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1 Economic Freedom of the World: 2006 Annual Report Fraser Institute Policy Briefing September 7, 2006 Mark Mullins, Executive Director Amela Karabegovic,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Economic Freedom of the World: 2006 Annual Report Fraser Institute Policy Briefing September 7, 2006 Mark Mullins, Executive Director Amela Karabegovic,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 Economic Freedom of the World: 2006 Annual Report Fraser Institute Policy Briefing September 7, 2006 Mark Mullins, Executive Director Amela Karabegovic, Senior Research Economist

3 2 THANK YOU FOR COMING! The key to changing policy in the world is changing the climate of opinion about what works and what does not work in encouraging world development The key to changing the climate of opinion is providing the widest possible audience with good information about the causes of development and under-development

4 3 Economic Freedom of the World Project Objective: find a way to measure economic freedom and explore the connection between it and other variables 20 year project Led by Professor Milton Friedman, Rose Friedman and Michael Walker Involved 60 of the worlds top scholars

5 4 What is The Economic Freedom of the World Index? u An annual compilation of data representing factors which make a country economically free u Authors: James Gwartney and Robert Lawson u A compendium of 38 government policies affecting economic freedom based on objective data or independent surveys u A ranking of 130 countries representing 93% of the worlds population according to the extent to which they permit their citizens to be economically free u Now a collaboration of Institutes in 71 different countries

6 5 What is Economic Freedom Individuals have economic freedom when property they acquire without the use of force, fraud, or theft is protected from physical invasions by others and they are free to use, exchange, or give their property as long as their actions do not violate the identical rights of others. An index of economic freedom should measure the extent to which rightly acquired property is protected and individuals are engaged in voluntary transactions. James Gwartney et al. 1996

7 6 Components of The Economic Freedom of the World Index Size of government and taxation Private property and the rule of law Soundness of Money Trade regulation and tariffs Regulation of business, labour and capital markets Based entirely on objective or third party data for 130 countries

8 7 Talk about making a difference …

9 8 Albanian Center for Economic Research, Albania Fundación Libertad, Argentina Institute of Public Affairs, Australia TIGRA®, Austria Center for Economic and Political Research, Azerbaijan The Nassau Institute, Bahamas Making Our Economy Right (MOER), Bangladesh Scientific Research Mises Center, Belarus Centre for the New Europe, Belgium Fundacion Libertad y Democracia (FULIDE), Bolivia Instituto Liberal do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Institute for Market Economics, Bulgaria Cambodia Institute of Development Study, Cambodia The Fraser Institute, Canada Instituto Libertad y Desarrollo, Chile ILP- Instituto Libertad y Progreso, Colombia Instituto para la Libertad y el Análisis de Políticas, Costa Rica The Institute of Economics, Croatia Liberální Institut, Czech Republic Center for Politiske Studier (CEPOS), Denmark Fundación Economía y Desarrollo Inc., Dominican Republic Instituto Ecuatoriano de Economía Política, Ecuador International University Concordia Audentes, Audentes University, Estonia Association pour la Liberté Economique et le Progrès Social (ALEPS), France Alternate Solutions Institute, Pakistan Fundación Libertad, Panama Centro de Investigación y Estudios Legales (CITEL), Peru The Center for Research and Communication, Philippines Centrum im. Adama Smitha, Poland Causa Liberal, Portugal Romania Think Tank, Romania Institute of Economic Analysis, Russia The F.A. Hayek Foundation, Slovak Republic The Free Market Foundation of Southern Africa, South Africa Pathfinder Foundation, Sri Lanka International Research Foundation (IRF), Sultanate of Oman Timbro, Sweden Liberales Institut, Switzerland Arthur Lok Jack Graduate School of Business, The University of the West Indies, Trinidad, W.I. Association for Liberal Thinking, Turkey The Ukrainian Center for Independent Political Research, Ukraine The Institute of Economic Affairs, United Kingdom CATO Institute, USA The Centre for the Dissemination of Economic Knowledge (CEDICE), Venezuela Research Center for Entrepreneurship and Development Policies, Vietnam Free Market Center (FMC), Yugoslavia Zambia Institute for Public Policy Analysis (ZIPPA), Zambia Member Institutes of Economic Freedom of the World Network Society for Disseminating Economic Knowledge:New Economic School – Georgia, Georgia Liberales Institut, Germany The Institute of Economic Affairs, Ghana Centro de Investigaciones Económicas Nacionales, Guatemala Institut de Recherche pour la Liberte Economique et la Prosperite (IRLEP), Haiti Hong Kong Centre for Economic Research, Hong Kong Szazadveg Foundation, Hungary Centre for Social and Economic Research, Iceland Centre for Civil Society, India The Institute for Development of Economics and Finance, Indonesia Open Republic Institute, Ireland Institute for Advanced Strategic and Political Studies, Israel Centro Einaudi, Italy Bureau d'Analyse d'Ingenierie et de Logiciels (BAILO), Ivory Coast African Research Center for Public Policy and Market Process, Kenya Center for Free Enterprise, Korea Economic Policy Institute-Bishkek Consensus, Kyrgyz Republic Lithuanian Free Market Institute, Lithuania D'Letzeburger Land, Luxembourg Centro de Investigación para el Desarrollo A.C., Mexico Open Society Forum, Mongolia The Center for Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, Montenegro The New Zealand Business Roundtable, New Zealand Institute of Public Policy Analysis, Nigeria Civita – Center for Business and Society Incorporated, Norway

