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Safe System Approach Eric Howard.

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Presentation on theme: "Safe System Approach Eric Howard."— Presentation transcript:

1 Safe System Approach Eric Howard

2 The Safe System Approach
Recognizes limits of the human body Systematic approach brings benefits Recognizes that crashes are going to happen (even with focus on prevention) Aims to minimize severity of injury People should not die because of system failings Those responsible for components of the road transport system are accountable for the safety of the system 2

3 Safe System – Human Tolerances to Physical Forces – Vehicle impact speeds - Fatality thresholds
<40 km/h - pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists <50km/h - vehicle occupants in side impact crashes with other vehicles <70-80 km/h - vehicle occupants in head on crashes <30 km/h – vehicle occupants in side impact crashes with poles and trees 3

4 Safe System Safer Travel Alert and compliant road users
Safer speeds (lower speeds more forgiving of human errors) Admittance to the system Understanding crashes and risk Human tolerance to physical force Safer Vehicles Safer roads and roadsides (more forgiving of human errors) Education and information supporting road users Legislation & Enforcement of road rules 4

5 Safe System Elements Better Understanding Crashes and Risks
Crash reviews Initial inspection and audit At the local level, reporting to local regional panels Central panel review of categories of crashes & common themes Stakeholder involvement Intensive crash data analysis Improved understanding of road user safety issues 5

6 Safe System Elements Legislation Enforcement
Understanding current crash related behaviors - critical in developing responsive legislation Role of local and international research is vital Enforcement Public perception is critical to deterrence General deterrence to promote fear of detection Police presence – marked & unmarked cars Technology (safety cameras) “anywhere & anytime” Specific deterrence to target high risk behaviours Supported by publicity 6

7 Safe System Elements Admittance to the system – Licensing
Inexperienced drivers Graduated licensing opportunities Physically/mentally impaired drivers Effective assessment processes Restricted licence options Alternative transport options 7

8 Safe System Elements Education & Information for
road users – Cultural Change Understanding barriers to new countermeasure implementation Mass Media advertising for specific campaigns – alcohol/speed/drugs Specific information eg. brochures included with vehicle registration renewals Local government communications and publicity + community group involvement 8

9 Safe System – Core Elements
Safer Roads & Roadsides Safer Vehicles Safer Travel Speeds 9

10 Vehicle Safety Improve vehicle safety standards to maximise crash protection Side/curtain airbags Electronic Stability Program (ESP) to keep vehicle straight into object (not side swipe) Whiplash protection

11 Why It Matters - The Effects of Speed Limit Changes on Casualty Crashes – Victoria 1989/1990
Urban & Rural Freeways. Limit increased from 100 to 110km/h and reversed after 27 months Location Before 110 v During 110 –Comparison % Change During 110 v After 110 –Comparison % Change Total Victoria +24.6 -19.3 Rural +14.8 -16.8 Urban +48.9 -11.7 Victoria - High Severity Crashes +21.5 -18.2 Sliogeris, 1992

12 Major crash types (fatal & serious) – Edmonton/ Alberta ?
Run-off-road (80 km/h plus zones) Intersection – side impacts with other vehicles (50,60,70 km/h zones, urban areas) Head on (80 km/h plus zones) Pedestrians - (50 & 60 km/h zones, urban areas) 12

13 Run-off-Road Hit Fixed Object Crashes (Rural & Urban fringe)
Alberta ?% of Fatal Crashes ?% of Serious Injury Crashes

14 Safer Roads/Roadsides and Safer Vehicles in a Safe System framework
Scenario A – (Run off Road crashes) Unsealed Shoulders Unprotected roadside obstacles Vehicle Skids & impacts side - on into tree Likely Outcome Fatalities for vehicle occupants

15 Safer Roads/Roadsides and Safer Vehicles in a ‘Safe System’ framework
Scenario A – (Run off Road crashes) Road & Roadside Sealed Shoulders Barriers/hazard removal Tactile Line edging Vehicle Electronic Stability Program; less likely to slide sideways under braking. Likely Outcome Minor injuries when impacting barrier

