Presentation on theme: "H N C O S Hydrocarbons Carbohydrates & Lipids Amino acids & proteins More amino acids & proteins P RNA, & DNA Write down the type of organic compounds."— Presentation transcript:
H N C O S Hydrocarbons Carbohydrates & Lipids Amino acids & proteins More amino acids & proteins P RNA, & DNA Write down the type of organic compounds built from the elements indicated Match images to polyatomic ion: sulfite__ sulfate__,__ nitrate__,__ chlorate__ hypochlorite__ ammonium__,__ cyanide__ Building Blocks Practice exam for test 2, CHM130: Ken Costello, instructor Write the formula for the following polyatomic ions (include the charge). Perchlorate: ________ Chlorate: ________ Chlorite: ________ Hypochlorite: ________ Nitrite: _________ Nitrate: _________ Ammonium: _________ Phosphate: _________ ClO 4 - ClO 3 - ClO 2 - ClO - NO 2 - NO 3 - NH 4 + PO 4 3- Write the correct formula for the following compounds Potassium nitrate: ___________ Calcium nitrate: ___________ Magnesium chlorate: __________ Hydrogen cyanide: ___________ Ammonium nitrate: _________ Calcium sulfate: ____________ Sodium sulfite: _____________ Calcium carbonate: __________ KNO 3 Ca(NO 3 ) 2 Mg(ClO 3 ) 2 HCN NH 4 NO 3 CaSO 4 Na 2 SO 3 CaCO 3 Cyanide: _________ Sulfite: _________ Sulfate: _________ Carbonate: _________ CN - SO 3 2- SO 4 2- CO 3 2- Formula: Silver=+1 Zinc = +2 Formula: Iron=+3 Formula:
Its December and you want to heat up your pool. It is currently 50 o F (10 o C) and you want it raised to 80 o F (27 o C) Using an electric heater, how much will it cost if 1 kilowatt-hour is 10 cents? The pool is 7.0 meters long, 5.0 meters wide and 2.0 meters deep. A. Whats the volume in cubic meters? ______ B. What is the volume in cubic centimeters?___________ C. What is the total grams of the water? ____________ A calorie is defined as the energy needed to raise one gram of water one degree Celsius. D. How many calories will it take to raise the pool water from 10 o C to 27 o C? _______________ E. 1 calorie = 1.2 x 10 -6 kilowatts hours. How many kilowatt-hours will you need? ____________ F. How much will it cost to heat the pool from 50 o F (10 o C) to 80 o F (27 o C)? _______________ 7.0m x 5.0m x 2.0m= 70. m 3 70 m 3 x 100cm/mx100cm/mx100cm/m= 70,000,000 cm 3 since 1cm 3 water=1 g 70,000,000 grams 70,000,000 grams 17 o C 1 calorie = 1,190,000,000 calories or 1.19x10 9 calories g. o C 1.19x10 9 calories 1.2x10 -6 kilowatt-hrs = 1.428x10 3 kilowatt-hours 1 calorie 1.428x10 3 kilowatt-hours $0.10 = $142.80 > $140 kilowatt-hr 0.15 meters = 15 centimeters Starting unitsEnd units.01 1 centi equal 100 miles= 2000 miles RateAnswer 20 hours 4 lbs. = 1816 grams 1 lb. 454 g 20 grams= 0.5 grams 1000 mL 1 Liter 0.25 Liters = 250 milliliters.001 1 milli 1 cal = 1.01 kcal 101 g Metric facts: 1 meter was originally defined as the distance from equator to north pole divided by? 10 million One tenth of a meter is called a decimeter How many centimeters (cm) in one meter? 100 How many millimeters (mm) in one meter? 1000 The volume of 1,000 cubic centimeters (cm 3 or cc) is called a liter. How many milliliters (mL) are in a liter? 1000 A milliliter (mL) is what fraction of a liter? 1 thousandth A milliliter is how many cubic centimeters? 1 A cubic centimeter of water has the mass of how many grams? 1 A liter of water has the mass of how many grams? 1000 30 inches= 76.2 cm 1 inch 2.54 cm hour Quantity Liter 25 mL Quantityequal gOCgOC Qty 10 O C Answer 1000 1 kilo equal Complete the below conversions Complete the below dimensional analysis problems Rate
