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Digital Libraries from Theory to Framework to Application: 5S Model, Open Archives Initiative, and Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.

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Presentation on theme: "Digital Libraries from Theory to Framework to Application: 5S Model, Open Archives Initiative, and Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Digital Libraries from Theory to Framework to Application: 5S Model, Open Archives Initiative, and Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations December 6, 2000 --- Seoul Edward A. Fox CS DLRL Internet TIC Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA

2 Acknowledgements (Selected) F Mentors: JCR Licklider, Michael Kessler, Gerard Salton F Sponsors: Adobe, IBM, Microsoft, NLM, NSF, OCLC, SOLINET, SURA, UNESCO, US Dept. of Ed. (FIPSE), … F VT Faculty/Staff: Tony Atkins, Thomas Dunbar, Debra Dudley, John Eaton, Gwen Ewing, Peter Haggerty, Gary Hooper, Gail McMillan, Len Peters, James Powell, …  VT Students: Emilio Arce, Fernando Das Neves, Brian DeVane, Robert France, Marcos Goncalves, Scott Guyer, Robert Hall, Neill Kipp, Paul Mather, Tim McGonigle, Todd Miller, Constantinos Phanouriou, William Schweiker, Ohm Sornil, Hussein Suleman, Patrick Van Metre, Laura Weiss, …

3 JCDL 2001  First Joint ACM/IEEE Conference on Digital Libraries (+ NSF DLI-2 PI mtg) F F June 24-28, 2001 in Roanoke, VA F Conference Committee: F General Chair: Edward A. Fox, Virginia Tech F Program Chair: Christine Borgman, UCLA F Treasurer: Neil Rowe, Naval Postgraduate School F Posters Chair: Craig Nevill-Manning, Rutgers U.

4 Virginia Tech Background F Largest university in Virginia, land-grant, football, town population 35K plus 25K students F Blacksburg Electronic Village, since 1992, with > 80% of community on Internet F Net.Work.Virginia, largest ATM network, with over 900 sites, for education, research, government F LMDS, Local Multipoint Distribution Service, gigabit wireless networking - 1/3 of Virginia F Math Emporium, 500 workstations F Faculty Development Initiative, round 2 F Torgersen Hall, $30M Advanced Communications and Information Technology Center, opening, w. DLRL

5 Internet Technology Innovation Center Supported by Virginia’s Center for Innovative Technology Statewide University Partners - Governing Board: F Christopher Newport University –William Winter, William Muir, Virginia Electronic Commerce Technology Center / Southeastern Virginia Network (VECTEC/SEVAnet) F George Mason University –Scott Martin, Internet Multimedia Center (ICM) –Steven Ruth, International Center for Applied Studies in IT (ICASIT) F University of Virginia –Alf Weaver, Internet Commerce Group (InterCom) –Jim French, Internet Digital Library F Virginia Tech –Edward Fox, Digital Library Research Laboratory (DLRL), CC, CS –Scott Midkiff, Center for Wireless Telecomm. (CWT), VTISC, ECpE

6 ITIC @ VT Research Areas F Collaboration (e.g., group decision support) F Community networking (e.g., BEV) F Internet access (e.g., statewide network) F Information services (e.g., digital libraries) F Modeling and simulation (e.g., Web traffic) F Usability (e.g., human factors engineering) F Virtual environments (e.g., CAVE, visualization)

7 OUTLINE F Introduction, Grand Challenge F Definitions, 5S F OAI F NDLTD F MARIAN, ENVISION F PetaPlex F For more information

8 Digital Library Courseware F F WWW pages or large PDF copy files F CourseInfo quizzes based on books by Michael Lesk ( and William Arms (MIT Press) F Contents based on books, with other popular topics added (e.g., agents) F Separate pages to supplement: Definitions, Resources (People, Projects), and References

9 Digital Libraries --- Virginia Tech F MARIAN (NLM) F CS DL Prototype - ENVISION (NSF, ACM) F TULIP (Elsevier, OCLC) F BEV History Base (NSF, Blacksburg) F DL for CS Education - EI (NSF, ACM) F WATERS, NCSTRL (NSF) F NDLTD (SURA, US Dept. of Education) F CSTC (NSF, ACM), CRIM (NSF, SIGMM) F WCA (Log) Repository (W3C) F VT-PetaPlex-1 (Knowledge Systems)

10 Libraries of the Future JCR Licklider, 1965, MIT Press World Nation Province City Community

11 DL-Related Timeline 1985 CoRR DLI ETDs 1990 xxx 1995 XML OAI 2000 NCSTRL PDF Proposed Ugrad DL NDLTD DLI2 HyperCard TEI SGML PCs Hypertext Conf. DCRDF CSTR NSDL Scholarly EPub in U’s JPEG, MPEG MPEG-7 WWW Java

12 Computing (flops) Digital content Communicat i ons (bandwidth, connectivity) Locating Digital Libraries in Computing and Communications Technology Space Digital Libraries technology trajectory: intellectual access to globally distributed information lessmore (Slide from S. Griffin, NSF)


14 Structured Video Browser (making video into hypermedia) F IBrowse F Expository multimedia F Narrative Structures

15 ICU Information and Communication University Users Web Search Engines WWW Servlet Engine Web Server OS DB Search Server Servlet MPEG-7 Description Module 1 2 3 4 5 3’ 4’ 5’ MPEG-7 Image Library Systems Tech. t MPEG-7 Image Library Systems

