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1 Innovative Capabilities and the Role of Consultants in the Information Economy IT-Management Discourse: Topics and Authorship This presentation is optimized for WinXP- Powerpoint Some of the grey hyperlinks may not work with OSX.

2 1.Introduction 2.Theoretical Considerations 3.Research Design 4.IT-Management Concepts: Discourse Analysis via Media Traces 5.CRM Case Study 6.Conclusions 1.Introduction 2.Theoretical Considerations 3.Research Design 4.IT-Management Concepts: Discourse Analysis via Media Traces 5.CRM Case Study 6.Conclusions Table of contents

3 IT-Consulting Project IT-Management Concepts Organizational Fields and Discourse Dissemination Outcomes Effects Subproject ZEW: Survey Subproject MA Univ.: Case Studies Subproject SOFI GÖ: IT- Management Discourse Overall Research Project Management IT-Consultants

4 1.Introduction 2.Theoretical Considerations 3.Research Design 4.IT-Management Concepts: Discourse Analysis via Media Traces 5.CRM Case Study 6.Conclusions 1.Introduction 2.Theoretical Considerations 3.Research Design 4.IT-Management Concepts: Discourse Analysis via Media Traces 5.CRM Case Study 6.Conclusions Table of contents

5 Emergence and Change of Management Knowledge Actors and Processes

6 Translation instead of diffusion (Latour; Czarniawska/ Joerges) Labels and/or akronyms and their wider horizon of meaning: Interpretative Flexibility (Konrad; Heusinkveld; Benders; Ortmann) The Embeddedness of Fashion Setters (e.g. Faust; Clark/Greatbatch) The Role of Fields and Discourse: Interorganizational Community (Swanson/Ramiller; Bloomfield/Vudurbakis) Fashion and possible Institutionalization: Taken-for-granted, Textbook-knowledge (Czarniawska/Joerges) Selective Focussing of Problems by guiding ideas (Leitbilder) not-intended effects: cycles or spirals (Deutschmann) Fashion as both progress and rationality; referring to early adopters (Abrahamson) Rise and Decline of Management Concepts and the Role of Actors: Results and Shortcomings

7 Innovating with IT: Coping with uncertainty. Organizational Visions and Building (on) Collective Expectations Innovating Organization Innovation Promoters Concept Provider Software/Hardware Producer/Vendor Organizational (meso level) Individual (micro level) Field, Community Level, societal Discourse Organizing Visions (Swanson/Ramiller) Collectively held expectations Image of the innovation Interpretation, Legitimation Mobilization Institutional Production from the beginning The Social Dynamics of Expectations (Konrad) collective expectations Prerequisite of action, Exerts image pressure interpretative flexibility in evaluation results Individual and specific expectations Strategic influence Expecting Expectations Sensemaking professional projects

8 IT-Management concepts or Innovating with IT: What´s different? Organizing/Strategizing Vision or Efficiency/Effectiveness Expectations Loosely coupled with: Artefacts: Computer and Communication technology equipment, Application and System Software, Tools etc. Protocols, Standards, Methodologies Which implies: Investment in fixed assets, technological path dependency involved (integration problem) Different set of actors: Software/Hardware Vendors, IT- professionals, IT-consultants (3rd wave of the consulting profession: Kipping)

9 1.Introduction 2.Theoretical Considerations 3.Research Design 4.IT-Management Concepts: Discourse Analysis via Media Traces 5.CRM Case Study 6.Conclusions 1.Introduction 2.Theoretical Considerations 3.Research Design 4.IT-Management Concepts: Discourse Analysis via Media Traces 5.CRM Case Study 6.Conclusions Table of contents

10 Discourse analysis: Combining Expert Interviews and Media Analyses (quantitative, content analysis) Time span considered: 1997 – 2006 (embracing the Internet-Hype and stock market bubble) Topic cycles in different media types Participation and Roles of different actors Authorship and Cited Experts Analysis Content analysis for selected issues and critical phases Research Design