Abundance of elements in the Earths crust The website, www.webelements.com provides these 3-d graphs of abundance of elements. What elements predominate the Earths crust? 1. 2. 3.4. 5.6. 7. Abundance of Hydrogen in ppb by wt%Logppb by atoms% Universe750,000,000758.88930,000,00093 Earths crust1,500,0000.156.18310,000,00031 Sea water107,800,000118.03662,000,00066 Human100,000,000108.00620,000,00062 A)How do explain that 11% of the weight of sea water is hydrogen, but 66% of the number of atoms in sea water is hydrogen? Hydrogen is very light, so it takes more of them to compete by weight. B)In humans, hydrogen make up 10% of its weight and 62 out of 100 atoms in the body. What compounds in the body have hydrogen? Water, lipids, sugars, carbohydrates, proteins. C)What does the log of 8 mean? It means 10 to the 8th power or 100,000,000 Fused for Nuclear FuelMain ProductsTemperature Hydrogen (H) 4 He4 million K Helium ( 4 He) 12 C150 million K Carbon ( 12 C) 16 O, 20 Ne, 24 Mg1 billion K Neon ( 20 Ne) 24 Mg2 billion K Oxygen ( 16 O) 28 Si, 32 S3 billion K Silicon( 28 Si) 56 Fe, 56 Ni4 billion K Fused during neutron core explosionAll elements less than Fe10-100 billion K Created from neutron capture in SupernovaAll elements heavier than Fe4 billion K A)What does the 12 mean in 12 C? It is the total of protons and neutrons in this isotope of carbon. B)What temperature is oxygen created from carbon? And what other element is needed? 1 billion degrees Kelvin, and helium is fused to the carbon. C)Alchemists tried to turn common metals into gold and there are plenty of websites still saying they can do that. They could if they did what? Placed common metals in a supernova, or bombard metals with high energy neutrons. What does ppb mean? ________________ This galaxy is measured to be 30,000,000,000,000,000,000 miles away and traveling 2,000,000,000 miles per year directly away from us. How far was it from us 15,000,000,000 years ago? (d=vt): ___________________
Write what type of reaction it is and balance the following chemical equations. 2KClO 3 2KCl + 3O 2 2AlCl 3 + 3Ca 3CaCl 2 + 2Al 2NaCl + MgSO 4 Na 2 SO 4 + MgCl 2 CH 3 CH 2 OH + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O CaO + H 2 O Ca(OH) 2 Single replacement Decomposition Double replacement Combustion Synthesis (combination) Zinc is used to protect iron in contact with salty water. What kind of reaction does this? And balance the equation. 3Zn + 2FeCl 3 2Fe + 3ZnCl 2 If a yellow circle is one gram, which graphic bests illustrates the division?___ A) B) 3 1/5 g 3 1/5 What is the net charge of this fluorine atom? What does the +2 in Ca +2 mean? There are two more protons than electrons making a plus 2 charge. NaOH + CH 3 COH CH 3 CONa + HOH Lye (sodium hydroxide-NaOH) is very corrosive. Acetic acid can be used to neutralize it. The acid from the acetic acid and the hydroxide from lye form what compound? ___________ O || What kind of reaction is this? _____________ SYMBOLS: Answer T for True/ F for false: H 2 O is water___ Formula for water is H 2 O___ H is hydrogen__ H is symbol for hydrogen___ Letter grade A means you know subject___ Letter grade A means you got an A for a grade___ ½ is a fraction___ ¼ is fractional numeral___ V is half of W___ The number five has 4 letters ___ Zero is nothing___ Zero is something_____ 4 60 Co +3 27 2 There are 7 symbols. What do each mean? Single Replacement Reaction Water Double replacement 4 is four pairs of cobalt 60 is total # of protons & neutrons 27 is atomic number (# protons) 2 is 2 cobalt atoms + is positive charge 3 is how many electrons lost that caused protons to outnumber electrons.
Water is released Propyl acetate > pear flavor O || CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -OH + CH 3 C-OH H 2 O + CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 -O-CCH 3 OH O O || H 2 O + HO O || OH + + H 2 O + HO O || Octanol (or gasoline>alcohol) +acetic acid water + Octyl acetate (orange flavor) Benzyl alcohol (globs in lava lamps) + acetic acid water + Benzyl acetate (peaches, strawberries) OH HO O || + H 2 O + OH HO O || + Isopentenyl alcohol + acetic acid water + Isopentenyl acetate (Juicy-Fruit) H 2 O + OH + HO O || H 2 O + Isobutanol (solvent/hydraulic fluid) + propionic acid (fungicide) water + Isobutyl propionate (Rum flavor) + H 2 O + Ethanol (liquor) + butyric acid (rancid butter) water + Ethyl butyrate (Apple flavor) OH O || HO H 2 O + + Acetic acid (vinegar) Propanol (propyl alcohol) H H H H C H C H O H H C H O H H C H C O H H H C H C H O H C H O C H H H C water +Amyl salicylate (Pineapple flavor) H H C H O H H C H O H H C H C O H H C H H C H Example Ester Write the synthesized esters in shorthand formulas Amyl alcohol (oil of potato spirit) salicylic acid (wart remover)