1 SPA Background At COP 7 (2001) GEF was requested to provide financial resources for: “establishing pilot or demonstration projects to show how adaptation planning and assessment can be practically translated into projects...” Response: Strategic Priority “Piloting an Operational Approach to Adaptation (SPA)” established in 2004 Initial Budget: $50 million
2 SPA Objectives Objective of SPA: reduce vulnerability and increase adaptive capacity to the adverse effects of climate change in GEF focal areas SPA supports pilot and demonstration projects that address local adaptation needs AND generate global environmental benefits (GEBs) in GEF focal areas: biological diversity climate change international waters land degradation ozone layer depletion persistent organic pollutants (POPS)
3 SPA vs. other GEF Funds SPA Eligible Projects generate both local (development-focused) and global environmental benefits. emphasis on structured learning and capacity building Other GEF Funds: For projects that focus primarily on development benefits — health, agriculture, water or infrastructure, etc. Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF) Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) Global environmental benefits– not a prerequisite
4 GEBs The global benefits required for SPA-funded adaptation activities may be generated: in a GEF focal areas or in a combination of focal areas. Adaptation projects largely in two focal areas: Biodiversity Land Degradation
5 Adaptation by GEF Focal Area GEBs: reduced risks of global biodiversity loss enhanced protection of ecosystems and their species increased sustainability of biodiversity efforts Priority areas for adaptation Integrating climate change risk considerations into: protected area systems and/or other initiatives to support BD coral reefs forests Biodiversity http://www.come2india.org/images/sundarbans-national-park.jpg
6 Adaptation by GEF Focal Area Land Degradation GEBs: sustainable land management to preserve conserve and restore the structure and functional integrity of ecosystems stabilize sediment storage and release in water-bodies Priority areas for adaptation integration of climate change risks into: - sustainable land management planning http://sgp.undp.org/web/images/6249/gommeraie_degradee_dans_le_canton_boutelfil.html
7 Adaptation by GEF Focal Area International Waters GEBs: Transboundary concerns regarding international waters addressed. Areas of support: support physical habitat restoration in coastal and marine areas lakes, and watercourses strengthening joint management of shared aquatic resources reducing transfer of aquatic invasive species reducing transboundary and land-based sources of pollution balancing competing water uses through support to integrated land and water management Priority areas for adaptation Integrating climate change risks into existing efforts to address multiple stresses on water bodies and basins and their use. http://sgp.undp.org/web/images/3853/stream.html
8 Incremental reasoning GEF SPA funds the incremental costs of adaptation activities that ensure the delivery or protection of GEBs in all GEF focal areas. Project preparation 1. Proponent prepare a baseline scenario (i.e. only those activities considered in baseline development planning. Typically address non- climate change related drivers of a problem) 2. Proponents prepare an alternative GEF scenario to include activities that, in the absence of climate change, would be expected to produce the desired GEBs. Add SPA-funded activities that ensure GEBs by improving the resilience (to climate change) of the systems concerned. Difference between costs associated with baseline scenario and alternative scenario are the incremental costs.
9 SPA Outcomes Outcomes of SPA projects: enhanced adaptive capacity reduced vulnerability to adverse effects of climate change delivery GEBs in the face of climate change impacts Monitoring (Critical element in SPA projects) Outputs monitored and indicators developed and evaluated on a project-by-project basis, Outputs monitored by a double set of key indicators that measure progress addressing adaptation (i.e. VRA) and generating global environmental benefits (as in typical SGP project).
10 Did you know? Hierarchy of a log frame for GEF Projects: Outcomes: changed conditions. What the “project” leaves behind. MOST IMPORTANT! Outputs: the tangible products and services that come out of the use of resources in the project contribute to the outcomes Activities/inputs: what needs to be done to realize outputs and the inputs needed to produce the outputs Outcomes and outputs need indicators. Must be measurable 10