11 1.Introduction 2.Theoretical Considerations 3.Research Design 4.IT-Management Concepts: Discourse Analysis via Media Traces 5.CRM Case Study 6.Conclusions 1.Introduction 2.Theoretical Considerations 3.Research Design 4.IT-Management Concepts: Discourse Analysis via Media Traces 5.CRM Case Study 6.Conclusions Table of contents

12 IT-(Management) Concepts Discourse and Media Traces Selecting topics (expert interviews, document analysis) Methods (search routines; databases; media selection) Thematic media grouping as a Proxy for Discourse fields (IT, Management, General) Relative data (hits/number of all documents)

13 E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM Selected Results (selected Topics)

14 E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting Selected Results Outdated or institutionalized? BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting e.g

15 E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting Selected Results Little or only recently recognized BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining e.g

16 E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining Selected Results Thematic Leadership IT-press IT self-rationalization and/or still looking for a business case e.g

17 E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining Selected Results Thematic Leadership Management-press (continuing in M. declining in IT.) e.g

18 E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining Selected Results Fairly Equal Thematization e.g

19 E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting Selected Results Subsequent Topics (example) BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining start trace!

20 E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining Selected Results Significant Public Interest e.g

21 E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining Selected Results Classic Bell-shaped + more recent modest rediscovery e.g

22 E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining Selected Results Increasing Relevancy after Internet Bubble e.g. (Up after 2001 in IT.; down since 1997 in M.) (peek 2002)

23 E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining Compliance BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Performance) Betriebsdatenerfassung SRM Nearshoring ERM Maschinendatenerfassung IT-Offshoring CRM IT-Nearshoring PLM SCM BPM (Process) OLAP BSC EAI Offshoring IT-Outsourcing Podcasting Mobile IT Web 2.0 Workflow Manag. DSS CAD FIS E-recruiting E-business SOA Outsourcing B2B KM IT Security Web Services DWH B2C RFID BI E-learning BPR Datamining Compliance Selected Results More recent upswing e.g

24 IT-(Management) Concepts Discourse and Media Traces Topic cycles give hints at relevance (attraction of attention), and timing for sub-groups and general public, and succession of topics. Can be combined with existing broader context knowledge Open questions: –Shift of Meaning across time (interpretative flexibility) –Different context specific meaning (Translation) –Substitution of Buzzword for mostly unmodified practice (different legitimation context) –Meaning of decline: Rejection, irrelevance or taken-for- granted

25 IT-(Management) Concepts Discourse and Media Traces Only broad hints at authorship (initiator, discourse participants, discoursive roles) Consequences: –More detailed analysis of authorship –Content analysis –Combined with broader case study approach

26 Selected Authorship Analysis © 2007 D.Schaeffer

27 Selected Authorship Analysis © 2007 D.Schaeffer

28 Selected Authorship Analysis More to come: Topic related Time related Cited Experts included © 2007 D.Schaeffer

29 1.Introduction 2.Theoretical Considerations 3.Research Design 4.IT-Management Concepts: Discourse Analysis via Media Traces 5.CRM Case Study 6.Conclusions 1.Introduction 2.Theoretical Considerations 3.Research Design 4.IT-Management Concepts: Discourse Analysis via Media Traces 5.CRM Case Study 6.Conclusions Table of contents

30 CRM Case Study Media Analysis including content analysis Analysis of Case specific Media and Arenas Expert interviews

31 CRM Traces

32 Reengineering Downsizing Internet Bubble New Growth Era? CRM Recovery? SFA (Sales Force Automation) CAS (Computer Aided Selling) Front-Office Solutions DWH, BI, Datamining IT Crisis (Cost Cutting, Outsourcing, Consolidation) establish! Before CRM AWCWMM Relationship Marketing Customer Focus Status enhancement of Marketing and Sales as Function or Profession Telco-, Utilities and Banking Privatization and Deregulation Large-Scale B2C Markets Internet as a new Distribution Channel

