Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Where are the elements How did they form? Earth Water Air Living Things.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Where are the elements How did they form? Earth Water Air Living Things."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Where are the elements How did they form?

3 Earth Water Air Living Things

4

5 Earth Water Air Radioactive decay of Radium. Radioactive decay of Uranium and Radon N 2 & O 2 Living Things SiO 2 Al 2 O 3 Fe 2 O 3 H2OH2O

6 Living Things

7 All alkali (Group 1A) compounds are soluble. Sodium & Potassium

8 All halogen compounds are soluble except those containing Ag +, Hg 2+, or Pb +2 )

9 All nitrates (NO 3 -), chlorates (ClO 3 - ) and perchlorates (ClO 4 - ) are soluble. Most sulfates (SO 4 2- ) are soluble. Calcium sulfate is slightly soluble.

10

11

12

13 All carbonates (CO 3 -2 ), phosphates (PO 4 +3 ), sulfides(S -2 ) are insoluble.

14 LIMESTONE (Calcium Carbonate (CaCO 3 )

15 Nearly all metal oxides are insoluble.

16

17

18 Abundance inppb by wt%Logppb by atoms% Universe10,000, , Earths crust460,000, ,000,00060 Sea water857,000, ,000,00033 Human610,000, ,000, ,000,000 1,000,000, X

19

20

21 $10 $100 $1000 $ $ $ $10 $100 $1000 $1 $.10 $.01 $1000

22

23

24 Abundance inppb by wt%Logppb by atoms% Universe750,000, ,000,00093 Earths crust1,500, ,000,00031 Sea water107,800, ,000,00066 Human100,000, ,000,00062

25

26 Do the abundance of the elements change? In other words, do elements change into other elements?

27

28 Geiger Counter

29 Are elements formed in the caldron of a volcano? Are elements changed to other elements in the intense heat of a volcano (about 1,000 o C for lava and 2,000 o C for inside volcano)?

30 Elements may separate from other elements or combine with certain elements. There is not enough heat in a volcano to change an element into another element. Here is silicon and oxygen with trace amount of metals (darkening) to form a mineral called…

31 about 7,000 o C 57million psi

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40 SUNEARTH Mass (Earths) 332,000 1 Volume (Earths) 1,300,000 1 Diameter 870,000 miles 8,000 miles Mass conversion rate (10 6 kg/s) Central temperature: 16 million deg K 7,000 est. Central density: 162 g/cm 3 12g/cm 3

41

42

43

44

45

46 56 Fe 13 4 He +4n 26n 13 4 He 26e p n +4n

47 The core with a mass of ½ million Earths shrinks from 1000 km (600 mi.) to about 50 km (31 mi.) in 1 second. Implosion velocity reaches 170 million mph...about 1/4 c or 50,000 miles per second.

48

49

50 The outward moving matter is moving so fast that it compresses and heats whatever it collides with to temperatures of to K... much hotter than anything we have encountered in our studies of stars so far.

51

52

53 Such enormously high temperatures generates nuclear reactions. Below the neon shell source, the oxygen and silicon is converted to iron plus less massive nuclei such as argon, calcium, potassium, titanium, copper, and zinc. By the time the blast reaches the outer shell sources, the collisions are less violent and the temperatures reached are too low for nuclear reactions.

54 Thus, nuclear reactions account only for elements less massive than iron. What about the rest of the periodical table? Where do the other elements with more than 25 or so protons in their nuclei come from? The source of neutrons for neutron capture is the outer half of the collapsing neutron core that was ejected. The environment for neutron capture only last a short time. Consequently, not many of the heavy elements are created.

55

56

57 Supernovas often become black holes. The remaining core of neutrons with about the weight of 3 to 15 of our suns has gravity so strong that light cannot exit. There is one black hole in our galaxy that has the mass of 2.6 million Suns.

58

59 Explosion cloud (Remnant) of the Supernova Cassiopeia A in our Milky Way. The Remnant has a diameter of about 15 light- years.

60

61 Where did hydrogen come from? It all depends on how good your math is. Test: How far do you travel in 2 ½ hours, if you are going 120 mph? If you left home at noon and traveled 60 mph, how long would it take you to drive 300 miles?

62 2:30 pm 1:30pm 12:30pm 120 mph 1:00pm 1:30pm 170 mph 120 mi 170 mi 85 mi 60 mi Noon

63 Train Plane Doppler effect

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77 3,000 deg radiation

78 The outward moving matter is moving so fast that it compresses and heats whatever it collides with to temperatures of to K... much hotter than anything we have encountered in our studies of stars so far.

79

80 More light elements fused as neutrons compresses layers that reach temperatures up to 100 billion degrees. Heavy elements form as nuclei absorb neutrons. Fused for Nuclear Fuel Main ProductsTemperature Hydrogen (H) 4 He4 million K Helium ( 4 He) 12 C150 million K Carbon ( 12 C) 16 O, 20 Ne, 24 Mg1 billion K Neon ( 20 Ne) 24 Mg2 billion K Oxygen ( 16 O) 28 Si, 32 S3 billion K Silicon( 28 Si) 56 Fe, 56 Ni4 billion K


Download ppt "Where are the elements How did they form? Earth Water Air Living Things."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google