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10 GREAT MYTHS OF GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project 1. Civil society is made up only of NGOs;

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Presentation on theme: "10 GREAT MYTHS OF GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project 1. Civil society is made up only of NGOs;"— Presentation transcript:

1 10 GREAT MYTHS OF GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project 1. Civil society is made up only of NGOs;

2 COMMON FEATURES Organizations Private Non-Profit-Distributing Self-Governing Voluntary The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project

3 Museums Hospitals Trade Associations Universities Environmental Groups Clinics Human Rights Organizations Professional Organizations Sports Clubs Day Care Centers Foundations Personal Social Services The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project

4 10 GREAT MYTHS OF GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project 1. Civil society is made up only of NGOs; 2. The civil society sector is a marginal actor economically;

5 FINDING I: A MAJOR ECONOMIC FORCE 36 Countries $1.33 trillion in operating expenditures 45.5 million FTE jobs The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project 7.5% of non-agricultural employment 4.4% of economically active population 46% of public sector employment

6 IF THE CIVIL SOCIETY SECTOR WERE A COUNTRY…. CountryGDP (trillion $) U.S. $7.2 Japan 5.1 China 2.8 Germany 2.2 U.K. 1.4 France 1.3 Italy 1.1 CIVIL SOCIETY SECTOR EXPENDITURES (35 Countries) 1.3 Brazil 0.7 Russia 0.7 Spain 0.6 Canada 0.5 The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project

7 Civil Society Organization Employment in Context 36 Countries 6 Utilities 39.3 Trans- portation 44.3 Cons- truction Millions of Employees Volunteers Paid staff Civil Society Orgs The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project

8 EMPLOYMENT IN CIVIL SOCIETY ORGS. VS. LARGEST FIRMS (35 COUNTRIES) Largest Private Companies 3.4 million The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project Civil Society Organizations 22.7 million

9 10 GREAT MYTHS OF GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project 3. Civil society organizations are chiefly an American phenomenon and are not present in the welfare states of Europe, where reliance on government is greater. 4. There is no civil society sector for all intents and purposes in the Scandinavian countries, where the welfare state is most fully developed;

10 CIVIL SOCIETY WORKFORCE AS % OF ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE POPULATION, BY COUNTRY 0%2%4%6% 8% 10%12%14%16% Volunteers Paid Staff 4.4% All countries* 2.7% 1.6% Netherlands 9.2% 5.1% 14.4% Austria 4.9% Japan 3.8% 1.1% Spain 4.8% 4.3% 4.2% 3.8% 3.4% Argentina South Africa Italy 2.9% 2.8% 3.2% 2.3% 1.8% 1.9% 1.5% 1.0% 1.5% 1.6% U.K. 10.9% 9.8% 8.5% 8.0% 7.6% 7.2% 7.1% Israel Ireland Belgium France Norway Sweden U.S. 8.6% 8.3% 6.3% 4.8% 6.6% 3.7% 2.7% 1.7% 2.3% 2.1% 3.5% 3.6% 1.4% 3.7% 4.4% 5.1% 10.4% Australia 6.3% 5.3% Finland Germany 4.4% 3.5% 2.4% 1.9% 2.3% 2.8% 5.9% The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project

11 0%2%4%6% 8% 10%12% Paid Staff Volunteers All countries* 2.7% 1.6%4.4% CIVIL SOCIETY WORKFORCE AS % OF ECONOMICALLY ACTIVE POPULATION, BY COUNTRY The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project India 0.6%0.8% 1.4% 0.2% 1.6% Brazil 0.6% 0.2% 0.8% Poland 0.7%1.2% 1.9% Philippines 1.3% 0.7% 2.0% Czech Republic 1.0% 0.8%1.5% Morocco Pakistan 0.6% 0.4% 1.0% 0.9% 0.2%1.1% Hungary 0.6% 0.2% 0.8% Slovakia 0.3% 0.1% 0.4% Mexico 0.4% 0.4% 0.8% Romania Peru 2.5%1.5%0.9% 2.4% South Korea 1.9% 0.6% Colombia 1.8%0.6% 2.4% 2.3% Uganda.9% 1.3% 0.5% 1.5% 2.1% Tanzania Kenya 1.3% 0.8% 2.1% Egypt 2.7% 2.8%.01%

12 GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY INDEX: COUNTRY SCORES The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project Capacity Sustainability Impact Total Country Netherlands Norway United States Sweden United Kingdom Belgium Israel Ireland Australia France Finland Germany Spain Argentina Tanzania Uganda Japan

13 10 GREAT MYTHS OF GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project 5. Volunteers play a more important role in the civil society workforce in developing than developed countries;