33 CRM-Expo as a specialized fair (since 1999) CRM as a highlighted topic of the general IT fair CeBit (CRM Arena 2007) CRM Best Practice Award CRM-specialized consultants CRM Forum (expert network, online-community) Offered by all major vendors and consulting firms, increasingly integrated within ERP packages (SAP) Rubrics (in CIO and Computerwoche) Covered by major analysts (Gartner,Meta Group, IT-research) and Consultant Reports (CapGemini) CRM roadshow (Computerwoche) Increasingly mentioned: CRM-Manager Certification of CRM software packages (by Hewson Group Analysts and Schwetz Consulting) CRM: Institutionalized Discourse CRM Expo

34 Discourse Participants CRM Expo 2007 CRM-Expo Advisory Board: Software vendors have the lead (Update, SAP, Microsoft, Oracle, Adito) CRM-Expo judges selecting convention contributions: 1 IT-Consultant 1 Marketing Consultant 2 Professors (Marketing) CRM-Expo convention speakers: Vendors Consultants Practitioners © 2007 D.Schaeffer

35 1.Introduction 2.Theoretical Considerations 3.Research Design 4.IT-Management Concepts: Discourse Analysis via Media Traces 5.CRM Case Study 6.Conclusions 1.Introduction 2.Theoretical Considerations 3.Research Design 4.IT-Management Concepts: Discourse Analysis via Media Traces 5.CRM Case Study 6.Conclusions Table of contents

36 The Set of Actors: Mobiles and path-dependent The need for coalitions beyond IT-experts and vendors Vendors surprisingly (?) in the lead The role of discourse: Construction, stabilization, modification and (possibly) de-construction IT-consultants as Salesforce or benevolent Critics Innovative IT-Management-Concepts and reflexive rationalization: Renunciation from a (perceived, constructed) problematic Past Remaining interpretative flexibility The possibility of institutionalization (from fashion to master idea) However, high incentives to innovate the innovation Remaining problem: How to detect, describe and fix a possible underlying continuity: which language is available? Problems for standardized diffusion surveys Conclusions and Outlook

37 Thanks for your Attention Friedländer Weg Göttingen Tel.: ( )

38 CAD back © 2007 D.Schaeffer

39 Web 2.0 back © 2007 D.Schaeffer

40 EAI back © 2007 D.Schaeffer

41 BSC back (continuing in M. declining in IT.) © 2007 D.Schaeffer

42 BPM (Process) back © 2007 D.Schaeffer

43 New Era E-business back © 2007 D.Schaeffer (popular weekly & daily press) Public Interest

44 CRM back © 2007 D.Schaeffer (recent rediscovery) Classic Bell-shaped another Bell-shaped

45 New Era bellshaped) E-business (bellshaped) back © 2007 D.Schaeffer (popular weekly & daily press) Public Interest Classic Bell-shaped (recent rediscovery)

46 Outsourcing back © 2007 D.Schaeffer (upswing after 2001 in IT-Press) (downward since 1997 in Management-Press)

47 IT-Security back © 2007 D.Schaeffer New Era (non intended effects, reaction to more open systems) another recent theme

48 Compliance back © 2007 D.Schaeffer New Era (new possibilities - new duties; states as initiating actors)

49 Manager Magazin Visibility of SFA - CRM ( ) back another source CRM Story

50 Absatzwirtschaft Visibility of SFA - CRM ( ) CRM Story back another source

51 Computerwoche Visibility-traces of SFA - CRM - CAS ( ) Siebel/Malone (1996/1998): CAS/SFA Crisis Diagnosis: 50% Failure Normalization: aggregated hits of a single topic =100% back next event read more CRM Story

52 Computerwoche Visibility-traces of SFA - CRM - CAS ( ) So-called CRM (1997) Normalization: aggregated hits of a single topic =100% back next event CRM Story read more Expectation and coalition building ( ) 1:1 Marketing (1998) last event

53 Computerwoche Visibility-traces of SFA - CRM - CAS ( ) CRM in Fashion CRM as a Must-Have CRM as aPhilosophy Early warnings (1999): Sales Force reluctance Customer reservation Normalization: aggregated hits of a single topic =100% back next event read more CRM Story last event

