earthship Brighton, UK

74 Downloadable from & 74 Earthship Brighton The first building in the world made with Eco-Cement which sets by absorbing CO 2 and wastes

75 Downloadable from & 75 Tec-Cement Slab Whittlesea, Vic. Australia On 17th March 2005 TecEco poured the first commercial slab in the world using tec-cement concrete with the assistance of one of the larger cement and pre- mix companies. –The formulation strategy was to adjust a standard 20 MPa high fly ash (36%) mix from the company as a basis of comparison. –Strength development, and in particular early strength development was good. Interestingly some 70 days later the slab is still gaining strength at the rate of about 5 MPa a month. –Also noticeable was the fact that the concrete was not as "sticky" as it normally is with a fly ash mix and that it did not bleed quite as much. –Shrinkage was low. 7 days - 133 micro strains, 14 days - 240 micro strains, 28 days - 316 micros strains and at 56 days - 470 microstrains. => Tec-Cement Concrete Slabs

76 Downloadable from & 76 TecEco Technology in Practice - Whittlesea, Vic. Australia First Eco-cement mud bricks and mortars in Australia –Tested up twice as strong as the PC controls –Mud brick addition rate 2.5% –Addition rate for mortars 1:8 not 1:3 because of molar ratio volume increase with MgO compared to lime. => Eco-Cement Mud Bricks

77 Downloadable from & 77 TecEco Technology in Practice – AMC Hire Tilt Up Panels => Tec-Cement Tilt Ups Our Tec- Cement concrete tilt ups are free of plastic cracking, obvious bleed marking and other defects.

78 Downloadable from & 78 Tec & Eco Cement Foamed Concretes BUILD LITE CELLULAR CONCRETE 4 Rosebank Ave Clayton Sth MELBOURNE AUSTRALIA 3169 PH 61 3 9547 0255 FX 61 3 9547 0266 Foamed TecEco cement concretes can be produced to about 30% weight reduction in concrete trucks using cellflow (or equivalents) or to about 70% weight reduction using a foaming machine with mearlcrete (or equivalents). => Foamed Concretes

79 Downloadable from & 79 Tec & Eco Cement Foamed Concrete => Foamed Concretes Slabs

80 Downloadable from & 80 Foam infill in steel frames. Tec & Eco Cement Foamed Concretes => Foamed Concretes

81 Downloadable from & 81 TecEco Technology in Practice Tec-Cement concretes exhibit little or no shrinkage. At 10% substitution of MgO for PC the shrinkage is less than half normal. At 18% substitution with no added pozzolan there was no measurable shrinkage or expansion. The above photo shows a tec-cement concrete topping coat (with no flyash) 20mm thick away from the door and 80 mm thick near the door. Note that there has been no tendency to push the tiles or shrink away from the borders as would normally be the case. => Topping Coats

82 Downloadable from & 82 TecEco Technology in Practice The Clifton Surf Life Saving Club was built by first pouring footings, On the footings block walls were erected and then at a later date concrete was laid in between. As the ground underneath the footings was sandy, wet most of the time and full of salts it was a recipe for disaster. Predictably the salty water rose up through the footings and then through the blocks and where the water evaporated there was strong efflorescence, pitting, loss of material and damage. The TecEco solution was to make up a formulation of eco-cement mortar which we doctored with some special chemicals to prevent the rise of any more moisture and salt. The solution worked well and appears to have stopped the problem. => Waterproofing Render

83 Downloadable from & 83 TecEco Technology in Practice Mike Burdon, Builder and Plumber. Mike works for a council interested in sutainability and has been involved with TecEco since around 2001 in a private capacity helping with large scale testing of TecEco tec- cements at our shack. Mike is interested in the potentially superior strength development and sustainability aspects. To date Mike has poured two slabs, footings, part of a launching ramp and some tilt up panels using formulations and materials supplied by John Harrison of TecEco. Mike believes that research into the new TecEco cements essential as he has found: 1.The rheological performance even without plasticizer was excellent. As testimony to this the contractors on the site commented on how easy the concrete was to place and finish. 2.The formulations are extremely easy to pump and place. Once in position they appeared to gel up quickly allowing stepping for a foundation to a brick wall. 3.Strength gain was more rapid than with Portland cement controls from the same premix plant and continued for longer. 4.The surfaces of the concrete appeared to be particularly hard and Mike attributes this to the fact that much less bleeding was observed than would be expected with a Portland cement only formulation => Our First Slab Ever!

