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Literacy Across the Curriculum

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Presentation on theme: "Literacy Across the Curriculum"— Presentation transcript:

1 Literacy Across the Curriculum
High Standards, High Expectations, NO EXCUSES! Sue Szachowicz Principal Brockton High

2 Agenda How we did this: 1. Empowering a Team 2. Focusing on Literacy
Who we are and where we were How we did this: 1. Empowering a Team 2. Focusing on Literacy 3. Implementing with fidelity 4. Monitoring like crazy! Results: Changing the Culture!

3 School Turn Around? First, a few thoughts on recent reports about whole school reform and what it takes… (My frustrations I guess…)

4 School Reform??? Turn Around Teams Small schools are the answer
Charter Schools are the answer Uniforms! They must wear uniforms!!! Fire the principal Fire the teachers Waiting for Superman!!!

5 As we say in Boxer Country,
we are WICKED AWESOME!!! Transforming a Culture through Literacy A.K.A. - It’s COOL to be smart at Brockton High!!! Our Turn Around Story…

6 Our “School of Champions”
Brockton High School Brockton, Massachusetts Featured on the PBS series Need to Know

7 Need to Know Intro

8 Who are We??? Our Demographics
Comprehensive 9 – 12 Enrollment: 4,218 Poverty Level: 72% Minority population: 73% 50 different languages 50% speak another language in the home Approximately 12% in Transitional Bilingual Ed. Approximately 11% receive Special Educ. Services

9 Meet our Students 57% Black - includes African American, Cape Verdean, Haitian, Jamaican, and others 26% White 14% Hispanic 2.5% Asian .5% Native American

10 \The Problem: (actually we had many…)
Massachusetts implemented a high stakes test (MCAS) Three-quarters of our students would not be earning a diploma Culture of low expectations – “Students have a right to fail” Who is responsible???? (My kids, your kids, not OUR kids) Success by chance – depended on who your teacher was – are you lucky???

11 What does Success by Chance mean? Meet Amarr…
Third Key Trend Every period was a different set of requirements, standards, grading systems No consistency across the school Success depended upon whether or not he was lucky enough to get a particular teacher

12 State Mandates…We faced:
MCAS 1998 Failure ELA – 44% (Sped – 78%) MATH – 75% (Sped – 98%) MCAS 1998 Advanced+Proficient ELA – 22% MATH – 7% As bad as these were – it was even worse to look at our subgroups – in Special Education our ELA failure rate was 78%, in math it was 98%!

13 Remember, they MUST pass to graduate – NO exceptions!
MCAS??? So you think it’s easy???

14 (and remember, they are sophomores!)
ELA MCAS SELECTIONS: (and remember, they are sophomores!) Burial at Thebes from Sophocles’ Antigone Shakespearean Sonnet # 73 Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad Love in the Time of Cholera by Gabriel Garcia Marquez (3 page excerpt) Making Humus by Composting by Liz Ball Proof (four page play excerpt by David Auburn)

15 In the formula, h and t are defined as follows:
SAMPLE MCAS MATH QUESTION: Jason launched a model rocket from the ground. The formula below can be used to determine the height of the rocket above the ground at any time during the rocket’s flight. h = 16t(7 – t) In the formula, h and t are defined as follows: • t = the time, in seconds, that has elapsed since the rocket was launched • h = the height, in feet, of the rocket above the ground at time t Use the formula to answer the following questions. a. What was the height, in feet, of the rocket 1 second after it was launched? Show your work. b. What was the height, in feet, of the rocket 6 seconds after it was launched? Show your work. c. The value of h was 0 when the rocket hit the ground. How many seconds after the rocket was launched did it hit the ground? Show your work. d. How many seconds after the rocket was launched was the height of the rocket 160 feet? Show your work. This is an example of a math question on the 10th grade test. You don’t have to answer it but notice that students are required to use the information provided to answer 4 questions and must show the steps to solve each equation to get credit for their answers. 15

16 SAMPLE MCAS BIOLOGY QUESTION:
Corn snakes show variety in their skin color pattern. While the complete genetics of corn snake color are complex, the most common colors on normal corn snakes—red and black—are each coded by one gene. For the red gene, the allele for the presence of red pigment (R) is dominant and the allele for the absence of red pigment (r) is recessive. Likewise, for the black gene, the allele for the presence of black pigment (B) is dominant and the allele for the absence of black pigment (b) is recessive. Draw the Punnett square for the cross of a snake that is homozygous dominant for the red color with a snake that is heterozygous for the red color. What percentage of the offspring is expected to have red pigment in their skin? b. Draw the Punnett square for the cross of two snakes that are heterozygous for the black color. What percentage of the offspring are expected to have black pigment in their skin? c. The parent snakes in part (b) that are heterozygous for black color are both homozygous recessive for the red gene. Each parent has genotype rr for the red gene. Based on this information, what percentage of their offspring are expected to lack both the red and black pigments in their skin? Explain your reasoning. Students now take the science test as well. This is an example of a multistep equation type question students were asked on the 2008 biology mcas exam.

