Presentation on theme: "This presentation was given at the Focus on Farming Conference: Breaking New Ground in Lynnwood, Washington on November 20, 2008."— Presentation transcript:
This presentation was given at the Focus on Farming Conference: Breaking New Ground in Lynnwood, Washington on November 20, 2008.
Marketing sheep and goats to the ethnic markets 2008 Focus on Farming Conference: Breaking New Ground Lynnwood, Washington - Thursday, November 20, 2008 Susan Schoenian Sheep & Goat Specialist Western Maryland Research & Education Center University of Maryland Cooperative Extension –
What is an ethnic market? An ethnic market is a group of consumers that share a common cultural background: race, color, national origin, religion, or language. It is many different markets!
Three market segments 31% of American population is considered ethnic. First generation Second generation Mainstream shoppers
Second generation ethnic consumers Dietary habits change as ethnic populations assimilate into the U.S. culture. Second generation ethnic customers demand more ready-made ethnic foods. Organic and green movements are crossing over into the ethnic markets.
U.S. Population Demographics ,398, % white 14.8% Hispanic/Latino 11.1% foreign born % black 4.4% Asian 1% American Indian 17.9% non-English speaking Median household income: $44,334 Per capita income: $21,587
U.S. immigration Immigration is what keeps America growing. U.S. birthrate (1.9%) is below replacement rate (2.1%).
Washington State 2006 Data U.S. averages in parentheses Population of 6,395, % White (80.1%) 9.1% Hispanic/Latino (14.8%) 3.6% Black or African-American (12.8%) 6.6% Asian (4.4%) 1.6% American Indian (1.0%) 10.4% foreign born (11.1%) Per capita income - $22,973 ($21,857) Medium household income - $48,438 ($44,334) Source:
American Muslims 8 million Muslims in the United States; another 1 million in Canada. Annual growth rate is 6% (vs. 0.9% for U.S.) Same size community as Hispanics 25 years ago.
American Muslims American Muslims are younger. 67% of adult Muslims are < 40 years of age. 67% of U.S. adult population is > 40 years of age.
American Muslims American Muslims are well-educated. 67% of American Muslims have a Bachelors degree or higher. 44% of Americans have a Bachelors degree or higher. 1 in 10 American Muslim households has a medical doctor.
American Muslims American Muslims are affluent. 66% of American Muslims households earn over $50,000/year 26% of American Muslims households earn over $100,000/year U.S. average income is $42,158
Mosques in Washington State 27 Mosques listed on Seattles Northgate Mosque
Major Muslim holidays Ramadan Month of fasting Eid ul Fitr Festival of fast-breaking Little Eid Eid ul Adha Festival of the sacrifice Big Eid Eid = Festival Muslim holidays move back 11 days each year.
Aqeeqah Give thanks to God for the birth of a child. Baby-naming ceremony. Childs head is shaved 7 days after birth. Slaughter one or two sheep and invite relatives and friends to a meal or distribute the meat to relatives, friends, and the poor. Sacrificed by father.
Halal Arabic word meaning permissible or lawful. Term applies to all facets to life, but (in the West) used mostly to describe food. No pork No alcohol No blood or blood products Proper slaughter method Some similarities with Kosher (Jewish ritual slaughter).
Halal slaughter Slaughter should be done by a trained Muslim. Slaughter is by means of a sharp knife. Throat, windpipe, and jugular veins are cut. Slaughter of an unconscious (stunned) animal is prohibited. Animal must be slaughtered in the name of God (Allah). Animal should be held upright before and during slaughter. Blood should be totally drained. Considered humane, but exempt from Humane Slaughter Law.
Halal certification Gives customers assurance that food is Halal. Many organizations grant Halal certification. In cooperation with USDA.
Knife Restraining device Poster
Hispanic-American Market Fastest growing minority group. 49% live in Texas or California. The Latin wave is bigger than the baby boomer generation. 76 percent increase in buying power since 1990.
Hispanic-American Market Subcultures from over 20 different countries in Central and South America, the Caribbean and Spain. Majority of Mexican heritage (67%). Common link is the Spanish language.