54 Computerwoche Visibility-traces of SFA - CRM - CAS ( ) Fierce Price Competition Discount-Strategy ( ) Normalization: aggregated hits of a single topic =100% back next event CRM Story Return of the Supressed (2000 ff) read more last event

55 Computerwoche Visibility-traces of SFA - CRM - CAS ( ) CRM only Nice-to-have Coupled with VBM Gartner (2003): CRM Crisis Diagnosis: 60% Failure Normalization: aggregated hits of a single topic =100% back next event CRM Story last event

56 Computerwoche Visibility-traces of SFA - CRM - CAS ( ) Save CRM-Initiative CRM as a journey (2007) Normalization: aggregated hits of a single topic =100% back CRM Story Indian Summer for CRM (2006) Recent Recovery read more Institutionalized CRM Discourse last event

57 Internet Bubble Reengineering Downsizing New Growth Era? CRM Recovery? SFA (Sales Force Automation) CAS (Computer Aided Selling) Front-Office Solutions DWH, BI, Datamining Telco-, Utilities and Banking Privatization and Deregulation Large-Scale B2C Markets Internet as a new Distribution Channel Relationship Marketing Customer Focus Status enhancement of Marketing and Sales as Function or Profession IT Crisis (Cost Cutting, Outsourcing, Consolidation Price Competition) CRM: Customer Relationship Management established as a discourse and a field Incumbent vendors Start-ups Neuer Markt Database Vendors Alliances with IT-consultants

58 Siebel and Malone describe their sales philosophy called "virtual selling," show how it is put into action, and then describe a final goal for the process (the "Informed Sales Force" ). Excellent points are made against blind faith in technology and the experience many companies have with serious shortcomings in their salesforce automation system. The authors point out that in the race to automate sales, the software is often used as a means of cost reduction, with word processing, spreadsheets, , etc., used for control and analysis rather than aimed at improving the sales process. Their solution is the Informed Sales Force, which uses technology to maximize the individual salesperson's selling time, provide computer access to all corporate and marketing information relevant to the sale, and position the salesperson to make critical decisions independently. Although the book offers valuable insights, it is highly theoretical. Nevertheless, with the surge in usage of automated sales technology (sales of such systems estimated to be $700 million in 1995 and $10 billion by 2000), this book is a good resource for considering the potential value of such technology and its pitfalls. (Amazon Booklist) Siebel/Malone (1996) Virtual Selling: Going Beyond the Automated Sales Force to Achieve Total Sales Quality back Siebel article CRM Story

59 Siebel/Malone: Most Sales-Force-Automation tools don´t work (CW July 1997) Siebel und Malone caution about exaggerated faith in progress regarding Sales information systems: companies were moving on the brink when trying to impose technologically advanced SFA tools on existing sales organization. Processes would get more more complicated, team building would be hampered, and even additional work created. (CW July 1997) Siebel/Malone (1996) The Organizing/Strategizing Vision Critizing the unsufficient Past: The CAS/SFA Failure back second book CRM Story

60 Das Buch zeigt, wie es gelingt, durch die gelungene Kombination moderner Managementmethoden mit neuester Informationstechnologie den Verkaufserfolg zu steigern und echte Kundennähe zu erreichen. Jedes zweite Unternehmen beklagt schwerwiegende Mängel beim Einsatz von CAS-Systemen. Woran liegt das? Computer Aided Selling, so die Autoren, hat zwar die administrativen Tätigkeiten im Verkauf erleichtert, aber den Verkaufsprozess insgesamt nicht optimiert. Unternehmen, die auch in Zukunft im Wettbewerb bestehen wollen, müssen die Möglichkeiten von CAS besser ausschöpfen und die umfassende Informationsversorgung Ihrer Verkaufsteams sicherstellen. Nur so können Verkäufer als Unternehmer im Unternehmen flexibel und kundenorientiert agieren und Total Quality im Verkauf erreichen.(Amazon Kurzbeschreibung) (Amazon Booklist) Severe problems with CAS, only facilitating administrative work. Instead: Overall optimzation. The salesman as an Intrapreneur. Total Quality in Sales. Mobilizing the Salesmen for the Vision. Siebel/Malone (1998) Die Informationsrevolution im Vertrieb (Gabler) (German edition) back CRM Story

