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Copyright 2000-2008 1 Innovation – and Journals in the Digital Era Roger Clarke Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Canberra Visiting Professor in Cyberspace Law.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2000-2008 1 Innovation – and Journals in the Digital Era Roger Clarke Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Canberra Visiting Professor in Cyberspace Law."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright Innovation – and Journals in the Digital Era Roger Clarke Xamax Consultancy Pty Ltd, Canberra Visiting Professor in Cyberspace Law & Policy, UNSW in eCommerce at Uni Hong Kong, in Computer Science at ANU OAR08.ppt Open Access & Research Conf. – Brisbane 26 September 2008

2 Copyright Invention The conception of a new idea The expression of a new idea in an apparatus or method Innovation The application of knowledge, in order to manufacture and deploy a new kind of artefact The articulation of an invention The adoption of a new product or process

3 Copyright Codified Knowledge expressed and recorded, in a more or less formal language (text, formulae, blueprints, procedure descriptions) disembodied from individuals communicable information Tacit Knowledge informal and intangible exists only in the mind of a particular person knowing that cf. knowing how to not readily communicated to others

4 Copyright Codified Knowledge An omelette recipe A combination of structured and unstructured text Tacit Knowledge The expertise to interpret the recipe to apply known techniques and tools to the activity, to recognise omissions and exceptions, to deliver a superb omelette every time, to sense which variants will work and which won't, and to deliver with style

5 Copyright Info Flows Within the Innovative Organisation

6 Copyright The Roles of Journal Articles in Innovation Theoretical Papers Empirical Papers and Underlying Data Prototypes Experimental Applications

7 Copyright The Future of Journals in the Digital Era Agenda The Functions of Refereed Journals Articles in the Digital Era Journals in the Digital Era Publisher-Categories Publisher-Categories' Cost-Profiles Business Models in the Digital Era

8 Copyright Refereed Journals The Core Functions Quality Assurance / Accreditation Publication Channel Discovery Mechanism Archival Mechanism Clarke R. & Kingsley D. (2008) 'e-Publishing's Impacts on Journals and Journal Articles' Journal of Internet Commerce 7,1 (March 2008)

9 Copyright Refereed Journals The Core Functions FunctionEmphasis Publication ChannelOriginal Discovery MechanismInterim Archival MechanismInterim Quality Assurance / AccreditationContemporary

10 Copyright The Journal in Mid-to-Late 20th Century Academic Life

11 Copyright The Digital Era's Impacts on Articles Early exposure of PrePrints 'Living Articles' Multi-Repository Publishing Multiple Discovery Mechanisms Linked 'grey literature' / supporting data Interactive Publications (animation, video, models supporting 'what-if' analysis) Open Review 'interactive public discussion' 'electronic letters to the editor' Central Submission-Points => "a market for articles"

12 Copyright The Digital Era's Impacts on Journals Process: PrePrint Publication first, Review second, Revision third, Accreditation fourth, Final Publication last Granularity (Volume, Issue, Article) Publication-when-ready Distributed Storage of 'Separates' in multiple repositories (own, employer's, discipline's) The Virtual Journal as an index-page of links to Separates, each carrying a signed certificate

13 Copyright The Journal in Very Early 21st Century Academic Life

14 Copyright Categories of Journal-Publisher Unincorporated Mutual An informal association of a modest number of people with a common interest Not-For-Profit Association A formally constituted not-for-profit association of individuals, usually within a particular discipline, profession and/or geographical region For-Profit Publisher A for-profit corporation, or a profit-oriented business unit of a not-for-profit association

15 Copyright Journal-Publisher Characteristics Form incorporated; business-unit; unincorporated Motivation a not-for-profit, associated with a community; an outsourced service provider; an entrepreneur Revenue Model cross-subsidised; self-funding; cross-subsidiser; for-profit Scope one Journal; some Journals; many Journals Scale little cash flow; small business; substantial business

16 Copyright A Journal Cost-Profile Model Establishment Operations Submission-Related Article-Related Issue-Related Generic Infrastructure Maintenance Financial Aspects Clarke R. (2007) 'The Cost-Profiles of Alternative Approaches to Journal-Publishing' First Monday 12, 12 (December 2007)

17 Copyright Cost-Elements within Operations Submission-Related Receipt, Acknowledgement & Management Assessment Process Conduct & Management Issue-Related Editorial Production-Editing Production Protection Distribution Article-Related Production-Editing Cataloguing Generic Marketing Customer Relationship Management Archive Management Indexing Governance

18 Copyright The Primary Factors That Affect Costs ?Submission-Load – Count, Communications Intensity Articles Accepted and Published Size, Special Features Issues Published Size, i.e. article-count, page-count, special features Frequency Competitive Virility Extent of the Brand Image Investment Emphasis on Market-Penetration, Revenue Maximisation, Content-Protection and other measures to control leakage of revenue

19 Copyright The Answers Unincorporated Mutual Subscription-Based Print Gratis eJournal Association One Print Journal One eJournal Five Journals – P or E For-Profit Publisher Subscription-Based Print Subscription-Based eJnl Open Access Print / eJnl $20,000 pa – $1,000 per art. Fully-Sponsored, hence Nil $112,000 pa – $3,750 per art. $22,000 pa – $730 per art. $3,750 per art. or $730 per art. $137,000 pa – $4,600 per art. $112,000 pa – $3,700 per art. $4,200 per art. or $3,400 per art.

20 Copyright What Value-Add by For-Profits? Pre-production, production, distribution, and their management, are no longer difficult There isnt just one one-stop shop; there are many The Web enables aggregation with ease The Web enables discovery with ease The Web enables auto-hotlinking generally, not just across a single publishers holdings Exploitation of market power (entry barriers, switching costs, control of backlists, bundling) is not value-add

21 Copyright Is the Higher Price Worth Paying? For-Profit Publishers higher cost-profiles arise from these additional functions: Marketing Brand Management Customer Relationship Management Content-Protection Profit-Making These do not benefit authors Nor communities (unless profit is made by Associations, or at least shared with them)

22 Copyright Digital Era Business Models

23 Copyright A Confounding Factor Economic Rationalism in the Tertiary Sector Much-Reduced Government Funding Governance from Collegiality to Managerialism Objectives and Strategies from knowledge advancement through research, instruction and supervision to Profit, and hence to revenue, cost, and market-share Competitive Exploitation is favoured, and hence Collaborative Research is threatened Increased Tensions are inevitable between Universities and Scholarly Communities

24 Copyright Innovation – and Journals in the Digital Era CONCLUSIONS Journals have an Important Role in Innovation, but: Openness is Vital (libre / 'free as in speech') Absence of a Cost-Barrier is Vital (not necessarily gratis / 'free as in beer', but no monopoly-enabled super-profits) Cost-Profiles are now much lower DIY ePublishing can be sophisticated Proprietised Journals have been undermined A Transition Period is in train, and monopolies are being savagely defended

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