16 t MPEG-7 Video Library Systems Tech. ICU Information and Communication University MPEG-7 Video Library Systems Tech. Video Data Description Generator Description Schemes Design Tool Description Scheme Meta Database Video Database Retrieval Server Module Player Presentation Module Architecture

17 Integrated CCLINC Translingual Information System DARPA Extraction What is the north korean movement in the front line? CCLINC SERVER Info Detection Summarization It seems that North Korea launch a missile again After North Korea launched a Daipodong missile last month, NK is perceived to proceed to an additional test launch. Korea, US and Japan enter into an alert state, and prepare for a joint response policy. Korea estimates that the additional launch will be on 09/05. Japan estimates that NK’s missile range is short. US information says that there is no sign of launch yet. Translation What is the status of nk missile launch against japan? BugHanI IlBonE Ddo MiSaIlEul BalSaHan Deus HaDa 2-way Speech Transation

18 Digital Libraries Shorten the Chain from Editor Publisher A&I Consolidator Library Reviewer

19 DL = Users Direct (Organized Artifact Mediated Communication) Author Reader Digital Library Editor Reviewer Teacher Learner LibrarianDr.Patient

20 Digital Libraries --- Objectives F World Lit.: 24hr / 7day / from desktop F Integrated “super” information systems: 5S: streams, structures, spaces, scenarios, societies F Ubiquitous, Higher Quality, Lower Cost F Education, Knowledge Sharing, Discovery F Disintermediation -> Collaboration F Universities Reclaim Property F Interactive Courseware, Student Works F Scalable, Sustainable, Usable, Useful

21 Benefits F Ease of use F Effectiveness F “The benefits of digital libraries will not be appreciated unless they are easy to use effectively.” - IITA Workshop report

22 DLs: Why of Global Interest? F National projects can preserve antiquities and heritage: cultural, historical, linguistic, scholarly F Knowledge and information are essential to economic and technological growth, education F DL - a domain for international collaboration –wherein all can contribute and benefit –which leverages investment in networking –which provides useful content on Internet & WWW –which will tie nations and peoples together more strongly and through deeper understanding

23 Borgman et al.: Workshop Report on Social Aspects of Digital Libraries: http://www-lis.gseis. Information Life Cycle

24 Grand Challenges Can F Mobilize the community F Spur creativity F Lead to important benefits in society F Push researchers to develop relevant theories F Force people to work in teams/groups F Convince funding agencies to invest F Help bring about integration of systems, interoperability, and seamless interfaces

25 DL Challenges F World Digital Library (Libraries) F Preservation - so people with trust DLs F Scalability, sustainability, interoperability F (Supporting infrastructure - networks, …) F DL industry - critical mass by covering libraries, archives, museums, corporate info, govt info, personal info - “quality WWW” integrating IR, HT, MM,... –Need tools & methods to make them easier to build

26 Licklider – Unified Theory? F Not ready in 1960s F Analog – unified field theory in physics F “Mess” today – segmented field, specialities –Database Knowledge Content Mgmnt –Multimedia, Hypermedia, Hypertext –Logic, Algebra, Artificial Intelligence, … F Expensive, annoying for users –Don’t know where to look –Don’t know how to use services

27 OUTLINE F Introduction, Grand Challenge F Definitions, 5S F OAI F NDLTD F MARIAN, ENVISION F PetaPlex F For more information

28 Definitions F Library ++ (library+archive+museum+…) F Distributed information system + organization + effective interface F User community + collection + services F Digital objects, repositories, IPR management, handles, indexes, federated search, hyperbase, annotation

29 Definition: Digital Libraries are complex systems that F help satisfy info needs of users (societies) F provide info services (scenarios) F organize info in usable ways (structures) F present info in usable ways (spaces) F communicate info with users (streams)

30 5S Layers Societies Scenarios Spaces Structures Streams

31 Definition: 5S Framework F Societies: interacting people (, computers) F Scenarios: services, functions, operations, methods F Spaces: domains + constraints (e.g., distance, adjacency): 2D, vector, probability F Structures: relations, trees, nodes and arcs F Streams: sequences of items (text, audio, video, network traffic) F (5 Element System: Fire, Wood, Earth, Metal, Water)

32 5S: Combinations F Societies + Scenarios = user model F Societies + Scenarios + Spaces = user interface F Streams + Structures = markup F Streams + Structures + Scenarios = object F Structures + Scenarios = DBMS

33 Core of DL F Collecting –Authoring, Repositories, Archives, Museums, … F Organizing –Packaging of Data and Metadata, Storing –Naming/Identifying and Cataloging –Classification, Clustering, … F Serving –Indexing, Linking, Summarizing, Visualizing –Browsing, Accessing, Searching, Filtering, Retrieving, Distributing, Using, …

34 DL Components User Interfaces Workflow Mgr DBMS Search Engines, Classifiers, … Data, MM Info Gateways Repository Rights Mgr MM/ HT Renderer

35 Document Models, Representations, and Accesses F Doc = stream + structure + use-scenario; hybrid (paper/electronic), digital only F Multilingual: content, summary, metadata F Multimedia: structure, quality (oS), search F Structured: MARC, SGML, by user: MVD F Distributed collection: Kleisli, CIMI, Z39.50 F Federated search: collecting, picking site(s), parallel search / fall-back, fusing results F Access: IPR, payment, security, scenarios