17 …you all get the same test. You must all climb that tree…”

18

19 “Students have a right to fail.”
Can you believe this??? But even worse… We faced a flawed belief system: “Students have a right to fail.” Former BHS Principal

20 Success at Brockton High then ???

21 Here’s a preview of WHERE WE ARE NOW…
That’s where we were… Here’s a preview of WHERE WE ARE NOW…

22 THEN NOW MCAS 1998 ELA – 22 % MATH – 7 % MCAS 2011 ELA – 78%
Advanced+Proficient ELA – 22 % MATH – 7 % MCAS 2011 Advanced+Proficient ELA – 78% MATH – 64 % It’s even BETTER this year!!!

23 THEN NOW Failure ELA – 44% MATH – 75% Failure ELA – 4% MATH – 12%
MCAS 1998 Failure ELA – 44% MATH – 75% MCAS 2011 Failure ELA – 4% MATH – 12% As bad as these were – it was even worse to look at our subgroups – in Special Education our ELA failure rate was 78%, in math it was 98%! YES, even BETTER this year!!!

24 It’s cool and fun to be smart
1998 859 STUDENTS (4400 students) 19% Honor Roll Statistics 2011 1448 STUDENTS ( (4200 students) 34%

25

26 Turnaround at Brockton High
Emphasis on literacy brings big MCAS improvement Principal Susan Szachowicz, shown chatting at lunch with Yiriam Lopez, is in many ways the school’s biggest cheerleader. (Essdras M Suarez/ Globe Staff) By James Vaznis Globe Staff / October 12, 2009 BROCKTON - Brockton High School has every excuse for failure, serving a city plagued by crime, poverty, housing foreclosures, and homelessness. Almost two-thirds of the students qualify for free or reduced-price lunches, and 14 percent are learning to speak English. More than two-thirds are African-American or Latino - groups that have lagged behind their peers across the state on standardized tests. But Brockton High, by far the state’s largest public high school with 4,200 students, has found a success in recent years that has eluded many of the state’s urban schools: MCAS scores are soaring, earning the school state recognition as a symbol of urban hope.

27 So, that’s who we are… What did we do?
Brockton and ICLE philosophy Rigor Relevance Relationships ALL students-and ALL means ALL!!! 27

28 RIGOR and RELEVANCE Our Literacy Initiative reflects BOTH
Literacy for ALL – NO exceptions!!! Schoolwide Literacy Skills (we all do it THIS way!) Schoolwide rubrics for assessment The content provides the CONTEXT for teaching the Literacy Skills The electives engage the students and provide the real life application

29 So, what did we do??? Our turnaround: 4 Steps Empowered a Team
Focused on Literacy – Literacy for ALL, no exceptions Implemented with fidelity and according to a plan Monitored like crazy!

30 Step ONE: Empowering a Leadership Team
Restructuring Committee: our “think tank” Every department represented with a mix of teachers and administrators Balance of new teachers and veterans, new voices and voices of experience Ground rules Challenge for Change funding I couldn’t work without the Leadership Team. Not only do they provide valued input, but they truly make my job easier!

31 Restructuring. Committee. Bring issues to the. table. Analyze data
Restructuring Committee *Bring issues to the table *Analyze data *Present data to faculty *Get ideas and feedback from faculty *Plan and deliver PD Planning Session

32 Let’s figure out the test The result of that:
Our first plan: Let’s figure out the test The result of that: The Great Shakespearean Fiasco

33 Lessons learned the hard way…
That was a bust… I Lessons learned the hard way… Instead we asked ourselves other questions:

34 WHAT are we teaching? HOW are we teaching it? HOW do we know our students are learning it?

35 WHAT can we control, what can’t we control?
WHAT resources do we have that we can use more effectively? Is this the BEST we can be?

36 And it helped us become one of the 100 Best!
A better approach: When we asked what should we be teaching??? I Our solution: LITERACY!!! And it helped us become one of the 100 Best!

37

38 Brockton High’s turnaround FOUR STEPS:
Empowered a team Focused on Literacy for ALL, NO exceptions Implemented with fidelity and according to a plan Monitored like crazy!

