2 ObjectivesDescribe the guiding principles of educating healthcare providersDefine core competencies and their role in curriculum development and designRecognize effective approaches to teaching and learningList the challenges in educating healthcare providers
3 Guiding Principles The education of healthcare providers must: address the priority health needs and problems within a society,identify national policies, guidelines, and standards that are relevant to those needs and problems, anddefine the expected role of healthcare providers.
4 Provider Roles Education should prepare providers to function as: CaregiversDecision-makersCommunicatorsCommunity leadersManagers
5 Professional Development Continuum Begins with undergraduate educationContinues throughout professional practiceIncludes inservice training and/or continuing educationProviders should be life-long learners
6 Academic ProgramA series of courses that have both theoretical and practical components and are designed to prepare students as a specific category of healthcare provider.Academic programs typically involve several years of study, allowing time and opportunities for students to develop essential competencies that encompass essential knowledge, skills, values, and behaviors.
7 Core CompetenciesAspects of a subject or discipline that are common to all students, essential to practice, and essential to master in order to graduate from an academic program and enter into practice.Each core competency for an academic program will encompass cognitive (knowledge), psychomotor (skills) and affective (values and behaviors) domains that are observable and can be appraised.
8 Defining Core Competencies What is the job description for the position the student may hold after graduation?What knowledge, skills, and attitudes are experienced health professionals in that cadre applying in the workplace?What are the licensing requirements in the related field?
9 Curriculum Terminology #1 Curriculum -Curriculum can be defined as the totality of learning activities that are designed to achieve specific educational outcomes.Both a written document and the actual practice of implementing an academic program.Unique and based on healthcare needs.Flexible and always changing.Regularly revised based on ongoing monitoring of individual courses and occasional evaluation of the academic program.
10 Curriculum Terminology #2 Curriculum development and revision is a systematic, logical, and dynamic process for achieving organized learning.Curriculum design is the organization and sequencing of course requirements and learning experiences that make up the total academic program.
11 Curriculum Development and Design Let’s review the process presented in Figure 1-2 on Page 1-6.
12 Effective Approaches #1 Is teaching and learning a science or an art?Probably a little of both.Effective teaching is a learned ability.There are concepts and principles based on research that can help make teaching and learning more effective.
13 Effective Approaches #2 Teaching can be defined as the conscious manipulation of the students’ environment in a way that allows their activities to contribute to their development as people and clinicians.Learning can be defined as a change in behavior, perceptions, insights, attitudes, or any combination of these that can be repeated when the need is aroused.
14 Teaching & Learning are more effective when . . . #1 Students are ready and want to learn.Students are aware of what they need to learn (i.e., clear learning objectives or outcomes).New KSAs build on what students already know or have experienced.Students are active and participate in their learning.
15 Teaching & Learning are more effective when . . . #2 Students are encouraged to apply critical thinking and alternative approaches supported by sound reasons.New KSAs are realistic, relevant, and can be put to immediate use.New knowledge, skills, and attitudes are demonstrated to students, applied by students, and integrated into the students’ world.
16 Teaching & Learning are more effective when . . . #3 Numerous opportunities are given for students to practice and to receive feedback on their performance.Feedback to students on their performance is immediate, constructive, and nonjudgmental.Teaching is interesting, pleasant, and exciting.
17 Teaching & Learning are more effective when . . . #4 A variety of teaching methods and techniques is used.Teaching moves step-by-step from simple to complex, and is organized, logical, & practical.
18 Teaching & Learning are more effective when . . . #5 Ideas and concepts are presented clearly, alternative explanations are presented, and teachers check frequently for students’ understanding.The learning environment is realistic, relevant, and one of trust, mutual respect, relative calm, helpfulness, freedom of expression, and acceptance of different opinions and approaches.
19 Activity Work in 7 groups. Review your approach to teaching and learning (see next slide).Summarize 5 key points about your approach.Record these on a flipchart page.Share with the large group.
20 The Approaches Adult learning Participatory learning Deep learning Experiential learningProblem-based learningMastery learningLife-long learning
21 Challenges #1 Information overload (adding KSA to the curriculum) Large numbers of students and insufficient numbers of teaching staffLimited opportunities to practice and master skills
22 Challenges #2Poor monitoring of students’ progress, leading to limited opportunities for providing feedback to studentsFacilities used for clinical practice that are not always representative of the facilities, such as outpatient clinics, where graduates will work
23 Challenges #3The need to develop competencies that are difficult to teach, such as decision-making, problem solving, ethics, and valuesThe difference between the ideal world, where all resources are available, and the real world, where resources and technology are scarce
24 Challenges #4Poor quality materials and equipment, and limited access to computers and up-to-date reference materialsLittle coordination between different teaching units and different levels of study, and between theoretical and practical portions of academic programs
25 Challenges #5Practical experiences that are separated from, and do not always reflect, the associated theoretical experiencesHigh turnover of teaching staff
26 Challenges #6Teachers who have no formal training in educational theories or methodologiesLack of incentives for teachers to improve their own performance
27 How To Use This Manual #1This manual describes a process for planning and conducting effective teaching that looks something like this:Develop a syllabusTeach using interactive teaching methodsStudents practice in simulated and real environmentsStudents are regularly assessed (knowledge and skill tests)Teachers monitor and revise their teaching
28 How To Use This Manual #2We have already looked at the competencies in Table 1-2.Teachers participating in a faculty development program using this manual can develop these competencies.We will talk more about faculty development later in the workshop.
29 SummaryEffective undergraduate education should offer a balance of theoretical and practical experiences.Students should be aware of the core competencies they will develop within courses in the curriculum.Teachers should participate in a faculty development program to develop teaching competencies.