36 Architectural Issues F Internet middleware F Independent system / part of federation F Decompositions vary –search engine, browser, DBMS, MM support –repository, handle server, client –information resources + mediators, bus or agent collection + client with workspace/environment F Metrics: e.g., for federated search

37 Standards F Protocols/federation –Z39.50, CIMI –Dienst, NCSTRL –OAi protocol F Metadata –TEI: inline, detailed (structure in stream) –MARC: two-level, fine-grained –Dublin Core: high-level, 15 elements –RDF: describing resources/collections, annotation –OAMS and others used in OAi

38 (2 slides from Lee Zia, NSF) Presidential Directive - 12/17/1999 Subject: Use of Information Technology to Improve Our Society “ 13. The Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, the Director of the National Science Foundation, the Director of the National Park Service, and the Director of the Institute of Museum and Library Services shall work with the private sector and cultural and educational institutions across the country to create a Digital Library of Education to house this country's cultural and educational resources.”

39 Programmatic History Digital Libraries Initiative (DLI 1) - NSF/NASA/ARPA, FY 94-97 DLI 2 - NSF, et al., initiated in FY 98, continuing Education FY 98-99 DLI 2 Special Emphasis in Undergrad NSDL Program NSF: FY 00-02 DL Operational Fall, 2002 DLs & UG Earth Systems Education initiated FY 99, continuing

40 CS -> CSTC -> CRIM -> JERIC F NSF and ACM Education Committee are funding a 2 year project “A Computer Science Teaching Center” - CSTC - F College of NJ, U. Ill. Springfield, Virginia Tech F Focus initially on labs, visualization, multimedia F Multimedia part is also supported by a 2nd grant to Virginia Tech and The George Washington University: F ACM J. of Educational Resources in Computing


42 Author‘s tools


44 DL Components User Interfaces Workflow Mgr DBMS Search Engines, Classifiers, … Data, MM Info Gateways Repository Rights Mgr MM/ HT Renderer

45 OUTLINE F Introduction, Grand Challenge F Definitions, 5S F OAI F NDLTD F MARIAN, ENVISION F PetaPlex F For more information

46 Open Archives Initiative OAI

47 Open Archives Initiative (OAI) F xxx@LANL, high-energy physics (Ginsparg, 1991) F CSTR + WATERS = NCSTRL (Lagoze,1994) F xxx + NCSTRL = CoRR collaboration (1998) F Universal Preprint Service protoproto, Oct. 21-22, 1999, Santa Fe – led by LANL, CNI, DLF, Mellon --> OAi F Santa Fe Convention (see Feb. D-Lib Magazine article) F Follow-on mtgs: 6/3@San Antonio, 9/21@Lisbon (ECDL) F Archives -> Open Archives –Support unique archive identifiers –Implement Open Archives metadata set (DC, using XML) –Implement OA harvesting protocol (derived from Dienst protocol) –Register the archive F Build tools, layer other services: linking, searching, …

48 Metadata: Complex -> Simple MARC ($50)Dublin Core (DC)

49 OAI – Repository Perspective Required: Protocol DO MDO

50 OAI – Black Box Perspective OA 1OA 2OA 4OA 3OA 5OA 6OA 7

51 Black Box OAI-ETD Perspective ISTEC (Ibero America) PhysDisNSYSU (Taiwan) ADT (Australia) BN.PT (Portugal) www.theses.orgCyberTheses (Francophone) VTDissert.Online (Germany) MITOhioLINKCBUC (Catalunya) NDC (Greece) SEALS (S.Africa) CICU. Bergen (Norway) … …

52 Tiered Model of Interoperability Mediator services Metadata harvesting Document models

53 OAi Philosophy F Self-archiving = submission mechanism F Long-term storage system = archive F Open interface = harvesting mechanism F Data provider + service provider F Start with “gray literature” –e-prints/pre-prints, reports, dissertations, …

54 Archive of Digital Objects Archive Access Protocol Handle (ID) Digital object terms and conditions

55 Open Archives (protoproto) F ArXiv & Los Alamos National Lab F CogPrints & U. Southampton F NACA & NASA (reports) F NCSTRL & Cornell U. F NDLTD & Virginia Tech F RePEc & U. Surrey F Total of around 200K records

56 Original Open Archives Members F American Physical Society F California Digital Library F Caltech F Coalition for Networked Info. F Cornell University F Harvard University F Library of Congress F Los Alamos Nat’l Lab F Mellon Foundation F NASA Langley Research Cntr F Old Dominion University F Stanford University F U. of Ghent F U. of Surrey F U. of Southampton F Vanderbilt University F Virginia Tech F Washington University

57 Open Archives Future F EconWPA (U. Washington) F e-biomed -> PubMed Central (NIH) F PubScience (DOE) F Clinical Medicine Netprints (+ other HighWire Press holdings ) F University ePub (California Digital Library) F All public e-prints (MIT) F Scholar’s Forum (Caltech) F Int’l: CERN, Germany, India, Mexico, … F Goal: millions of books/articles/reports / yr

58 Approaches to Open Archives Build By Discipline Build By Institution

59 Approaches to Open Archives Build By Discipline Build By Institution Author Category Interdisciplinary Year Language Query …


61 Mechanisms F Sharing –Join federation, run software –Make metadata and archive available F Aggregating –By discipline –By institution –By genre F Automating –Workflow –Harvesting and providing services –Federated searching –Dynamic linking (e.g., with SFX)

