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The Classification of Matter

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1 The Classification of Matter
Unit I-1 Hebden 49-52

2 Substances Can be homogeneous Can be heterogeneous
Two or more phases Gravel, cookies Can be homogeneous Only one phase Air, water, salt water, a piece of iron

3 Mixture More than one Pure Substance physically mixed together

4 Solution A mixture that looks like a pure substance.
Particles of all substances are completely mixed together

5 Solutions: Homogenous Mixtures
A solute is the substance to be dissolved The solvent is the one doing the dissolving Universal solvent- generally thought of as water

6 Solutions

7 WHAT IS? Identify the solvent and solute 100 mL of water
0.1 g of sugar

8 Solid Solutions -Alloys
Made by melting different metals and mixing them together Examples of Alloys are: Steel (iron, carbon and other elements like Cr and Mo) Brass (copper and zinc) Bronze (copper and tin)

9 Solid Solutions -Alloys
Amalgams – special type of alloy that combines Mercury with other metals [old dental work] Titanium alloys (used to make high-end bike parts & frames)

10 Solid Solutions -Alloys

11 Suspension Particles are large enough to make it cloudy.

12 Mechanical Mixture You can see particles of different substances

13 Pure Substances Matter with a unique set of properties
Can be an element or a compound

14 Elements are composed of ATOMS
Atoms of different elements have different masses is a pure substance that can not be broken down further by chemical means

15 Element A Pure Substance made up of ONE kind of atom Its symbol can be found on the Periodic Table

16 Metals and Non-Metals An element can either be a metal or a non-metal

17 Non-Metals Generally gases or dull, brittle solids at room temperature
Bromine is the only liquid Conduct heat and electricity poorly

18 Non-Metals

19 Metals shiny and solid at room temperature
Exception Mercury [only liquid] Conduct heat and electricity Ductile and malleable

20 Metals

21 Compound A Pure Substance made up of two or more kinds of atoms.

22 Law of Definite Proportions

23 Compounds Every compound has its own chemical formula Water is H20

24 Compound Water Hydrogen Water Oxygen

25 Compounds Contain symbols of different elements H2SO4 NaCl C2H5OH C3H8

26 Compounds NOTE: The properties of compounds are always different than the properties of their elements!

27 Ionic Compounds An Ionic Compound is made up a metal and a non-metal or has Polyatomic Ions in it. Polyatomic ions are ions made up of more than one kind of atom They can be found on your ion table (back of Periodic Table) Some Examples: SO42- (sulphate), CO32- (carbonate)

28 Ionic Compounds Some example of IONIC compounds are: NaCl MgBr2 Al2O3

29 Covalent Compounds A Covalent Compound is made up of a two non-metals or is a hydrocarbon Some example of COVALENT compounds are: CO2 , PBr3 , CCl4 , C8H18 , XeF6 , C4H9OH





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