16 Countermeasures – Run-off-road
Remove obstacles from ‘clear zones’ or protect with barriers on high volume roads Benefits in sealing shoulders to avoid loss of control Improve warning signs on curves Reduce speed limits on winding routes

17 Summary: Countermeasures - Road and Roadside Treatments
Wire Rope Barriers Shoulder Sealing Tactile Edge Lining Improved Delineation Tree Removal Tactile Centre Lines

18 Side Impact (intersection) crashes
? % of Urban Fatal Crashes ? % of Rural Fatal Crashes ? % of Urban Serious Injury Crashes ? % of Rural Serious Injury Crashes

19 Safer Vehicles & Safe Speed at Intersections in a Safe System Framework
Scenario A – (Intersection crash) Travel speed/speed limit 60 km/h Side impact protection levels low Airbags Driver only in 1 & 2 Driver & passenger in each vehicle Likely Outcome: Fatality in 2 (driver) Fatality /serious injury in 1 (passenger) Vehicle 1 Vehicle 2

20 Safer Vehicles & Safe Speed at intersections in a ‘Safe System’ Framework
Scenario B – (Intersection crash) Travel speed/speed limit 50 km/h Side impact protection levels high Airbags Side Curtain in 2 Driver & passenger in 1 & 2 Driver and passenger in each vehicle Likely Outcome: Serious Injury in 2 (driver) Vehicle 2

21 Safer Roads & Roadsides: Intersection (side impact between vehicles) crashes
Identify higher crash rate intersections for serious casualty crashes – overall network in urban areas Select countermeasures Roundabouts Signals & upgrades Higher friction surfacing Turn signals Other treatments Funding Seek an ongoing specific program – own funds or insurers? 21

22 Summary: Infrastructure countermeasures - Urban Intersections
Improving skid resistance on approaches to intersections Infrastructure treatments Turn signals Signals Roundabouts Channellisation Turn lanes Speed Limits

23 Intersection crashes – Role of vehicle safety & travel speed
Increase provision of head protecting curtain airbags in fleet Increase provision of whiplash protection in seating Lower travel speeds Enforcement measures Speed limits (review in higher risk locations) 23

24 Safe Roads/Roadsides and Safer Vehicles in a Safe System framework - Addressing head – on crashes
Scenario A – (Head-on crash) Travel Speed 100km/h (limit 90) Airbags Driver only in vehicle 1 Driver & Passenger in each vehicle Likely Outcome 3 fatalities (+ likely fatality/serious injury in vehicle 1)

25 Safe Roads/Roadsides and Safer Vehicles in a Safe System Framework - Addressing head – on crashes
Scenario B – (Head-on crash) Travel Speed 100km/h (limit 90) Airbags Driver & Passenger in 1 & 2 Driver & Passenger in each vehicle Infrastructure Duplication or Wire Rope Barriers (2 + 1) Best Likely Outcome Minor injuries in 1

26 Safe Speed/Safer Vehicles – addressing pedestrian crashes in a ‘Safe System’ framework
Scenario A – Pedestrian crash Speed Zone 50 km/h SUV Pedestrian struck at 45 km/h Outcome Fatality Scenario B – Pedestrian crash Speed Zone 40 km/h Pedestrian struck at 35 km/h Pedestrian friendly vehicle Likely Outcome Serious Injury

27 Countermeasures – pedestrian crashes
Lower Speeds where pedestrians interact with traffic Physically separate pedestrians from vehicles

28 Safer Speeds Speed Limits School & construction speed zones
Variable limits in higher pedestrian risk areas Arterial road limits in Edmonton Rural road limits Fact sheets/information

29 Safer Vehicles Inform the community why vehicle safety matters
Building consumer demand for safety Fleet operator commitment Influencing vehicle makers Improve maintenance of safety features Eliminating inappropriate vehicle advertising

30 Summary Alberta & the City of Edmonton will reduce its road toll through an evidence driven partnership approach. Further gains will be made through a Safe System focus on improved road infrastructure, safer vehicles, application of safe speed limits and continued efforts to convince road users to accept and comply with road laws.

31 Road Safety & Levels of Intervention

32 Safe System Approach Eric Howard

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