62 VT View of the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) F Enable sharing of publication metadata and full- text by digital libraries F Standardize low-level mechanisms to share contents of libraries F Build higher-level user-centric and administrative services in meta-libraries F Install organizational mechanisms to support the technical processes

63 Virginia Tech Projects F MARC XML-DTD F Computer Science Teaching Centre (CSTC) F W3C Web Characterization Repository F OAI Repository Explorer F Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD)

64 MARC XML-DTD F XML Transport format for US-MARC records F Standardized metadata exchange format for traditional library services joining OAI

65 CS Teaching Center (CSTC) F Collection of reviewed online resources used to aid in teaching of Computer Science F Supports author submission and peer-review process for new ACM Journal of Educational Resources In Computing (JERIC) F Connected with NSDL (NSF 00-44) F

66 W3C Web Characterization Repository F Online database of metadata related to publications, tools and data sets dealing with Web characterization F Project of the Web Characterization Activity working group of the World-Wide-Web Consortium ( F




70 OAI Repository Explorer F Serves as a compliancy test F Allows browsing of open archives using only OAI protocol F Sends requests on behalf of user, parses and checks responses and displays browsable interface F Will detect most discrepancies in protocol F




74 OUTLINE F Introduction, Grand Challenge F Definitions, 5S F OAI F NDLTD F MARIAN, ENVISION F PetaPlex F For more information

75 A Digital Library Case Study F Domain: graduate education, research F Genre: ETDs = electronic theses & dissertations F Submission: F Collection: Project: Networked Digital Library of Theses & Dissertations (NDLTD – remember: ND LTD / NDL TD) (also, newer NUDL: Networked University Digital Library, with e-courseware, etc.)

76 The Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations Leader of the Worldwide ETD (Electronic Thesis and Dissertation) Initiative Training Authors Expanding Access Preserving Knowledge Improving Graduate Education Enhancing Scholarly Communication Empowering Students & Universities

77 Grad Program Library IT Ed. (Tech)

78 Media ETD Web Site ETDs Got Your Interest? Graduate Students Singapore AM Chronicle of Higher Ed. National Public Radio NY Times... U. Laval

79 Key Ideas: Networked infrastructure Scalability Education is the rationale University collaboration Workflow, automation Authors must submit Maximal Access PDF, SGML, MM, MARC, DC, URNs, Federated search Standards 8th graders vs. grads

80 What led to today’s meeting? F 1987 mtg in Ann Arbor: UMI, VT, … F 1992 mtg in Washington: CNI, CGS, UMI, VT and 10 universities with 3 reps each F 1993 mtg in Atlanta to start Monticello Electronic Library (MEL): SURA, SOLINET F 1994 mtg in Blacksburg re ETD project: std of PDF + SGML + multimedia objects F 1996 funding by SURA, US Dept. of Education (FIPSE) for regional, national projects F 1997 meetings in UK, Germany,... F 1998 – 1 st symposium – Memphis (20) F 1999 – 2 nd symposium – Blacksburg (70) F 2000 – 3 rd symposium – St. Petersburg (225) -> Caltech

81 What are the long term goals? F Attract all TDs/yr: 50K D-US, 25K D-Germany, 10K TD-Canada, … F >200K/yr rich hypermedia ETDs that may turn into electronic portfolios (images, video, audio, …) F Dramatic increase in knowledge sharing: literature reviews, bibliographies, … F Services providing lifelong access for students: browse, search, prior searches, citation links F Hundreds/thousands of downloads / year / work

82 ETDs: Library Goals F Improve library services –Better turn-around time –Always available F Reduce work –catalog from e-text –eliminate handling: mailing to UMI, bindery prep, check-out, check-in, reshelving, etc. F Save space

83 F Aiding universities to enhance graduate education, publishing and IPR efforts F Helping improve the availability and content of theses and dissertations F Educating ALL future scholars so they can publish electronically and effectively use digital libraries (i.e., are Information Literate and can be more expressive) What are we doing?

84 NDLTD Computer Resources Research Literature Student Prepares Thesis/Dissertation

85 Student Defends & Finalizes ETD My Thesis ETD


87 Student Gets Committee Signatures and Submits ETD Signed Grad School

88 Graduate School Approves ETD, Student is Graduated Ph.D.

89 Library Catalogs ETD, Access is Opened to the New Research WWW NDLTD

90 Status of the Local Project F Approved by university governance Spring 1996; required starting 1/1/97 F Submission & access software in place F Submission workshops for students (and faculty) occur often: beginner/adv. F Faculty training as part of Faculty Development Initiative F Over 3000 ETDs in collection – some have audio, video, large images, software, …

91 Archiving ETDs F Every 15 minutes back-ups made of not- yet-approved submissions F Hourly back-ups of newly approved ETDs F Weekly back-ups of entire ETD collection F Copies stored on-site and off-site

92 VT ETD Cataloging F same as current cataloging policies, except: –author-assigned keywords (not LCSH) –generic (not LC) call no. –fields/subfields as required for computer files –full abstracts F time savings –cataloger familiar with computer files –equipment, software for word processing –5 minutes avg. (10-15 minutes for paper TDs)