39 Reading, Writing, Speaking, Reasoning
Step TWO: Focused on Literacy for ALL The “WHAT”: LITERACY for ALL: Reading, Writing, Speaking, Reasoning 39

40 How did we determine our focus? Literacy Skills Drafted:
40

41

42 Is the skill applicable to ALL content areas?
ENGAGING THE FACULTY: Interdisciplinary discussion groups on the drafts using 3 guiding questions: In each of the four areas of Reading, Writing, Speaking and Reasoning, have we included what is required for students to be successful in your class/your content area? (What did we miss???) Is the skill stated clearly so that all teachers and students can understand it? Is the skill applicable to ALL content areas? Then we had to figure out how to do this, how to get the faculty engaged in the same conversation we had been having at Restructuring. We drafted a list of skills in reading, writing, speaking, and reasoning to get the input of the faculty – but it was more than to get input. It was to get everyone engaged in the mission – to get them thinking about literacy and connecting the literacy skills to their lessons. The skills on those initial drafts came from the state standards, a review of the MCAS data, and our own beliefs as educators about what kids should know and be able to do!

43 “Lessons Learned the Hard Way” Tip:
Put all your negative folks together in a group so they don’t spread their toxic fumes. For the ‘”toxic fumes” group – Make sure the facilitator knows going into it! Mention David Wheeler’s comment about putting your nasty people together.

44

45 Your Conference Activities
Cooperating School Districts Foldable Your Turn 2: Your Turn 1: Literacy Your Conference Activities Your Turn 3: ??? 45

46 On your foldable, take one minute to note:
YOUR TURN 1: Literacy??? On your foldable, take one minute to note: If you could select ONE Literacy goal for your school that EVERY teacher would implement, what would that be?

47 So now what… We had cool looking charts on the walls… SO WHAT… The KEY to our implementation is HOW we trained teachers to teach these Literacy skills to our students.

48 It’s All About Instruction
“…the single greatest determinant of learning is not socioeconomic factors or funding levels. It is instruction.” Results Now by Mike Schmoker “The single most influential component of an effective school is the individual teachers within the school.” Robert Marzano Always hear expression “Instructional Leader” – It is THE most important part of the job. To see real improvement in student achievement, as Schmoker says so bluntly – “It’s About Teaching, Stupid.” On some educational issues, research is divided. On the impact of instruction, the evidence is indisputable.

49 Teaching It’s about teaching, stupid… Mike Schmoker, Results Now

50 Faculty Meetings became Literacy Workshops KEY = Adult Learning
Step THREE: Implemented with fidelity and a plan Faculty Meetings became Literacy Workshops KEY = Adult Learning

51 We started with writing!
FOCUS, FOCUS, FOCUS We started with writing! Writing is thinking

52

53 BUT…. Don’t think for a moment that everyone was happy… BUT, if we waited for buy-in, we’d still be waiting. SO, what did we do?? Meet Sharon and Penny

54

55 Brockton High’s turnaround FOUR STEPS:
Empowered a team Focused on Literacy – Literacy for ALL, NO exceptions Implemented with fidelity and according to a plan Monitored like crazy!

56 Restructuring Committee process:
Targets the Literacy Skill Smaller subgroup drafts training script, brings draft to the full committee, revisions made Roll out to faculty – step one: Interdisciplinary group training Follow up in depts – how to implement in content area

57 OPEN RESPONSE STEPS TO FOLLOW
Our First Training: Open Response OPEN RESPONSE STEPS TO FOLLOW 1. READ QUESTION CAREFULLY. 2. CIRCLE OR UNDERLINE KEY WORDS. 3. RESTATE QUESTION AS THESIS (LEAVE BLANKS) 4. READ PASSAGE CAREFULLY. 5. TAKE NOTES THAT RESPOND TO THE QUESTION. BRAINSTORM & MAP OUT YOUR ANSWER. 6. COMPLETE YOUR THESIS. 7. WRITE YOUR RESPONSE CAREFULLY, USING YOUR MAP AS A GUIDE. 8. STATEGICALLY REPEAT KEY WORDS FROM THESIS IN YOUR BODY AND IN YOUR END SENTENCE. 9. PARAGRAPH YOUR RESPONSE. 10. REREAD AND EDIT YOUR RESPONSE.

