# Master Budget and Responsibility Accounting

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Master Budget and Responsibility Accounting
Chapter 6

Understand what a master budget is and explain its benefits.
Learning Objective 1 Understand what a master budget is and explain its benefits.

Budgeting Cycle Performance planning Providing a frame of reference
Investigating variations Corrective action Planning again

The Master Budget Master Budget Operating Decisions Financial

Learning Objective 2 Describe the advantages of budgets.

What are the Advantages of Budgets?
#1 Compels strategic planning #2 Provides a framework for judging performance

What are the Advantages of Budgets?
#3 Motivates employees and managers #4 Promotes coordination and communication

Strategy, Planning, and Budgets
Long-run Planning Long-run Budgets Strategy Analysis Short-run Planning Short-run Budgets

Time Coverage of Budgets
Budgets typically have a set time period (month, quarter, year). This time period can itself be broken into subperiods. The most frequently used budget period is one year. Businesses are increasingly using rolling budgets.

Prepare the operating budget and its supporting schedules.
Learning Objective 3 Prepare the operating budget and its supporting schedules.

Operating Budget Example
Hawaii Diving expects 1,100 units to be sold during the month of August 2004. Selling price is expected to be \$240 per unit. How much are budgeted revenues for the month? 1,100 × \$240 = \$264,000

Operating Budget Example
Two pounds of direct materials are budgeted per unit at a cost of \$2.00 per pound, \$4.00 per unit. Three direct labor-hours are budgeted per unit at \$7.00 per hour, \$21.00 per unit. Variable overhead is budgeted at \$8.00 per direct labor-hour, \$24.00 per unit. Fixed overhead is budgeted at \$5,400 per month.

Operating Budget Example
Variable nonmanufacturing costs are expected to be \$0.14 per revenue dollar. Fixed nonmanufacturing costs are \$7,800 per month.

Production Budget Example
Budgeted sales (units) + Target ending finished goods inventory (units) Beginning finished goods inventory (units) = Budgeted production (units)

Production Budget Example
Assume that target ending finished goods inventory is 80 units. Beginning finished goods inventory is 100 units. How many units need to be produced?

Production Budget Example
Hawaii Diving Production Budget for the Month of August 2004 Units required for sales 1,100 Add ending inv. of finished units Total finished units required 1,180 Less beg. inv. of finished units Units to be produced ,080

Direct Materials Usage Budget
Each finished unit requires 2 pounds of direct materials at a cost of \$2.00 per pound. Desired ending inventory equals 15% of the materials required to produce next month’s sales. September sales are forecasted to be 1,600 units. What is the ending inventory in August? 480 pounds

Direct Materials Usage Budget
September sales: 1,600 × 2 pounds per unit = 3,200 pounds 3,200 × 15% = 480 pounds (the desired ending inventory) What is the beginning inventory in August? 1,100 units × 2 × 15% = 330 units

Direct Materials Usage Budget
How many pounds are needed to produce 1,080 units in August? 1,080 × 2 = 2,160 pounds

Material Purchases Budget
Hawaii Diving Direct Material Purchases Budget for the Month of August 2004 Units needed for production 2,160 Target ending inventory Total material to provide for 2,640 Less beginning inventory Units to be purchased ,310 Unit purchase price \$ 2.00 Total purchase cost \$4,620

Direct Manufacturing Labor Budget
Each unit requires 3 direct labor-hours at \$7.00 per hour. Hawaii Diving Direct Labor Budget for the Month of August 2004 Units produced: ,080 Direct labor-hours/unit Total direct labor-hours: ,240 Total \$7.00/hour: \$22,680

Variable overhead is budgeted at \$8.00 per direct labor-hour. Fixed overhead is budgeted at \$5,400 per month.

Hawaii Diving Manufacturing Overhead Budget for the Month of August 2004 Variable Overhead: (3,240 × \$8.00) \$25,920 Fixed Overhead ,400 Total \$31,320

Ending Inventory Budget
Cost per finished unit: Materials \$ 4 Labor Variable manufacturing overhead 24 Fixed manufacturing overhead * Total \$54 *\$5,400 ÷ 1,080 = \$5

Ending Inventory Budget
What is the cost of the target ending inventory for materials? 480 × \$2 = \$960 What is the cost of the target finished goods inventory? 80 × \$54 = \$4,320

Cost of Goods Sold Budget
Direct materials used: 2,160 × \$ \$ 4,320 Direct labor ,680 Total overhead ,320 Cost of goods manufactured \$58,320

Cost of Goods Sold Budget
Assume that the beginning finished goods inventory is \$5,400. Ending finished goods inventory is \$4,320. What is the cost of goods sold?

Cost of Goods Sold Budget
Beginning finished goods inventory \$ 5,400 + Cost of goods manufactured \$58,320 = Goods available for sale \$63,720 – Ending finished goods inventory \$ 4,320 = Cost of goods sold \$59,400

Nonmanufacturing Costs Budget
Hawaii Diving Other Expenses Budget for the Month of August 2004 Variable Expenses: (\$0.14 × \$264,000) \$36,960 Fixed expenses ,800 Total \$44,760

Cost of Goods Sold Budget
Hawaii Diving has budgeted sales of \$264,000 for the month of August. Cost of goods sold are budgeted at \$59,400. What is the budgeted gross margin?