84 Downloadable from & 84 TecEco Technology in Practice TecEco Tec and Eco- Cement bricks, blocks and pavers are now being made commercially in Tasmania and with freight equalization may be viable to ship to the mainland for your green project. Otherwise we may be able to get a local manufacturer to make them for you. => Concrete Bricks, Blocks and Pavers

85 Downloadable from & 85 TecEco Eco-Cement Permecocrete Allow many mega litres of good fresh water to become contaminated by the pollutants on our streets and pollute coastal waterways Capture and cleanse the water for our use? Or => Permecocrete TecEco have now perfected pervious pavements that can be made out of mono-graded recycled aggregates and other wastes and that sequester CO2. Permecocrete It does not get much greener!

86 TecEco Eco-Cement Permecocrete - Mimicking Nature Permecocrete is made with Eco- Cements that set by absorbing CO2 and can use recycled aggregates. It does not get any greener! Freedom from water restrictions – forever! Pure fresh water from your own block. Filtration through Permecocrete and water feature in garden will keep water pure and fresh. Cooler house and garden (cycle under slab for house cooling/heating option). Lower infrastructure costs for local council. Water storage e.g. under drive Permecocrete pervious pavement Water feature keeps water clean Pump All rainwater redirected to pavement filter

87 Downloadable from & 87 TecEco Permecocrete – Biomicking Nature Optional impervious layer, underground drainage and storage. Dual water supply or parks etc. only. Optional groundwater recharge The substrate must be properly designed Moisture retention Cleansing microbial activity and oxygenation Cooling Evaporation Pavements are not just for vehicles. They must do much more CO 2 Sequestration

88 Downloadable from & 88 Holistic Roads for the Future Foamed Eco-Cement concrete root redirectors and pavement protectors. Roots will grow away from the foamed concrete because of its general alkalinity. It will also give to some extent preventing surface pavement cracking. Conventional bitumen or concrete footpath pavement Impermeable layer (concrete or plastic liner) angling for main flow towards collection drains Pervious Eco- Cement concrete pavement (Permecocrete) surface using recycled aggregates Pervious gravel under for collection, cleansing and storage of water Collection drains to transport drain or pipe in service conduit at intervals Services to either side of the road. All in same trench of conduit Possible leakage to street trees and underground aquifers Its time for a road re think! Service conduit down middle of road In Australia we run many duplicate services down each side of a road. Given the high cost of installing infrastructure it would be smarter to adopt a system whereby services run down the middle of a road down what amount to giant box culverts.

89 Downloadable from & 89 So Far - Has Anything Really Changed? Building materials and methods have not really changed much in spite of all the pretense about sustainability. –So far mostly green wash. Big improvements in our understanding of the importance of design but No real paradigm shifts in technology with perhaps a few exceptions –Neon light globes –Solar panels etc. To solve sustainability problems of the magnitude we have we must change the paradigm from the bottom up. –We have to do things very differently!! TecEcos answer is to convert waste and CO 2 to resource by building with them. There is enormous scope for change in the built environment

90 Downloadable from & 90 What is Stopping Us? A lack of awareness The conservative nature of players in the industry Prescription standards, regulation etc. Lack of government leadership –Politics –Legacy subsidies for non sustainable materials and practices Failure by leaders in the market to buy sustainability –Economies of scale –Short term rather than long term A disconnect between builders and users A chronic lack of skills in the industry to take up new more sustainable technologies We are holding ourselves down! We must change from the bottom up!

91 Downloadable from & 91 A Sustainable Built Environment MAGNESIUM CARBONATE ECO-CEMENT CONCRETES SUSTAINABLE CITIES CO 2 PERMANENT SEQUESTRATION & WASTE UTILISATION (Man made carbonate rock incorporating wastes as a building material) Paretos principle - 80% of the build environment in non structural and could be carbonate from Greensols held together by Eco- Cements CO 2 MgO TECECO KILN RECYCLED BUILDING MATERIALS OTHER WASTES There is a way to make our city streets as green as the Amazon rainforest. Fred Pearce, New Scientist Magazine CO 2 + H 2 O => Hydrocarbons compounds using bacteria GREENSOLS CO 2 Made with manufactured carbonate and waste!

92 Downloadable from & 92 A Post – Carbon Age As Fred Pearce reported in New Scientist Magazine (Pearce, F., 2002), There is a way to make our city streets as green as the Amazon rainforest.

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