61 First mentioned in connection with Internet/E-commerce as so- called CRM (1997) Software vendors and Analysts see a gigantic market emerge (CW July 1997): from 700 mio. $ in 1995 to 10 billion $ in Expectation building and stock market dynamics: venture capital and IPOs (e.g. TPS Labs): promising 35% growth each year Software Vendors use IT-consultants as Salesforce; Consultants use Software implementation projects to sell their competence in customer focused business strategies: SAS - PW, Deloitte, KPMG und HP; Siebel – PW worldwide alliance: 350 consultants trained in Siebel products in Siebel gains Siemens as a prominent customer Incumbent (ERP) software vendors buy specialist boutiques (e.g. Baan – Aurum; IBM – Corepoint) Expectation and coalition building ( ) back CRM Story more

62 Database, Data Warehouse, and Data Mining Vendors looking for business expansion: from tools to solutions, using Martha Rogers One-to-one Marketing: establish a learning relationship with customers! (CW 1998). Not to have a CRM product is considered as a deficiency (Edwards, CW 1999) Today the question is not any more what the implementation of CRM costs but what are the costs of not having a CRM (Marketing Manager on first CRM-Expo, CW 1999) Expectation and coalition building ( ) CRM Story back Example Vision

63 Internet and network technology with its all embracing reach allows to collect and distribute huge amounts of data in shortest time. This implies a unique chance: virtual proximity to customers. In the old economic world it was considered an irrevocable fact that a firm has either to serve a broad, mostly anonymous mass clientele or is able to respond to individual needs of handpicked clients. Industry or manufactory – both together was impossible. Now it will go together after all. The Internet promises the end of the alleged indissoluble contradiction between mass and class (peach?) (Masse und Klasse). In future, not the product or the service will determine what the customer will do with it. The request of the customer will form the supply of the firm. Finally, the customer will be really king. Companies that are able to interpret the needs of the customer and transform these into products and services, will make about 60% more profit, grow much stronger, and gain value more quickly than others, according to a study of Deloitte Research. (Manager Magazin June, 2000, own translation) Expectation and coalition building ( ) CRM Story Example Vision back

64 Benefit of CRM is widely unclear (Survey Meta Group) Don´t love your customer to death! (Consultant) To solely rely on modern hard- and software is wrong (Consultant) Ambitious projects relying on large-scale data warehouses fail (according to a Merrill Lynch report) Failures go back to missing business case, too broad and complex project design, coordination problems across functions and business units. (CW 1999 different issues) Early Warnings (1999) back CRM Story

65 The Rediscovery of early warnings and even CAS/SFA-issues. The overall changing scenario: The end of nice-to-haves: the need for the business case and evidence as a value driver; instead emphasis on cost reduction, outsourcing, system consolidation, and IT-security; overall changing view of IT-innovation. More Emphasis on human resource and organizational aspects of customer relations. Companies have well been recognizing the subject. CRM is considered as one of the most important management topics in the recent years. However, many firms restrict their efforts to collect a hige amount of data about their customers. The analysis and transformation of information in tangible measures is often neglected. Worldwide 55 to 60 percent of all CRM-projects are failing, according to the estimation of Gartner Group analysts. Why? Most companies succumb to the fallacy to have solved all problems by buying a software package. (Manager Magazin 12/2002) Return of the Suppressed (2000 ff) back CRM Story

66 Indian Summer for CRM: A new growth story? Enlightment slope? More focused, less exciting Consulting Stories: CRM as a philosophy and a journey ROI still considered problematic: 52% only moderately satsified or complete disappointed, 32% confess that they cannot answer the question (Survey CapGemini 2006) The overall changing Scenario: new oppotunities for nice-to- haves? Inevitable: Differing and competing views and rationales (concurrent and cyclical movements) Diffusion or Translation. Instituionalization despite or because of Translation: Doing SFA under CRM? Rediscovery of the notion of Relationship in general? Recent Recovery ( ) back CRM Story Institutionalized Discourse


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