93 Library Costs F $12/vol. for paper thesis processing – catalog, bind, security strip, label, shelve – @950 vols./yr. = $11,466 F $3.20/vol. ETD processing – cataloging @950 vols./yr. = $3040 F $.07/vol. shelving F $.04/vol. circulation

94 Costs/Savings at VT F Graduate School stopped shipping to the library 3000 copies of paper TDs/year F Library stopped binding, shelving, and circulating 3000 copies of TDs/year F 166 ft of shelf space saved/year by the library F VT used existing equipment in Library (vs. start-up costs for staff, hardware and software from from a zero-base estimate: $65,000 – see

95 Institutional Members F Coalition for Networked Information (CNI) F Committee on Institutional Cooperation (CIC) F F F Dissertationen Online (Germany) F ETDweb, a Division of F Ibero-American Science & Technology Education Consortium (ISTEC) F National Documentation Centre (NDC), Greece F National Library of Portugal (for all universities) F OCLC Online Computer Library Center F Organization of American States (SEDI/OAS) F Southeastern Library Network (SOLINET) F UNESCO (

96 National / Regional Projects F Australia –U. New South Wales (lead) –U. of Melbourne –U. of Queensland –U. of Sydney –Australian National U. –Curtin U. of Technology –Griffith U. F Germany –Humboldt University (lead) –3 other universities –5 learned societies: Math, Physics, Chemistry, Sociology, Education –1 computing center –2 major libraries F Consorci de Biblioteques Universitàries de Catalunya, as group, –Universitat de Barcelona –Universitat Autonòma de Barcelona –Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya –Universitat Pompeu Fabra –Universitat de Girona –Universitat de Lleida –Universitat Rovira i Virgili –Universitat Oberta de Catalunya –Biblioteca de Catalunya F South Africa: ECHEA/SEALS F India, Portugal, …

97 OhioLINK F Statewide Consortium F Represents 79 colleges, universities, libraries F Public Universities F Private Universities and Colleges F 2-Year Colleges F Only a few (e.g., Miami U. of Ohio) are also NDLTD members on their own

98 US University Members (44) F Penn. State University F Rochester Institute of Tech. F U. of Colorado Health Science Center F U. of Florida F U. of Georgia F University of Hawaii, Manoa F U. of Iowa F U. of Kentucky F U. of Maine F U. of North Texas – required since 8/99 F U. of Oklahoma F U. of South Florida F U. of Tennessee, Knoxville F U. of Tennessee, Memphis F U. of Texas at Austin – required in 2001 F U. of Virginia F U. Wisconsin - Madison F Vanderbilt U. F Virginia Commonwealth U. F Virginia Tech - required since 1/97 F West Virginia U. - required fall 1998 F Western Michigan U. F Worcester Polytechnic Inst. F Air University (Alabama) F Baylor University F Brigham Young University (part, whole) F Caltech F Clemson University F College of William & Mary F Concordia University (Illinois) F East Carolina University F East Tenn. State U. – require fall 2000 F Florida Institute of Technology F Florida International University F George Washington University F Louisiana State University F Marshall University (W. Va.) F Miami University of Ohio F Michigan Tech F Mississippi State University F MIT F Naval Postgraduate School (CA) F New Mexico Tech F North Carolina State University

99 Other Countries with Members F Belgium F Brazil F Canada F Germany F Hong Kong F India F Italy F Korea F Mexico F Netherland F Norway F Russia F Singapore F S. Africa F S. Korea F Spain F Taiwan F UK

100 For professional societies F Like “writing across the curriculum”, e.g., Chemical Markup Language, MathML, … F Besides writing: computing/communications, information literacy, personal digital library management, tool use, research methods, collaboration, archiving/preservation F Data sets, communities of users of them F Classification systems / browsing / searching F NRC’s “On becoming a researcher”


102 Usage of ETDs in VT Collections 1996199719981999 Jan-Aug Total requests 37,171247,537465,974907,104 Daily Requests 1026851,7223,121 Abstract requests 25,829112,633177,647143,056 Hosts served 9,01522,72528,02252,663


104 Popular Works 1996 458 Seevers, Gary L. Identification of Criteria for Delivery of Theological Education Through Distance Education: An International Delphi Study (Ph.D., Educational Research and Evaluation, April 1993; 1353Kb) 432 Hohauser, Robyn Lisa. The Social Construction of Technology: The Case of LSD (MS in Science and Technology Studies, Feb. 1995; 244Kb) 390 Childress, Vincent William. The Effects of Technology Education, Science, and Mathematics Integration Upon Eighth Grader's Technological Problem-Solving Ability (Ph.D. in Vocational and Technical Education, July 1994; 285Kb) 310 Kuhn, William B. Design of Integrated, Low Power, Radio Receivers in BiCMOS Technologies (Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering, Dec. 1995; 2Mb) 287 Sprague, Milo D. A High Performance DSP Based System Architecture for Motor Drive Control ( MS in Electrical Engineering, May 1993; 878Kb) 165 Wallace, Richard A. Regional Differences in the Treatment of Karl Marx by the Founders of American Academic Sociology (MS in Sociology, Nov. 1993; 479Kb) 150 McKeel, Scott Andrew. Numerical Simulation of the Transition Region in Hypersonic Flow (Ph.D. in Aerospace Engineering, Feb. 1996; 3Mb)