58 How do we know the students are learning it?

59 So then what… Follow up the Interdisciplinary Training.
Next step – HOW to bring this into the classroom Lessons developed Implemented according to a calendar

60 Step THREE: Implemented with fidelity and a plan
We didn’t leave it to chance. The implementation was according to a specific timeline…

61 The Open Response calendar of implementation is as follows:
As a follow up to this activity, I am requiring Department Heads to collect from each teacher at least one student sample from each of the teachers’ classes. The student samples should include: Student Name Teacher Name Date Course Name and Level Period A copy of the reading selection and question Evidence of the student’s active reading All pre-writing work that the student has done, e.g. webs A copy of the written open response The new scoring rubric and completed assessment After you have collected the samples from each teacher and have had the opportunity to review them for quality and completeness, please send them to me in a department folder with a checklist of your teachers. Again, please be sure that your teachers clearly label their student samples. The Open Response calendar of implementation is as follows: Nov 2-6: Social Science, Social Sci Biling. Nov 30-Dec 4: Wellness, JROTC Dec 14-18: Science, Science Bilingual Jan 11-15: Business, Tech, & Career Ed. Jan 25-29: Math, Math Bilingual Feb 22-26: Foreign Lang, Special Ed Mar. 7-11: English, ESL, Guidance Mar Family &Cons. Sci, ProjGrads Apr 5-9: Music, Art

62 How did we incorporate these Literacy Skills in every discipline?
Emily Dickinson is a poet who often wrote about her own emotional struggles. In two poems “Heart, We Will Forget Him” and “Knows How to Forget” she writes about how difficult it is to forget. Please read the two poems and the brief biography and answer the following three questions: What were some of experiences in her life that influenced her writing? What do the two poems have in common? How are the two poems different? Please use one quote from the poems or biography in each paragraph.

63

64

65 ALL means ALL!!! Even the Guidance Department implements the Active Reading Strategies. Topic: Post-Secondary Plans

66 Brockton High’s turnaround FOUR STEPS:
Empowered a team Focused on Literacy – Literacy for ALL, NO exceptions Implemented with fidelity and according to a plan Monitored like crazy! (what gets monitored is what gets done!)

67 How do we know the students are learning it?

68 Changes in ELA Results Year One of School Wide Open Response

69 Changes in Math Results Year One of School Wide Open Response

70 Step FOUR: Monitored like crazy!!!
What Gets Monitored Is What Gets Done! Faculty: Assessment based on rubrics Department Heads: Collect, assess, dialogue, and assist teacher Associate Principal: Collect, assess, dialogue, make necessary adjustments Listen to Prof. Ron Ferguson, Director, Achievement Gap Institute, Harvard

71

72 72

73 I Read It But I Don’t Get It and Do I Really Have to Teach Reading?
The key: Teaching everyone HOW Reading Workshop on TOVANI’S I Read It But I Don’t Get It and Do I Really Have to Teach Reading?

74

75

76 MATH

77 Individually complete the warm up sheet on “obstacles”
Literacy Training: Speaking Skills Jan. 9, 2007   Agenda: The teacher will Individually complete the warm up sheet on “obstacles” Have small group/pair discussions in inner/outer circle on obstacles and ways to overcome these obstacles Create a chart in small groups to reach consensus Discuss the rubric for oral presentations in whole group discussion

78 Objectives for this Literacy Workshop:
I. You will be able to set up and implement class discussions that lead to all students participating and learning. Three methods to be discussed today: 1. 4-corners 2. inner-outer circle 3. full class discussion II. You will be able to use a rubric for an oral presentation that includes expectations and points awarded for the student speaker including speaking skills and content.

79 Speaking SkillsWarm Up Questions:
What difficulties have you experienced or what do you anticipate the difficulties are in arranging a successful oral presentation by an individual student or small groups of students? What difficulties have you experienced or what do you anticipate the difficulties are in arranging a successful whole class discussion What activities or techniques could you use in order to prevent these difficulties from arising and get the best learning experience/behavior possible out of class discussions or individual student presentations?

80 FOUR CORNERS ACTIVITY (10-15 min.)
LITERACY: DEVELOPING SPEAKING SKILLS FOUR CORNERS ACTIVITY (10-15 min.) Questions: What do you see as obstacles to conducting class discussions? Directions: After students have individually written their response to the question, divide group into 4 groups of 5. Give each group a large sheet of paper and marker to record their findings. Choose a recorder and a spokesperson. Give groups 10 minutes to generate their answers. Have everyone return to their seats, post 4 sheets on the board and ask each spokesperson to present his/her group’s finding. Others have the responsibility of taking notes.

81 INNER CIRCLE/OUTER CIRCLE ACTIVITY (15-20min.)
Questions to discuss: How do you deal with the issue of the shy/reluctant speaker in your class? What are students in the audience being asked to do during individual or group presentations to the class?