10 9 Sample of Press Coverage for Fraser Institute Economic Freedom of the World 2005 All Africa, Africa Asia Pulse, Australia Australian Financial Review, Australia Scoop, Australia Latin America News Digest, Brazil Capital Weekly, Bulgaria El Diario de Hoy, Central America Diario Financiero, Chile El Financiero, Chile Xinhua News Agency, China South China Morning Post, China China Daily-Hong Kong Edition, China Ambiito Juridico, Colombia Portafolio, Colombia La Prensa Libre, Costa Rica El Financiero, Costa Rica Hina, Croatia Hospodarske Noviny, Czech Republic Borsen, Denmark Times of Oman, Oman Daily times, Pakistan Rzeczpospolita, Poland La Tribune, Canada Montreal Gazette, Canada Rumanian, Romania St. Petersburg Times, Russia Moscow Times, Russia Interfax, Russia Russian Publication, Russia Plenipotentiary, Russia Republika, Serbia/Montenegro Vijesti, Serbia/Montenegro Pobjeda, Serbia/Montenegro Straits Times, Singapore Ekonomicka Sloboda, Slovakia Hodin Daily, Slovakia Pravda Daily, Slovakia Business Day, South Africa El Economista, Spain Libertad Digital, Spain L'Agefl Suisse, Switzerland Bangkok Post, Thailand Trinidad Guardian, Trinidad & Tobago Financial Times, UK Investor's Business Daily, US Financial Times, US El Nacional, Venezuela Jyllands-Posten, Denmark Baltic Business Weekly, Estonia BBC Monitoring, Europe Radio Liberty, Georgia Frankfurter Allgemeine, Germany Vereinigte, Germany Financial Express, India Hindustan Times, India Journal of Commerce, International El Cronista Comercial, International El Nacional, International International Herald Tribune, International Israel Business Arena, Israel Jerusalem Post, Israel ItaliaOggi, Italy Il Sole, Italy Il Giornale, Italy Korea Times, Korea Seoul Daily, Korea Korea Herald, Korea Noticias Latinoamericanas, Mexico Agencia Mexicanan De Noticias, Mexico Republika, Montenegro Financial Times Deutschland, Netherlands Dominion Post, New Zealand

11 10

12 11 Introducing the 2006 Economic Freedom of the World Index Results

13 12 Overall Economic Freedom Index and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

14 13 The top 10 and how they got there Source: The Fraser Institute.

15 14 Countries having significant improvement since 1970 Source: The Fraser Institute.

16 15 Countries having significant deterioration since 1970 Source: The Fraser Institute.

17 16 Overall Economic Freedom Index and the Bottom Ten Source: The Fraser Institute.

18 17 Economic Freedom Over Time Source: The Fraser Institute.

19 18 Economic Freedom Over Time Adjusted for Population Source: The Fraser Institute.

20 19 Economic Freedom and the Top 10

21 20 Size of Government and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

22 21 Size of Government and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

23 22 Size of Government and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

24 23 Legal System and Property Rights and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

25 24 Legal System and Property Rights and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

26 25 Legal System and Property Rights and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

27 26 Sound Money and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

28 27 Sound Money and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

29 28 Sound Money and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

30 29 Freedom to Trade Internationally and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

31 30 Freedom to Trade Internationally and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

32 31 Freedom to Trade Internationally and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

33 32 Regulations and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

34 33 Regulations and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

35 34 Regulations and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

36 35 Credit Market Regulations and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

37 36 Credit Market Regulations and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

38 37 Credit Market Regulations and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

39 38 Labor Market Regulations and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

40 39 Labor Market Regulations and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

41 40 Labor Market Regulations and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

42 41 Business Regulations and the Top 10 Source: The Fraser Institute.