105 Popular Works 1997 9920 Liu, Xiangdong. Analysis and Reduction of Moire Patterns in Scanned Halftone Pictures (Ph.D. in Computer Science, May 1996; 6.6Mb) 7656 Petrus, Paul. Novel Adaptive Array Algorithms and Their Impact on Cellular System Capacity (Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering, March 1997; 5Mb) 2781 Agnes, Gregory Stephen. Performance of Nonlinear Mechanical, Resonant-Shunted Piezoelectric, and Electronic Vibration Absorbers for Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Structures (Ph.D. in Engineering Mechanics, Sept. 1997; ? + 7926Kb) 2492 Gonzalez, Reinaldo J. Raman, Infrared, X-ray, and EELS Studies of Nanophase Titania (Ph.D. in Physics, July 1996; 4607Kb) 1877 Shih, Po-Jen. On-Line Consolidation of Thermoplastic Composites (Ph.D. in Engineering Mechanics, Feb. 1997; 3.3Mb) 1791 Saldanha, Kevin J. Performance Evaluation of DECT in Different Radio Environments (MS in Electrical Engineering, Aug. 1996; 3.2Mb) 1431 DeVaux, David. A Tutorial on Authorware (MS in CS, April 1996; 2.3Mb) 1394 Kuhn, William B. Design of Integrated, Low Power, Radio Receivers in BiCMOS Technologies (Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering, Dec. 1995; 2518Kb)

106 International Use  199619971998  85029928170 United Kingdom  6082,5014223 Australia  34623787373 Germany  71323673970 Canada  38712642201 South Korea  46311614431 France  2507252553 Italy  1918672781 Netherlands  18311301449 Brazil  229671089 Thailand  839581414 Greece

107 NUDL F 1/15/99 Networked University Digital Library (NUDL) proposal to NSF under DLI2 international program –VT: Library, Grad School, Industrial&Systems Eng. –Partners: UK (2), Singapore, Russia, Korea, Greece, Germany, plus Iberoamerican group (Spain, Portugal, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico) –Problems: Multilingual search, multimedia submissions, requirements/usability, international performance, … F Start with ETDs, then expand to other student works, portfolios, data sets, (CS) courseware,...

108 NUDL Research Partners F Ricardo A. Baeza-Yates, Universidad de Chile, Chile F José Luis Brinquete Borbinha, Biblioteca Nacional, Portugal F José Hilario Canós Cerdá, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Spain F Stavros Christodoulakis, Technical University of Crete, Greece F Eberhard Hilf, University of Oldenburg, Germany F Peter Diepold, Susanne Dobratz, …, Humboldt University, Germany F David Garza-Salazar, Monterrey Inst. of Technology (ITESM), Mexico F Sung Hyon Myaeng, Chungnam National University, Korea (+ colleagues) F Ana Maria Beltran Pavani, Prédio Cardeal Leme, Brazil F Lim Ee Peng, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore F Alexander I. Plemnek, St.-Petersburg State Technical University, Russia F Berthier Ribeiro-Neto, Federal U. of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Brazil F J. Alfredo Sánchez, Universidad de las Américas-Puebla, Mexico

109 Who are sponsors / cooperators? F Funding, Donations of hardware/software –SURA –US Dept. of Education (FIPSE) –Adobe Systems –IBM –Microsoft –OCLC F Others Serving on Steering Committee –National/Regional Projects: Australia, French speaking group (Montreal, Lyon), Germany, IberoAmerica (ISTEC, OAS), UK (UTOG) –CGS, National Lib. Canada, NSF, SOLINET, UMI, UNESCO,...

110 Relationship with publishers F Concern of faculty and students that still wish to publish books or journal articles, voiced: campus, Chronicle, NPR, Times F Solution: Approval Form gives students, faculty choices on access, when to change access condition; use IPR controls in DL F Solution: by case, work with publishers and publisher associations to increase access – AAP, AAUP – AAAS, ACM, ACS, Elsevier,...

111 Some responses from publishers F ACM: need to acknowledge copyright F Elsevier: need to acknowledge copyright F IEEE-CS: endorse initiative F ACS: After first publication, can release F Textbook publishers: different market, manuscript significantly reworked F General: restricting access to local campus will not cause any problems

112 How does this relate to UMI? F Generally, they are independent decisions. F 1987 UMI workshop was first to explore ETDs. F UMI wrote support letter for US Dept. of Ed. proposal. F UMI is on Steering Committee. F ProQuest Direct pilot of scanning works started 1/1/97, with free 2 yr access to front part. F We are collaborating on: – accepting electronic author submissions – standards (e.g., representation)

113 ETD Initiative (and UMI) Students Learn about DL, EPub TDs become more expressive N. Amer. (T)Ds are accessible, archived Global TDs become more accessible, archived UMI Universities

114 User Search Support (multilingual, XML) Note: All groups shown are connected with NDLTD.

115 F James Powell student project, D-Lib Magazine description in Sept. 1998 F XML description of each site –type of search engine / service –language –coverage (for resource discovery) F Adding Z39.50 gateway capability and integrating with MARIAN, along with Harvest and Open Archives protocols

116 Interoperability Tests Planned F IBM DL: donated equipment, technical support, powerful IPR (see TOIS, D-Lib) F Z39.50: OCLC SiteSearch / VT tailored s/w –university libraries w. catalogs of freely shared MARC records pointing to archival copies –via URNs: handles & PURLs F Dienst / NCSTRL - CS depts., DARPA, NSF, CNRI, Cornell – UVA, MIT have worked on extensions for ETDs - Portugal is studying use for Europe - VT is working on Dienst to Z39.50 gateway