82 Directions: After students have done their written responses, place half of them in the inner circle and the remaining half in a circle surrounding them. Have the inner circle people speak for 5 minutes on Question A. Have outer circle people jot notes, comments, questions, and open up discussion to include outer circle for 2 more minutes. (Note: The ideal number for the inner circle is 4-5 students; for our purposes today, we may increase that number.) Have outer circle exchange seats with inner circle people in order for them to speak for 5 minutes on Question B. Outer circle people jot notes, comments, questions, and, after 5 minutes, may be included in the discussion for 2 more minutes.

83 FULL CLASS DISCUSSION (10-15min.)
Questions: What criteria do you use for grading class discussions? Now that participants have gone through the two activities, ask them to consider answering this question more specifically, in the following way: What criteria would you use for grading: A. The Four Corners Activity B. The Inner Circle/Outer Circle Activity Full Class Discussion

84 Directions: After participants have done their written responses to the question, then they may participate in full class discussion. Configure the room so that participants are facing each other. Set guidelines: Raise hands, Speak in complete sentences; try to respond to the previous speaker in some way (:I agree,” “I disagree,” “I would like to add”). Note: In all speaking activities, it is helpful for the teacher to have a class list available for grading purposes. NOTE TO PRESENTERS— watch the time – you want to be sure to have about fifteen minutes left to present the Oral Presentation rubric

85 Oral Presentation Rubric

86

87 Key = Adult Learning – Teachers teaching teachers = SUCCESS!
Literacy Training for the faculty Key = Adult Learning – Teachers teaching teachers = SUCCESS!

88 BHS Literacy Workshop April 28th 2011
Reading Visuals

89 Agenda Opener – Think and Pair. Reading Visuals presentation
Practice using Reading Visuals 5 step process Discussion and feedback Closer – Think, Plan, Share Ask opening question (relevant)

90 What We Know There are several types of visuals used in all classes and on both the science and math MCAS exams. Students often attempt to answer the questions without fully understanding the content of the visual.

91 Reading Visuals The process of reading a visual begins with understanding and analyzing the given information BEFORE attempting to answer the questions or solve a problem.

92 Reading Visuals Introductory Information Title Key or Legend
Labels and parenthetical information Correlations Teachers practice the skill Wait time 3 min

93 5 Steps for Reading Visuals
Identify the type of visual Determine the topic of the visual Examine the given information from the visual (including all introductory text) Develop predictions, deductions, inferences or conclusions about the visual Analyze the questions and determine the information needed from the visual

94 5 Steps for Reading Visuals
Practice Steps 1-4 using the math data below.

95 Your Turn 5 Steps for Reading Visuals
Identify the type of visual Determine the topic of the visual Examine the given information from the visual (including all introductory text) Develop predictions, deductions, inferences or conclusions about the visual Analyze the questions and determine the information needed from the visual

96 Cut the questions and have them appear separately

97 Looking Ahead The May 5th faculty meeting will be in department and will focus on using the Reading Visuals Steps with content specific graphs, tables and diagrams Over the next few weeks we will all use visuals in classes to help students develop stronger reading and reasoning skills Our goal is to improve student achievement across the board and see gains in the science and math MCAS exam scores

98 Closer Think – Plan – Share
Identify a visual or type of visual you will use to teach students the Reading Visuals Steps. Describe how the steps for reading visuals will help your students improve their reading and reasoning skills.

99 We have the power to improve student achievement!
Thank you

100 Reading Visuals lesson
How did we incorporate these Literacy Skills in every discipline? The Reasoning Skills Chart develops the higher level math skills. Two examples of a Reading Visuals lesson from a Wellness class Topic: Bullying

101

102

103 Our Professional Development Formats
Large Interdisciplinary Groups – Literacy training that is often our first step to introduce an instructional method to all faculty Departmental Meetings – follow up to literacy training with a content specific focus Small Interdisciplinary Groups – In depth discussions about a targeted issue World Café – More informal, allows topics to be introduced without going into great detail – builds collegiality Faculty Expo – PD activity like a mini conference; teachers presenting to colleagues

104 MORE, MORE, MORE Coming in this afternoon’s session:
Structured Discussion Groups World Café Faculty Expo

105 Another example: Sometimes we work on Instructional Strategies: Literacy Training on Activators and Summarizers…

106 Thursday, February 17, 2011 OPENER
Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement Thursday, February 17, 2011 OPENER QUICK WRITE: Think back to Lin’s presentation. Write about something she shared that really struck you, that has stayed with you, and has informed your teaching. Kuzmich, 2011

