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1 Challenges: Regional Perspectives: Africa Doug Wassenaar Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health Grant.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Challenges: Regional Perspectives: Africa Doug Wassenaar Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health Grant."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Challenges: Regional Perspectives: Africa Doug Wassenaar Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health Grant Number 2 R25 TW

2 2 Aims Review research ethics training activities State of research ethics infrastructure Some comments Note: Impossible to speak for 52 countries: Variability is a feature & all generalisations must be qualified: Capacity in training & infrastructure varies from global best to amongst the most under-resourced in the world

3 3 1: Training opportunities Four NIH Fogarty funded intensive postgraduate training programmes: SARETI RSA – 2 nd 4y cycle – 32 trainees IRENSA RSA – 2 nd 4y cycle – 54 trainees Malawi (with MSU) WAB Ibadan, Nigeria DRC (with UNC) (Johns Hopkins has Africa Focus) Case Western had some African fellows Toronto has occasional African fellows

4 4 Training contd: Workshops AMANET: Over 300 persons trained in workshops; new web-based course: 345 registered; 78 completed. UNAIDS/AAVP ELH – 3 workshops NIH Dept Clinical Bioethics – 8 workshops Wellcome Trust – supported 9 symposia & about 6 other ethics grants EDCTP – 4 symposia & support for 5 RECs FHI?PRIM&R? PABIN – annual conferences & networking – 324 members in 26 countries; some collaboration in workshops WHO workshops: TRREE: In development (web-based & CD-ROM) Integration in undergrad and postgrad curricula: Unknown

5 5 Training contd Based on 4 African publications Local Guidelines: Promising REC Chairs: About 50% have some training REC members: Less than 40% have some training 2 independent publications suggest that same persons receive repeated training! Selection criteria NB.

6 6 Infrastructure Estimated 100+ RECs in Africa: Increasing Enabling legal framework: No reliable data: (good in South Africa) 45 countries with current FWA approvals About 64% of African countries have RECs Membership: 1% ethicists; 6% lawyers; 7% community reps; nurses 8%; relig 4%; remainder (74%) medics and scientists

7 7 Infrastructure contd 32% of RECs have some funding sources 40% have no dedicated office space 66% have admin support Those with better physical and financial resources reported themselves as independent of outside influence on decisions Threat to independence from: sponsors (28%), politics (13%)

8 8 Infrastructure contd Knowledge of relevant legal frameworks: generally poor 80% reported no capacity to do post- approval monitoring

9 9 Comments Training, especially workshops, must be more focussed: Fogarty graduates should be used to do more local training Fogarty graduates should be used to do more local training Workshop funding should be driven by need assessments & not sponsor driven Workshop funding should be driven by need assessments & not sponsor driven Explicit selection criteria Explicit selection criteria Outcome and impact evaluation Outcome and impact evaluation Trainee tracking Trainee tracking

10 10 Comments 2 Advanced Fogarty programs vulnerable to funding renewals – should seek longer-term multiple support to ensure sustainability and complement initial Fogarty investment EU might improve West African, Francophone & Lusophone capacity building where needs were surveyed as highest. Capacity to do empirical research in research ethics should be developed African scholarship in research ethics is underdeveloped

11 11 References Benatar, S. (2006) Protection of human subjects research in South Africa. Teleconference with OHRP Sept de Oliveira, V. (2007). EDCTP supported ethics activities. Presented at EDCTP consultation on Research Ethics in Africa, Geneva, June Hyder, A.A., Wali, S.A., Khan, A.N., Teoh, N.B., Kass, N.E., & Dawson, L. (2004). Ethical review of health research: A perspective from developing country researchers. Journal of Medical Ethics, 30, Kilama, W. (2007). AMANET strengthens health research ethics in Africa. Presented at EDCTP consultation on Research Ethics in Africa, Geneva, June Kirigia, J.M., Wambebe, C., & Baba-Moussa, A. (2005). Status of national research bioethics committees in the WHO African region. BioMed Central Medical Ethics, 6, doi: I0.II86/ I0, available from: Milford, C., Wassenaar, D., & Slack, C. (2006). Resources and needs of research ethics committees in Africa. IRB Ethics & Human Research, 28, 1- 9.

12 12 References contd Moodley, K., & Myer, L. (2007). Health research ethics committees in South Africa 12 years into democracy. BioMed Central Medical Ethics, 8, doi: I0.II86/I I, available from: Ogundiran, T.O. (2004). Enhancing the African bioethics initiative. BioMed Central Medical Education, 4, doi: I0.II86/I I, available from: Pan African Bioethics Initiative (2007). Pan African Bioethics Initiative (PABIN). Presented at EDCTP consultation on Research Ethics in Africa, Geneva, June Roberts, L. (2006). Extended executive summary: Current practice in research ethics. Global trends and new opportunities for African universities. London: Association of Commonwealth Universities. World Health Organization (2007). WHO Ethics and Health Initiative ongoing activities on research ethics in Africa. Presented at EDCTP consultation on Research Ethics in Africa, Geneva, June 2007.


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