117 Access Approaches F Goal: Maximize access and services, e.g., by encouraging: F UMI centralized services F VTLS: planned free union collection of metadata F Distributed service: Dienst, Z39.50 F Regional services (e.g., OhioLink, AZ/NM) F Local servers with browse, search – From local catalogs to local archives F WWW robot indexing and search services

118 Access Possibilities Web search engines library catalog clients www. theses. org www. openarchives. org 3 rd Party Services (e.g., UMI) Virginia Tech National Library of Portugal CBUC (Spain) Ohio Link MITNational Projects: AU, GE, …

119 Why might a university want to be involved? F To improve graduate education / better prepare your students / increase their knowledge and visibility F To unlock university information F To save money for students and for the university / improve workflow F To build an important digital library

120 Multiple objectives F Sharing research results –Decrease costs, increase services –Increase knowledge of users F Adding to author knowledge/skills –Epub, DL, IPR F Enhancing organization’s infrastructure –CS department, library –University, Laboratory

121 DL Submission Software F Similar software developed for W3C’s WCA, CSTC, and NDLTD F CSTC version field-tested to manage papers for ACM Digital Libraries ‘99 F May generalize for –conferences –electronic journal –resource description (e.g., courses, Web content)

122 How can a university get involved? F Select planning/implementation team – Graduate School – Library – Computing / Information Technology – Institutional Research / Educ. Tech. F Send us letter, give us contact names – F Adapt Virginia Tech solution – Build interest and consensus – Start trial / allow optional submission

123 Contact Our Project Team E-mail Phone Call Visit Video Tape

124 Convene Local Planning Group ETD

125 Build Local ETD Site Digital Library Policies Inspection/Approval Workshop/Training ETD

126 Responsibilities F Handle local education and collection –Contact information for helpers –Archive F Utilize standards –Metadata: MARC / DC-based concensus specification F Share metadata –Union services, mirrored services F Allow access – / –Open Archives Initiative (

127 Type 1 Members University Requires ETDs F Adobe Acrobat and/or XML/SGML tools F Automated submission & processing F Archive/access through UMI, (OCLC,) Virginia Tech,... F (Local) WWW site, publicity F (Local) Assistance provided as requested: email, phone, listserv(s)

128 Type 2 Members University Agrees to Require ETDs F Like Type 1 but set date not reached F Usually has an option or pilot F May: wait for new AY; start with all who enter after; … F Build grass roots support – Advisory committee: representative? expert? – Champions to spread by word of mouth – Approval: Senates, Commissions, Deans, Students – Publicity to reach community

129 NDLTD Members, Types 3-7 F 3. Part of university requires ETDs F 4. University allows ETDs F 5. University investigating, has pilot F 6. University consortium joins: –CIC (Big 10 coordinating body) F 7. Non-university organization joins –CNI (Coalition for Networked Info.)

130 Support Services Developed F WWW site with > 300 Mb, CD, videotape F Automated submission system (MySQL, UNIX, WWW scripts - grad school/library) F Student guidelines, style sheets, multimedia training materials, FAQs, press info F SGML and XML DTDs for ETDs F SGML to HTML (web generator) F LaTeX, Word templates, converters F FTP site for PS to PDF conversion with UNIX distiller

131 Special Support F OCLC –Hosting Jan. 9-10 DC-XML metadata std meeting –Might help with preservation or Worldcat extract F VTLS –Machine, software, support staff to run free –Union catalog server: multilingual, MARC/DC-XML F UNESCO –ETD Guide in English, French, Spanish: book, Web –Scholarships to attend Int’l ETD Conference –Assistance with regional workshops: Columbia, …



134 Accessibility Activities / Plans F Interface design (simple, 3D, VR) F Usability studies F Generic multi-lingual support F Support for those with disabilities F Hybrid collection (paper, MARC, abstracts, full-text, multimedia) F Disciplinary classifications, tools F Visualization of results, collection

135 CAVE Experiments F Use a familiar metaphor –building / floor / room / shelf / book F Rearrange orderings / shelving –use categories, clustering, ranking –use visualization: colors and gaps –study space mappings: physical, logical F Simplify movement for key tasks


137 CAVE-ETD F CAVE-ETD is a simulation of a library that runs in a CAVE (VR environment). F Populated with a subset of ETD records. Main Foyer room

138 Book Browsing

139 Reading Book Abstract

140 SPIRE Visualization

141 Support Offered F Software, documentation, tech support F Email, listservs (, -eval, -grad, -library, -technical) F Donations: Adobe, Microsoft F Evaluation: instruments, analysis - solutions/statistics F (Temporary storage / archiving; aid - in setting up an int’l service & archive)

142 OUTLINE F Introduction, Grand Challenge F Definitions, 5S F OAI F NDLTD F MARIAN, ENVISION F PetaPlex F For more information

143 MARIAN F Multiple Access Retrieval of Information with Annotations F (Marian the Librarian …) F Evolved from CODER system to a distributed Online Public Access Catalog (OPAC), then DL backend, now becoming a full DL system F From C/C++ to Java F Future: NDLTD, NUDL, PetaPlex F Use for campus collection management F Use for as centralized system with gateway services: OAi, Harvest, Z39.50, …