43 42 Why is Economic Freedom Important? Economic rights are fundamental rights in the sense that without them there can be no political freedom or civil freedoms They are a prerequisite for growth and development They are a prerequisite for broader human development

44 43 The impact on economic growth and development

45 44 Income (per person) of the Bottom Ten Income (per person) of the Bottom Ten Sources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World Development Indicators CD-ROM, 2006.

46 45 Income (per person) of the Top 10 Sources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World Development Indicators CD-ROM, 2006.

47 46 Per Capita Income and Economic Freedom Quartile Least Free …………… Most Free Sources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World Development Indicators CD-ROM, 2005.

48 47 Growth in Real GDP Per Capita and Economic Freedom Quartile Least Free ……………..….. Most Free Sources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World Development Indicators CD-ROM, 2005.

49 48 Economic Freedom and Unemployment Least Free ……………..….. Most Free Sources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World Development Indicators CD-ROM, 2005.

50 49 New research: Economic Freedom and Foreign Aid

51 50 Economic Freedom and Foreign Aid: Millennium Development Goals Halving poverty by 2015 Lack of empirical evidence on the effectiveness of aid

52 51 Economic Freedom and Foreign Aid: Background: As of 2000, approximately 75% of worlds poor live in Africa In 1970, less than 15 percent of worlds poor lived in the region From 1970 to 2000, Africa received $400 billions in foreign aid Aid has growth continuously from 5% of GNI to 18% in 1995 when it peaked.

53 52 Economic Freedom and Foreign Aid: New Research by professor William Easterly: Foreign aid has no positive impact on economic growth in poor nations This indicates that the push from foreign aid is ineffective in breaking the poverty trap Easterly shows that once economic freedom is controlled for, poor nations grow faster than rich nations

54 53 Policy Implications: Efforts to reduce poverty may not produce the results Policy should be to promote economic freedom Economic freedom has been shown to promote economic prosperity (and many other good outcomes)

55 54 Economic Freedom,the Poor, and Inequality

56 55 Human Poverty Index and Economic Freedom Quartile Least Free …………..…. Most Free Sources: The Fraser Institute; United Nations Development Programmme, Human Development Indicators 2005, available at

57 56 Income Share of the Poorest 10% and Economic Freedom Least Free …….. Most Free Sources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World Development Indicators CD- ROM, 2005.

58 57 Per Capita Income of Poorest 10% and Economic Freedom Least Free …….. Most Free Sources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World Development Indicators CD-ROM, 2005.

59 58 Economic Freedom, Other Freedoms and Democracy

60 59 Economic Freedom Versus Corruption Higher value indicates lower level of corruption Least Free ………….. Most Free Sources: The Fraser Institute; Transparency International, Corruption Perceptions Index 2005, available at

61 60 Economic Freedom and Political Rights Lower ratings indicate higher level of political rights Least Free ……………. Most Free Sources: The Fraser Institute; Freedom House, Freedom in the World Country Ratings, 1972 through 2004, available at

62 61 Economic Freedom and Civil Liberties Lower ratings indicate higher level of civil liberties Least Free …….. Most Free Sources: The Fraser Institute; Freedom House, Freedom in the World Country Ratings, 1972 through 2004, available at

63 62 The impact of Economic Freedom on the UNs Human Development Index and other indicators of well-being

64 63 Human Development Index and Economic Freedom Quartiles Least Free ……………. Most Free Sources: The Fraser Institute; United Nations Development Programmme, Human Development Indicators 2005, available at

65 64 Life Expectancy at Birth and Economic Freedom Quartiles Least Free ……………. Most Free Sources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World Development Indicators CD- ROM, 2005.

66 65 Infant Mortality and Economic Freedom Quartile Least Free ………..…. Most Free Sources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World Development Indicators CD-ROM, 2005.

67 66 Economic Freedom and Labor force, children (% of age group) Least Free ……………. Most Free Sources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World Development Indicators CD-ROM, 2005.

68 67 % of Population Using Improved Water Sources Least Free …………….. Most Free Sources: The Fraser Institute; The World Bank, World Development Indicators CD-ROM, 2005.

69 68 Economic Freedom and Happiness Causes of Happiness, 68 nation study Variables included: Income Economic Growth Inflation Only two variables had large effects : Economic Freedom Life Expectancy Unemployment Education Political freedom

70 69 Economic Freedom and Happiness

71 70Conclusions Economic Freedom Increases prosperity for all Reduces poverty Increases other freedoms Improves quality of life All this can be seen in todays data and lessons from history

72 71


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