107 Effective Openers and Closers AGENDA
Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement Effective Openers and Closers AGENDA Like the Foldables and the Quick Writes that we implemented after Lin’s last visit, we wanted to follow up with two powerful, high payoff strategies that are easy to implement and build off what we already do. The power of Openers / Activators The power of Closers / Summarizers Suggested questions for increasing the rigor of Openers and Closers Next Steps??? Kuzmich, 2011

108 RELEVANCE MAKES RIGOR POSSIBLE and MEMORY STICKIER
Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement RELEVANCE MAKES RIGOR POSSIBLE and MEMORY STICKIER We only remember what we care about, connect to or can relate to in some way! Kuzmich, 2011

109 Effective Openers and Closers
Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement Effective Openers and Closers What the research says: Lin Kuzmich worked with Pasadena, Texas. By just implementing relevant openers (activators) and rigorous closers (summarizers) school scores on their state assessment improved dramatically (see next slide) Kuzmich, 2011

110 Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement
Pasadena HS, TX 07-08 08-09 09-10 Points Inc % Inc 9 Rdg 76 82 89 +7 +9% 10 ELA 83 84 +2 +2% 11 ELA 88 +4 +5% 9 Math 50 55 63 +8 +15% 10 Math 47 53 62 +9 +17% 11 Math 66 68 85 +17 +25% 10 Sci 44 46 64 +18 +39% 11 Sci 67 73 86 +13 +18% 10 SS 78 87 +12% 11 SS 90 92 97 +5 Kuzmich, 2011

111 Openers/Closers a.k.a. Activators/Summarizers
Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement Openers/Closers a.k.a. Activators/Summarizers We already do this – how can we do it better to get a bigger “bang for the buck?” Kuzmich, 2011

112 Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement
Openers/Activators The Opener activates students’ thinking and pulls them into the lesson. It must be RELEVANT to the lesson. Remember, students can do no better than the assignment they are given… Make your opener a QUADRANT D exercise- Get the students thinking AND working. Kuzmich, 2011

113 Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement
Rigor and Relevance FrameworkTM Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement Evaluation C Student Thinks D Student Thinks and Works Synthesis Analysis Application A Teacher Works B Student Works Comprehension 2 Knowledge/ Awareness Rigor 1 Knowledge in one discipline 2 Apply knowledge in one discipline 3 Apply knowledge across disciplines 4 Apply knowledge to real-world predictable situations 5 Apply knowledge to real-world unpredictable situations Relevance From: the International Center for Leadership in Education Kuzmich, 2011

114 Example of a Quadrant D Opener
Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement Example of a Quadrant D Opener “Here are the objectives we learned this past six weeks. Are you an expert mathematician with any of these objectives? With your Math Lab Partner please share the tips and strategies you developed to become an expert. How will you help others in our class during the next six weeks, please write a goal.” –Manny’s Teacher, Mr. R. Kuzmich, 2009 Kuzmich, 2011

115 The CLOSER: RIGOR MAKES THE FUTURE POSSIBLE
Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement The CLOSER: RIGOR MAKES THE FUTURE POSSIBLE End Every Lesson Everyday at Analysis, Synthesis or Evaluation to Increase Memory and Learning. The Brain Learns Best This Way! Kuzmich, 2009 Kuzmich, 2011

116 Focus on a rigorous Closing
Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement Focus on a rigorous Closing Add Rigor and Relevance to closings that last even a few minutes, to make learning more memorable. Kuzmich, 2009 Kuzmich, 2011

117 Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement
Closers/Summarizers The Closer should be focused on what you want the student to retain from the lesson. What is the final thought you want them to remember??? The Closer must be RIGOROUS!!! 5 minutes is all it takes! Kuzmich, 2011

118 Suggestions on Closers
Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement Suggestions on Closers Use an exit ticket, an entry in a journal, a summary in your notes, a comment at the bottom of your homework or a tip at the top. Think-Pair-Share is a great closer. A RIGOROUS finishing question on your graphic organizer can be powerful! Kuzmich, 2009 Kuzmich, 2011

119 Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement
More on Closers Try prompts that encourage students to compare learning to something they know about, a connection to their lives, a comparison to previous learning or between two things learned today, more cause and effect thinking, more justification of answers, error analysis and fixing, making up own problem or question and trading with another student. Kuzmich, 2009 Kuzmich, 2011

120 Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement
More on Closers Summarize, analyze and justify should be the three favorite closings! Kuzmich, 2009 Kuzmich, 2011