Hispanic-American Market Hispanic Americans are younger. Average Hispanic-American is 26 years old. Average American is 33 years old. Hispanic-American households are bigger. Average Hispanic-American household has 3.6 people. Average American household has 2.5 people.
Hispanic-American Market More likely to cook from scratch. Twice as likely to use spices and seasonings. Prefer fresh ingredients. Spend more money on food. Eat at home more. Have a greater preference for sheep and goat meat in their diet.
Other important ethnic groups Caribbean Islanders Eastern Orthodox Christians Southern Europeans Africans Indians Asians Jews
Ethnic demand varies by... Time of the year Species Weight Age Sex Condition (fat) Blemishes tails, testicles, horns, ears Preference, bias (breed) Method of slaughter
Ethnic holiday calendar Eid ul-Adha Festival of the Sacrifice December 9November 27November 16November 6October 25 Muharramn Islamic New Year December 29December 18December 7November 26November 15 Mawlid al Nabi Prophets birthday March 9February 26February 15February 4 Start of Ramadan Month of fasting August 22August 11August 1July 20 Eid ul-Fitr Festival of Fast Breaking September 20September 10August 31August 19 Passover/pesach April 9-16March 30-April 6April 19-26April 7-14 Rosh Hashanah September 19-20September 9-10September 29-30September Chanukha December 22-29December 12-19December 2-9December 21-28December 9-16 Western Roman Easter April 12April 4April 24April 8 Eastern Orthodox Easter April 19April 4April 24April 15 Christmas December 25
The ethnic markets Identify a target market. Find out what they want, when they want it, and how they want it processed. Put your pencil to paper and determine if you can raise and process livestock profitably to meet their demand. Do it!
On-farm slaughter USDA allows exemption for on-farm slaughter by the owner of the livestock. On-farm slaughter is allowed for meat that will be consumed by the owner (or owners) or given to their workers or non-paying guests. Most states restate USDA regulations or impose more stringent regulations.
Custom-exempt Slaughter for owner of live animal. Producer sells live animal. Exempt from USDA inspection. Inspection focuses on facilities, not product. Meat must be stamped not for resale.
State-inspected 27 states operate meat and poultry inspection programs. Not Washington state Programs must at least equal to federal inspection program. State-inspected meat is prohibited from interstate movement.
WSDA Custom Meat Program Custom meat facilities Custom farm slaughters Mobile slaughter unit Custom slaughter establishment Fixed slaughter facility
USDA - Federal inspection Inspection of facility and product Ante-mortem (live) Post-mortem (carcass) Only federally- inspected plants can produce products that are destined for interstate commerce or for export to foreign countries.
Selling meat consumer, store, restaurant, farmers market, internet Livestock must be processed in a federally- inspected plant. Must get a federal label. Label is attached at processing plant. May need/want product liability insurance.
A scarcity of USDA plants Federally inspected plants are disappearing. Most are small plants or businesses. Big abattoirs are consolidating. Many small ruminant producers are located far from USDA abattoirs. There is a growing demand for local product that is humanely produced and processed.
A mobile abattoir Mobile – travel to livestock farming areas. Lower cost to build than stationary facility. Lower cost for processing. 3 units in Washington State 6 units nationwide
Producer-owned abattoir On-farm, custom, state, or USDA
Cooperative marketing sub-contract slaughter
Marketing options - live animals To a sale barn local, regional (terminal) To a middleman broker, dealer, buying station, live market To a processor Through a marketing co-op On-farm sales Customer takes On farm slaughter by customer Custom slaughter for customer income per animal, labor
Public auction barns stockyards, livestock auctions Consider the holidays Put your livestock in the market one week before the holiday. Sell when reported prices are low. Do not castrate or dock unless you have to. Do not sell poor animals. Desired market weights and conditions vary. Dont sell overly fat or thin animals. Make sure your livestock and fed and properly cared for.
Marketing options - meat value-added, direct, niche, relationship marketing To restaurant To store To consumer Pick-up Deliver Internet Farmers market *** Requires USDA inspection and labeling. ***
USDA or third party labels Must meet criteria of USDA or group issuing label Organic Grass-fed Natural Halal Eco-labels Humane labels
Other claims Raised on pasture No hormones No added hormones No antibiotics fed Grain-fed Breed American lamb or goat Farm fresh Locally produced