Presentation on theme: "Plagiarism. Definition “Plagiarism is theft. It is using someone else’s words or ideas without giving proper credit—or without giving any credit at all—to."— Presentation transcript:
Definition “Plagiarism is theft. It is using someone else’s words or ideas without giving proper credit—or without giving any credit at all—to the writer of the original” (Trimmer 26). According to the CHS student handbook, “Plagiarism is the improper use of, or failure to give credit to, another person’s writings, visual or musical representation, or ideas. It can be an act as subtle as inadvertently neglecting to use quotation marks or references when using another source, or as blatant as knowingly copying an entire paper, or parts of a paper, and claiming it as your own” (42).
What needs to be cited? All words quoted directly from another source, including interviews/conversations All ideas paraphrased/summarized from another source All ideas borrowed from another source: statistics, graphs, charts, diagrams, etc.
What does not need to be cited? Common Knowledge –Dates of famous events in history –Generally known phrases/clichés –Commonly known terms in one’s field Ex. Impressionism, Transcendentalism According to the Purdue Online Writing Lab, “If material is found undocumented in five other sources or in general reference books, it does not have to be cited.” If in doubt, cite! (always ask the teacher)
Direct Quotations When using the exact words from a source, one should place quotation marks around all of the words taken from the source. If one would like to leave out part of the author’s sentence, one should use an ellipsis. One should also be sure to cite the source at the end of the sentence. Probably only about ten to fifteen percent of the final paper should appear as direct quotes.
Examples of Direct Quotations “I decline to accept the end of man…I believe that man will not merely endure; he will prevail” is one Southern writer’s view of humanity (Faulkner 116). OR “I decline to accept the end of man…I believe that man will not merely endure; he will prevail” is Southern writer William Faulkner’s view of humanity (116). Note: MLA now recommends that the author’s name be included in the sentence with the direct quote.
Paraphrasing A rewording of an original passage that retains the meaning –Does not just rearrange the words –Does not use the same sentence structure –Should be written in your own words and in your own style –Should be cited at the end of the sentence and on the works cited page –Should not use an end citation for an entire paragraph Every paragraph should end with a student’s thoughts. Every paragraph should NOT end with a citation.
Paraphrasing Techniques Original text: Transportation did not stop crime in England or even slow it down. The “criminal class” was not eliminated by transportation, and could not be, because transportation did not deal with the causes of crime. Version A—Plagiarized: Transportation did not stop crime in England or even slow it down. Criminals were not eliminated by transportation because transportation did not deal with the causes of crime.
Paraphrasing Techniques Version B—Plagiarized: Robert Hughes points out that transportation did not stop crime in England or even slow it down. The criminal class was not eliminated by transportation, and could not be, because transportation did not deal with the causes of crime (168). Version C—Correct: Hughes argues that transporting criminals from England to Australia “did not stop crime…. The ‘criminal class’ was not eliminated by transportation, and could not be, because transportation did not deal with the causes of crime” (168).
Final Notes Approximately 85% of the paper will be documented, even though most of the paper is written in one’s own words. If the paper is simply one quote after another, then this has not been done correctly.
Tips for Teachers on Spotting Plagiarism 1.Diction and Phrasing: Do these things match up to what the student has turned in in the past? 2.Formatting Inconsistencies: Is the entire paper formatted the same way? 3.Types of sources: Are the sources easy to access and related to the topic? 4.Plot Summary: Is there too much? 5.An inability to discuss the thesis or process orally 6.Unusual spelling, including British forms of words 7.The paper sounds suspiciously like another paper from the same class 8.Inconsistencies in content or argument: Does all of the content work together? Do all of the arguments work together? 9.Quotations with citation: watch for differences in page numbers from your class text 10.A history of plagiarism, last- minute or late papers, and other behavioral signs (Gilmore 12)
Tips to create better papers 1.Have a thesis. 2.Make an outline. 3.Read/take notes…put quotes around words that are copied from somewhere else. Students should not take notes in complete sentences unless they are writing a direct quote Notes can be made either on note cards or regular paper Students should read all of the research material prior to writing notes to insure that they are writing only the information that they need from the source 4.Use the author’s name in the sentence with his/her quote. 5.Use quotes sparingly. 6.Teach students how to paraphrase.
Consequences for Plagiarism “If a teacher believes that plagiarism has occurred, the teacher will meet with the student. If it is determined that the student has plagiarized, the following consequences will occur: –First Offense—the student will be given 24 hours to re-do the assignment to receive a grade of no more than 70%. –Second Offense—a second offense will result in a category two referral, and the student will receive no credit for the assignment.” (42)
FMI If you have any questions on citation or plagiarism, this is the official resource that will be used: http://owl.english.purdue.edu MLA has been updated, so look for the 2009 updates when visiting the site.
Works Cited Gilmore, Barry. Plagiarism: Why It Happens. How to Prevent It. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann 2008. Print. Hughes, Robert. The Fatal Shore. New York: Knopf 1987. Print. The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2008. Web. 27 Dec. 2008. Trimmer, Joseph F. A Guide to MLA Documentation. 7th ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin 2006. Print.