14 Paid Workers 56% Volunteers 44% The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATION PAID VS. VOLUNTEER LABOR, 36 COUNTRIES n=65.5 million (including religion)

15 VOLUNTEERS AS % OF CSO WORKFORCE, BY COUNTRY CLUSTER Developed 39% Developing37% All countries 38% The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project 0% 20%40%60%80% % of CSO Workforce Africa54% Nordic64% Latin America30% Welfare Partnership 32% Asian Industrialized24% Central Europe32% Anglo-Saxon37%

16 10 GREAT MYTHS OF GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project 5. Volunteers play a more important role in the civil society workforce in developing than developed countries; 6. Paid staff drive out reliance on volunteers.

17 Civil Society Paid vs. Volunteer Staff The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project 25% 53% 14% 8% Paid Staff Volunteers Percent of Countries Above Average 61% Below Average 39% Total 67% 33% 100% Total Below Average Above Average

18 10 GREAT MYTHS OF GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project 7. The civil society sector is mostly engaged in advocacy and social change;

19 ROLES AND FUNCTIONS The Service Role The Advocacy Role The Expressive Role The Community-Building Role The Value Guardian Role The State of Nonprofit America Johns Hopkins University Source: Lester M. Salamon, The State of Nonprofit America (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution Press, 2002)

20 DISTRIBUTION OF CIVIL SOCIETY WORKFORCE, BY FUNCTION Service 64% Education 23% Social Services 19% Health 14% Development 8% Expressive 32% Culture 19% Misc. Advocacy 13% Other 4% The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project

21 SHARE OF CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATION WORKFORCE IN EXPRESSIVE FUNCTIONS, (INCLUDING DEVELOPMENT) Developed 37% Developing 44% All countries 41% Africa51% Nordic67% Central Europe55% Anglo-Saxon36% Latin America33% Welfare Partnership 29% Asian Industrialized16% The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project 0% 20%40%60%80% % of CSO Workforce

22 10 GREAT MYTHS OF GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project 7. The civil society sector is mostly engaged in advocacy and social change; 8. Philanthropy is the chief source of civil society revenue;

23 Fees 53% Government 35% The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project Philanthropy 12% SOURCES OF CIVIL SOCIETY REVENUE (32 COUNTRYAVERAGE)

24 10 GREAT MYTHS OF GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project 7. The civil society sector is mostly engaged in advocacy and social change; 8. Philanthropy is the chief source of civil society revenue; 9. Philanthropy is at least the chief source of civil society revenue in the U.S.

25 Fees, Charges Public Sector Philanthropy All Countries 53% 35%12% FEE DOMINANT SOURCES OF CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATION REVENUE, BY COUNTRY Spain Japan Hungary U.S. Czech Rep. Pakistan Tanzania Slovakia Finland Norway Poland Italy Sweden Australia Peru Colombia S. Korea Argentina Brazil Kenya Mexico Philippines 40% 0% 20%60%80% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 81% 55% 70% 60% 57% 53% 51% 74% 73% 70% 62% 61% 58% 55% 49% 47% 52% 63% 71% 85% 92% 27% 22% 23% 32% 19% 20% 31% 13% 36% 6% 24% 4% 35% 7% 29% 9% 24% 15% 39% 14% 11% 15% 14% 5% 43% 6% 45% 3% 27% 18% 37% 3% 31% 6% 18% 12% 19% 7% 9% 6% 5% 3% The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project

26 12% Fees, ChargesPublic SectorPhilanthropy All Countries 53%35% Government Dominant SOURCES OF CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATION REVENUE, BY COUNTRY 60% 40% 0% 20%80% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Ireland Belgium Germany Israel Netherlands France Austria U.K. Romania South Africa 45% 50% 59% 64% 47% 58% 64% 77% 44% 39% 32% 16% 29% 45% 35% 26% 43% 19% 32% 9% 26% 10% 8% 6% 3% 7% 2% 5% 24% % may not add up to 100% due to rounding The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project

27 10 GREAT MYTHS OF GLOBAL CIVIL SOCIETY The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project 7. The civil society sector is mostly engaged in delivering services; 8. Philanthropy is the chief source of civil society revenue; 9. Philanthropy is at least the chief source of civil society revenue in the U.S. 10. The civil society sector is growing at a slower rate than the private business sector.

28 8.1% Total Employment GROWTH IN CIVIL SOCIETY vs. TOTAL EMPLOYMENT, (8 COUNTRIES) Civil Society Employment 24.4% 0% 10%20%30%40% % Change in Employment The Johns Hopkins Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project


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