Budgeted Statement of Income
Hawaii Diving Budgeted Income Statement for the Month ending August 31, 2004 Sales \$264, % Less cost of sales , % Gross margin \$204, % Other expenses , % Operating income \$159, %

Use computer-based financial
Learning Objective 4 Use computer-based financial planning models in sensitivity analysis.

Financial Planning Models
Financial planning models are mathematical representations of the interrelationships among operating activities, financial activities, and other factors that affect the master budget.

Software Software packages are now readily available to reduce the computational burden and time required to prepare budgets. These packages assist managers to do sensitivity analysis.

Sensitivity Analysis Consider Hawaii Diving.
What if some parameters in the budget model were to change? For example, what if the selling price is expected to be \$230 instead of \$240? What are expected revenues? 1,100 × \$230 = \$253,000 instead of \$264,000

Sensitivity Analysis What if the materials cost is expected to increase to \$2.50 per pound instead of \$2.00. What is the cost of goods sold? 1,100 × \$55 = \$60,500 instead of \$59,400 Why the increase? Because materials cost per unit become \$5.00 instead of \$4.00.

Hawaii Diving has the following
Cash Budget Hawaii Diving has the following collection pattern: In the month of sale: % In the month following sale: 27% In the second month following sale: 20% Uncollectible: %

Cash Budget Budgeted charge sales are as follows: June \$200,000
July \$250,000 August \$264,000 September \$260,000 What are the expected cash collections in August?

Cash Budget Budgeted Cash Receipts
for the Month Ending August 31, 2004 August sales: \$264,000 × 50% \$132,000 July sales: \$250,000 × 27% ,500 June sales: \$200,000 × 20% ,000 Total \$239,500

Cash Budget Budgeted Cash Disbursements
for the Month Ending August 31, 2004 August purchases \$ 4,620 Direct labor ,680 Total overhead ,320 Other expenses ,760* Total \$68,380 *Other expenses exclude depreciation

Cash Budget Cash Budget for the Month Ending August 31, 2004
Budgeted receipts \$239,500 Budgeted disbursements ,380 Net increase in cash \$171,120

Explain kaizen budgeting
Learning Objective 5 Explain kaizen budgeting and how it is used for cost management.

What is Kaizen? The Japanese use the term “kaizen”
for continuous improvement. Kaizen budgeting is an approach that explicitly incorporates continuous improvement during the budget period into the budget numbers.

Kaizen Budgeting It was previously estimated that it should take 3 labor-hours for Hawaii Diving to manufacture its product. A kaizen budgeting approach would incorporate future improvements.

Kaizen Budgeting Budgeted Hours/Item January – March 2004 3.00
April – June July – September October – December

Prepare an activity-based
Learning Objective 6 Prepare an activity-based budget.

Activity-Based Budgeting
Activity-based costing reports and analyzes past and current costs. Activity-based budgeting (ABB) focuses on the budgeted cost of activities necessary to produce and sell products and services.

Activity-Based Budgeting
Product A Product B Units produced: Labor-hours per unit: Budgeted setup-hours: Total budgeted machine setup related cost is \$25,920 per month.

Activity-Based Budgeting
Total budgeted labor-hours are: Product A: 880 × 3 2,640 Product B: 200 × Total ,240 What is the allocation rate per labor-hour? \$25,920 ÷ 3,240 = \$8.00

Activity-Based Budgeting
Total cost allocated to each product line: Product A: \$8.00 × 2,640 = \$21,120 Product B: \$8.00 × = \$ 4,800

Activity-Based Budgeting
Under ABB, the number of setups is the cost driver. \$25,920 budgeted machine setup cost ÷ 10 budgeted machine setup-hours = \$2,592 allocation rate per machine setup-hour. How much machine setup related costs are allocated to each product line?

Activity-Based Budgeting
Product A Product B \$2,592 × 5 \$12,960 Setup-related cost per unit: Product A: \$12,960 ÷ 880 \$14.73 Product B: \$12,960 ÷ 200 \$64.80

Describe responsibility centers and responsibility accounting.
Learning Objective 7 Describe responsibility centers and responsibility accounting.

What is a Responsibility Center?
It is any part, segment, or subunit of a business that needs control. – production – service

Types of Responsibility Centers
Cost center Investment center Profit center

Explain how controllability relates to responsibility
Learning Objective 8 Explain how controllability relates to responsibility accounting.

What is Controllability?
It is the degree of influence that a specific manager has over costs, revenues, or other items in question. A controllable cost is any cost that is primarily subject to the influence of a given responsibility center manager for a given time period.

Controllability Responsibility accounting focuses on
information and knowledge, not control. A responsibility accounting system could exclude all uncontrollable costs from a manager’s performance report. In practice, controllability is difficult to pinpoint.

End of Chapter 6