121 Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement
PLAN for your Closers TIMING is everything! Be sure to PLAN for your Closer. If you have to cut from your lesson, cut from the middle, do NOT sacrifice the CLOSER. That is where you get the biggest bang for the buck! Kuzmich, 2011

122 Sample questions thanks to Lin
Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement Sample questions thanks to Lin These next five slides provide some questions that prompt students’ thinking and increase the rigor in your Openers and Closers. Kuzmich, 2011

123 Check for Understanding: Describe and Explain
Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement Check for Understanding: Describe and Explain Do you know anything about…? How does it compare to…? Describe…using your sensory words and your new content words. Explain what is meant by…How does that compare to what you or others believe/see/explain? What is an example of…? Kuzmich 2009 Kuzmich, 2011

124 Check for Understanding: Analysis and Summarization
Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement Check for Understanding: Analysis and Summarization What is the pattern? Why? Compare and Contrast… How is this the same or different? What is the cause or effect? Sort these into categories and label the categories. What attributes impact these functions? What is the most important idea and why? Summarize… From what point of view will you summarize… Kuzmich 2010 rev Kuzmich, 2011

125 Check for Understanding: Evaluation and Creativity
Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement Check for Understanding: Evaluation and Creativity Give me another example of…, but this time… Defend your answer Justify your conclusion What are the pros and cons? What if…? What is the relationship of…to…? Is this fair or right? Is this right or wrong and why? What is the importance, impact, or value of…? Kuzmich 2009 Kuzmich, 2011

126 Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement
Check for Understanding: Evaluation and Creativity Can you design a...to...? Why not compose a song or write an original piece about...? Can you see a possible solution to...? If you had access to all resources how would you deal with...? Why don't you devise your own way to deal with...? What would happen if...? How many ways can you...? Kuzmich, 2010 Kuzmich, 2011

127 More Prompts for Creative Thinking
Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement More Prompts for Creative Thinking Can you create new and unusual uses for...? Can you write a new…for…? Can you develop a proposal which would...? What if…? Add a real or imagined scenario Change a variable Design… Solve this issue or situation… Kuzmich, 2010 Kuzmich, 2011

128 Expectations and Student Success
Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement Expectations and Student Success REMEMBER: Students can do no better than the assignment they are given… the assessment they are given… the tools and strategies they are taught to use… the questions they are asked and the questions they themselves ask… the feedback they are given… what they spend time doing and the models they receive… From: Educational Trust, 2006 Kuzmich, 2011

129 Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement
RECAP Openers and Closers are essential to students’ learning. Openers should be relevant, link to the lesson, and activate student thinking. Do NOT sacrifice the Closer – brain research says that the last thing you do is what they remember. Just by using rigorous and relevant Openers and Closers, student achievement increases. Kuzmich, 2011

130 Leading Boxer Literacy and Achievement
CLOSER THINK – PAIR – SHARE: THINK: After reviewing the questions on the handout and the discussion during today’s meeting, develop a Closer for your lesson tomorrow. PAIR: Pair up with a colleague SHARE: Share your Closers THEN DO IT! Kuzmich, 2011

131 Your Conference Activities
Cooperating School Districts Foldable Your Turn 2: Literacy Training Your Turn 1: Literacy Your Conference Activities Your Turn 3: ??? 131

132 YOUR TURN 2: Literacy Workshops:
On your foldable, take one minute to note: If you could select ONE topic that you would like your entire faculty to be trained in teaching, what would that be?

133 A frequently asked question: How can we replicate this in our school?
The answer: See what Ron Rix, Principal of South Middle School, Westfield, Massachusetts did in his school

134 South Middle School Westfield, Massachusetts
What we look like Enrollment 600 Free/Reduced Lunch 50% SPED 21% LEP 8% First Language Other than English 20% Hispanic 17% White 79% This slide displays the enrollment and demographics for each school that was report in the school year Each October school districts are required to report this information to the Department of Elementary and Secondary Education The numbers for Free/Reduced, SPED, LEP, Hispanic and White are indicated as percentages of the school population Actual Enrollments: WHS WVTHS A Gap Closer School

135 SMS Literacy Model Listening Reading Speaking Writing Intake
Processing Output Critical Thinking Listening Reading Speaking Writing

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139 R C U A

140

141 That hit on Rigor and Relevance, but what about the third “R” –
Relationships That hit on Rigor and Relevance, but what about the third “R” – Relationships?

142 More on that in this afternoon’s session…
Relationships More on that in this afternoon’s session… The 3 R’s put into action gave us POWERFUL learning, and MAJOR culture change!