144 MARIAN Layers Database Layer Search Engine Layer User Information Layer User Interface Layer User

145 MARIAN Parallelism









154 ENVISION F NSF “A User-Centered Database from the Computer Science Literature” (1991-93) F Collected bib/typesetter data, converted to SGML F Scanned thousands of page images F MARIAN search engine - can be made available (also applied to the Virginia Tech library catalog) used as part of a prototype object-based DL, with tailored visualization interface (L. Nowell dissertation)





159 OUTLINE F Introduction, Grand Challenge F Definitions, 5S F OAI F NDLTD F MARIAN, ENVISION F PetaPlex F For more information


161 PetaPlex Top View 4 ft. side

162 PetaPlex Side View 4 ft. wide 8 ft. high Roles: * Support * Cooling * Power 15 shelves

163 PetaPlex F Digital Library Machine (“super” object store): Parallel computer / storage utility F Research: inverted files, video server, … F Knowledge Systems Incorporated is supplying VT-PetaPlex-1 with 2.5 terabytes through 100 nodes : u Net connection + 25GB disk + 233 MHz Pentium + Linux

164 PetaPlex Complex FRONT END MACHINE RS/6000, 1G RAM, 4 Proc. Nanoserver Service Machine 1 Service Machine 2 Service Machine 3 Service Machine 4

165 PetaPlex Service Machine Possibilities F Front-end provides handle/repository abstraction through hashing F Small object server F Large object server –video on demand –streaming audio F Information retrieval server F Proxy / cache server (e.g., 1 terabyte server of 1000 worldwide for Comsat/Intelsat)

166 Sornil & Mather Dissertations F Mather: efficiently handling very large numbers of objects of varying sizes F Sornil: efficiently handling IR for very large dynamic collections, large numbers of users, high transaction rates, large inverted files –modeling and simulation –data organization –parallelization of algorithms, alone and in combination for retrieval (related) tasks






172 Comparison Network of Workstations (NOW) BeowulfPetaPlex Archi- tecture Cluster of general purpose workstation class machines using off-the-shelf network interconnect General purpose PCs, interconnected with a custo- mized network Special purpose architecture tuned for superstorage. Uses a mix of off-the-shelf PC compo- nents and specialized network interconnects. Cost per node Workstation prices. Between $2000-$2500/node Mid to low-end PC prices. Between $1200- $1800 per node Mass produced components will reduce price to around $100/node Target area Computation Storage, computation is a secondary function Filesystem support UNIX flavors Replaces location dependant files with location independent fine-grained URN named objects

173 OUTLINE F Introduction, Grand Challenge F Definitions, 5S F OAI F NDLTD F MARIAN, ENVISION F PetaPlex F For more information

174 Outline of Online Course - 1 F Section 1. Foundations –Early visions, definitions, resources/references, projects F Section 2. Search, Retrieval, Resource Discovery –Information storage and retrieval, Boolean vs. natural language –Indexing: Phrases, Thesauri, Concepts –Federated search and harvesting, OAI, Crawlers/spiders/metasearch –Integrating links and ratings

175 NESTOR Map: Intro to DLs

176 Outline of Online Course - 2 F Section 3. Multimedia, Representations –Text/audio/image/video/graphics/animation –Capture, Digitization, Compression –Standards, Interchange: JPEG, MPEG –Content-based retrieval, Playback, QoS, SMIL F Section 4. Architectures –Modular/componentized, Protocols –InfoBus (Stanford, Java), Mediators, Wrappers (TSIMMIS)

177 Outline of Online Course - 3 F Section 5. Interfaces –Workflow, Environments, Taxonomy of interface components, Visualization –Design, Usability testing F Section 6. Metadata –Ontologies, RDF –MARC, Dublin Core, IMS –Mappings, Crosswalks

178 Outline of Online Course - 4 F Section 7. Electronic Publishing, SGML, XML –Authoring, Presenting, Rendering, Document Object Model (DOM) –Dual-publishing, Styles (XSL) –Structure, Semi-structured information, Tagging/markup, Structure queries F Section 8. Database Issues –Extending database technology –Structured and unstructured information –Multimedia databases, Link databases –Performance/replication/storage

179 Outline of Online Course - 5 F Section 9. Agents –Distributed issues –Protocols, Negotiation F Section 10. Commerce, Economics, Publishers –Preservation and archives –Terms and conditions, Open collections, Self-archiving –Economic models, Micropayments

180 Outline of Online Course - 6 F Section 11. Intellectual Property Rights, Security –Legal issues –Copyright, Rights management F Section 12. Social Issues –Cooperation and collaboration, Ratings, Annotation (PICS) –Educational applications (NSDL), Digital divide –Museums (AMICO), Cultural heritage, International concerns –Organizational acceptance/issues, Personalization

181 Remember F Introduction, Grand Challenge F Definitions, 5S F OAI F NDLTD F MARIAN, ENVISION F PetaPlex F For more information

182 Conclusions F Consider DLs: to use, to teach, to add to, to build F Education is one important application of DLs F Cultural heritage, linguistic diversity, new knowledge – all are important to preserve F Technology opens up exciting opportunities in DLs to yield seamless “super” information systems F Having a framework and theory may lead to better (more effective) systems and broader applicability F Interoperability is part of the DL grand challenge

183 URLs   (Courseware)  (D-Lib Magazine)  and later  and  (CSTC and JERIC)   (JCDL’2001 – June 24-28)

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