Presentation on theme: "Argumentation in Middle & High School Science Victor Sampson Assistant Professor of Science Education School of Teacher Education and FSU-Teach Florida."— Presentation transcript:
Argumentation in Middle & High School Science Victor Sampson Assistant Professor of Science Education School of Teacher Education and FSU-Teach Florida State University Patrick Enderle Assistant in Research Learning Systems Institute Florida State University Jonathon Grooms Assistant in Research Learning System Institute Florida State University
Argumentation is the process of proposing, supporting, evaluating, and refining claims Argumentation is scientific in nature when people propose, support, evaluate, and refine claims based on criteria that are valued in science
Did you know that argumentation is a major emphasis in the NGSSS for Science?
SC.912.N.1.4: Recognize that the strength or usefulness of a scientific claim is evaluated through scientific argumentation, which depends on critical and logical thinking, and the active consideration of alternative scientific explanations to explain the data presented.
It will be an even bigger emphasis in the new common core science standards based on the recommendations made in: A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas
Framework for the Next Generation Science Standards Practice 7: Engaging in Argument from Evidence - Construct a scientific argument showing how the data support the claim. - Identify possible weaknesses in scientific arguments, appropriate to the students’ level of knowledge, and discuss them using reasoning and evidence. - Identify flaws in their own arguments and modify and improve them in response to criticism. - Recognize that the major features of scientific arguments are claims, data, and reasons and distinguish these elements in examples. - Explain the nature of the controversy in the development of a given scientific idea, describe the debate that surrounded its inception, and indicate why one particular theory succeeded. - Explain how claims to knowledge are judged by the scientific community today and articulate the merits and limitations of peer review and the need for independent replication of critical investigations. - Read media reports of science or technology in a critical manner so as to identify their strengths and weaknesses.
Common Core ELA Reading in Science and Technical Subjects 8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence Writing in Science and Technical Subjects 1. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence Speaking and Listening 4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience
Common Core Mathematics Standards for Mathematical Practice 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments…
Why is argumentation such a focus in these documents? The literature suggests that students need to learn more about the central role argumentation plays in science “learning about scientific argumentation”
Why is argumentation such a focus in these documents? The literature also suggests that students can develop many aspects of science proficiency by engaging in argumentation “learning from scientific argumentation”
People that are proficient in science Know important scientific explanations about the natural world and can use these explanations to solve problems; Can create and evaluate scientific explanations and arguments; Understand the nature of scientific knowledge and how this knowledge develops over time; and, Can participate in scientific practices and the discourse of science. Duschl, R., Schweingruber, H., & Shouse, A. (Eds.). (2007). Taking science to school: Learning and teaching science in grades K-8. Washington, DC: National Academies Press
One way to help students learn how to participate in argumentation (and help them develop science proficiency at the same time) is to use an instructional approach called... Argument-Driven Inquiry
Argument-Driven Inquiry is a way to make lab activities more authentic and educative for students It consists of eight stages Teachers design their own labs using this model - just like a teacher uses a model to design a lecture or other type of lesson
Stage 1: Introduce the task and the guiding question Teachers use a handout that includes: The research question Materials that can be used ‘Hints’ or things to think about
Stage 2: Students work in groups to develop a method that they can use to gather the data they need. They then implement their method and collect data. Students have an opportunity to use technology to gather and analyze data during this stage of the model
Stage 3: Each group analyzes their data and crafts a tentative argument
Stage 4: Students present their tentative arguments to their peers. The students are encouraged to discuss and critique the claim, evidence, and justification of the evidence included in each argument
Stage 5: The teacher leads a reflective and explicit discussion about the content, the quality of the students’ investigations, and nature of scientific inquiry
Stage 6: Students write an investigation report to encourage both ‘writing to learning’ and ‘learning to write’ in science
Stage 7: The reports go through a double blind group peer review