143 Honor Roll Assemblies – Celebrate and Laugh!

144 Class of 2012 – 90% heading to college!
College for ALL: Changing students’ beliefs: Class of 2012 – 90% heading to college! 144

145 The “REAL” results Amarr: “It’s not us against them.”
Terrence: “No one here would let me fail. I know, because I tried to.”

146 Your Conference Activities
Cooperating School Districts Foldable Your Turn 2: Literacy Training Your Turn 1: Literacy Your Conference Activities Your Turn 3: Challenges/ Strengths ??? 146

147 YOUR TURN 3: Challenges/Strengths?
On your foldable, take one minute to note: What do you see as the greatest obstacle to implementing change in your school? What do you see as the greatest strength you have in your school to help move the agenda forward?

148 The Result = Changing the Culture
RECAP: Our 4 Steps When all 3 R’s come together 1. Empowering a team 2. Focusing on literacy: Literacy for ALL – NO exceptions 3. Implementing with fidelity and according to a plan 4. Monitoring, monitoring, monitoring The Result = Changing the Culture

149 “You don’t have to change the student population to get results, you have to change the conditions under which they learn.” Pedro Noguera

150 It’s ALL about literacy
DOES IT WORK??? Listen to what the students think of our Literacy Initiative… meet Fabieny DePina on PBS Need to Know

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152 Remember Success at Brockton High then???
“Students have the right to fail” Former BHS Principal We took THAT right away!!!

153 Success at Brockton High now
MCAS 2011 Failure ELA – 4% (in %) MATH – 12% (in 98 – 75%) MCAS 2011 Adv/Prof. ELA – 78% (in %) MATH – 64% (in 98 – 7%) As bad as these were – it was even worse to look at our subgroups – in Special Education our ELA failure rate was 78%, in math it was 98%!

154 TEACHER LEADERSHIP Some Schools Stand Out Comparisons of
Complacent HS and Brockton HS Ronald F. Ferguson, PhD Tripod Project for School Improvement (www.tripodproject.org) and Achievement Gap Initiative at Harvard University (www.agi.harvard.edu)

155 The Achievement Gap Initiative At Harvard University
The Achievement Gap Initiative At Harvard University Toward Excellence with Equity Conference Report by Ronald F. Ferguson, Faculty Director “The main lesson was that student achievement rose when leadership teams focused thoughtfully and relentlessly on improving the quality of instruction.” - Prof. Ron Ferguson, AGI Conference Report 155

156 Proportions of students scoring in each decile
of the MCAS 8th grade ELA distribution

157 MCAS ELA gains 8th to 10th grade,
compared to others from the same 8th grade decile (School rank percentile/100)

158 As student achievement increased, the culture started to change – we ALL insisted on the same standards “Your kids look like our kids, but they sure don’t act like our kids.” “There’s no one in the halls…” Szach: “They are in class…” Follow up question: “How do you get them to go?” The kids are PROUD – BOXER PRIDE!

159 It’s not just about the numbers!!!

160 268 SCHOLARSHIP RECIPIENTS
JOHN & ABIGAIL ADAMS BHS SCHOLARS 2012 268 SCHOLARSHIP RECIPIENTS 33% of the class!

161 AWARDS, AWARDS, AWARDS, AWARDS!!!
ICLE Model School 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004 NASSP/CSSR Secondary School Showcase 2011, 2010 AIM Gould Award 2012 (Mass. businesses) U.S. Department of Education National High School Summit Harvard Achievement Gap Initiative 2011, 2009 National School Change Award – 2006 Massachusetts Compass School

162 Brockton School District Plymouth County
AWARDS, AWARDS, AWARDS, AWARDS!!! Brockton High School Brockton School District Plymouth County 470 Forest Avenue Brockton, Massachusetts (508) 2008, 2010, 2012

163 Boxers in the NEW YORK TIMES
GO Boxers!!! Boxers in the NEW YORK TIMES High Expectations NO Excuses!!! September 28, 2010

164 Just listen to Nephi and Tatiana on CBS Evening News
Here’s what we know Making change takes tenacity, not brilliance! (If we can do it, ANYONE can!) Just listen to Nephi and Tatiana on CBS Evening News

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166 Dr. Susan Szachowicz Sharon Wolder
Contact Information Sharon Wolder Associate Principal for Curriculum and Instruction Brockton High School 470 Forest Ave Brockton, MA 02301 bpsma.org Dr. Susan Szachowicz Principal Brockton High School 470 Forest Avenue Brockton, MA 02301 bpsma.org


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