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**Motion in One Dimension**

Chapter 2 Motion in One Dimension

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Kinematics Describes motion while ignoring the agents that caused the motion For now, will consider motion in one dimension Along a straight line Will use the particle model A particle is a point-like object, has mass but infinitesimal size

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**Position Defined in terms of a frame of reference**

One dimensional, so generally the x- or y-axis The object’s position is its location with respect to the frame of reference

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Position-Time Graph The position-time graph shows the motion of the particle (car) The smooth curve is a guess as to what happened between the data points

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Active Figure AF_0201 position versus time.swf

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Displacement Defined as the change in position during some time interval Represented as x SI units are meters (m) x can be positive or negative Different than distance – the length of a path followed by a particle

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Vectors and Scalars Vector quantities need both magnitude (size or numerical value) and direction to completely describe them Will use + and – signs to indicate vector directions Scalar quantities are completely described by magnitude only

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Average Velocity The average velocity is rate at which the displacement occurs The dimensions are length / time [L/T] The SI units are m/s Is also the slope of the line in the position – time graph

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**Average Velocity, cont Gives no details about the motion**

Gives the result of the motion It can be positive or negative It depends on the sign of the displacement It can be interpreted graphically It will be the slope of the position-time graph

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**Displacement from a Velocity - Time Graph**

The displacement of a particle during the time interval ti to tf is equal to the area under the curve between the initial and final points on a velocity-time curve

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**Instantaneous Velocity**

The limit of the average velocity as the time interval becomes infinitesimally short, or as the time interval approaches zero The instantaneous velocity indicates what is happening at every point of time

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**Instantaneous Velocity, graph**

The instantaneous velocity is the slope of the line tangent to the x vs. t curve This would be the green line The blue lines show that as t gets smaller, they approach the green line

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Active Figure AF_0202 velocity and slope.swf

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**Instantaneous Velocity, equations**

The general equation for instantaneous velocity is When “velocity” is used in the text, it will mean the instantaneous velocity

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**Instantaneous Velocity, Signs**

At point A, vx is positive The slope is positive At point B, vx is zero The slope is zero At point C, vx is negative The slope is negative

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Instantaneous Speed The instantaneous speed is the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity vector Speed can never be negative

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**Constant Velocity If the velocity of a particle is constant**

Its instantaneous velocity at any instant is the same as the average velocity over a given time period vx = v x avg = Dx / Dt Also, xf = xi + vx t These equations can be applied to particles or objects that can be modeled as a particle moving under constant velocity

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Average Acceleration Acceleration is the rate of change of the velocity It is a measure of how rapidly the velocity is changing Dimensions are L/T2 SI units are m/s2

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**Instantaneous Acceleration**

The instantaneous acceleration is the limit of the average acceleration as t approaches 0

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**Instantaneous Acceleration – Graph**

The slope of the velocity vs. time graph is the acceleration Positive values correspond to where velocity in the positive x direction is increasing The acceleration is negative when the velocity is in the positive x direction and is decreasing

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**Negative Acceleration**

Negative acceleration does not necessarily mean that an object is slowing down If the velocity is negative and the acceleration is negative, the object is speeding up Deceleration is commonly used to indicate an object is slowing down, but will not be used in this text

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**Acceleration and Velocity, 1**

When an object’s velocity and acceleration are in the same direction, the object is speeding up in that direction When an object’s velocity and acceleration are in the opposite direction, the object is slowing down

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**Acceleration and Velocity, 2**

The car is moving with constant positive velocity (shown by red arrows maintaining the same size) Acceleration equals zero

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**Acceleration and Velocity, 3**

Velocity and acceleration are in the same direction Acceleration is uniform (blue arrows maintain the same length) Velocity is increasing (red arrows are getting longer) This shows positive acceleration and positive velocity

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**Acceleration and Velocity, 4**

Acceleration and velocity are in opposite directions Acceleration is uniform (blue arrows maintain the same length) Velocity is decreasing (red arrows are getting shorter) Positive velocity and negative acceleration

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**Active Figure AF_0208 match the motion.swf**

AF_0212 acceleration and slope.swf AF_0211 motion graphs for an accelerating car.swf

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**Kinematic Equations – Summary**

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Kinematic Equations The kinematic equations may be used to solve any problem involving one-dimensional motion with a constant acceleration You may need to use two of the equations to solve one problem The equations are useful when you can model a situation as a particle under constant acceleration

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**Kinematic Equations, specific**

For constant a, Can determine an object’s velocity at any time t when we know its initial velocity and its acceleration Does not give any information about displacement

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**Kinematic Equations, specific**

For constant acceleration, The average velocity can be expressed as the arithmetic mean of the initial and final velocities Only valid when acceleration is constant

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**Kinematic Equations, specific**

For constant acceleration, This gives you the position of the particle in terms of time and velocities Doesn’t give you the acceleration

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**Kinematic Equations, specific**

For constant acceleration, Gives final position in terms of velocity and acceleration Doesn’t tell you about final velocity

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**Kinematic Equations, specific**

For constant a, Gives final velocity in terms of acceleration and displacement Does not give any information about the time

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**Graphical Look at Motion – displacement – time curve**

The slope of the curve is the velocity The curved line indicates the velocity is changing Therefore, there is an acceleration

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**Graphical Look at Motion – velocity – time curve**

The slope gives the acceleration The straight line indicates a constant acceleration

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**Graphical Look at Motion – acceleration – time curve**

The zero slope indicates a constant acceleration

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**Problem-Solving Strategy –Constant Acceleration**

Conceptualize Establish a mental representation Categorize Confirm there is a particle or an object that can be modeled as a particle Confirm it is moving with a constant acceleration

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**Problem-Solving Strategy –Constant Acceleration, cont**

Analyze Set up the mathematical representation Choose the instant to call the initial time and another to be the final time These are defined by the parts of the problem of interest, not necessarily the actual beginning and ending of the motion Choose the appropriate kinematic equation(s)

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**Problem-Solving Strategy –Constant Acceleration, Final**

Finalize Check to see if the answers are consistent with the mental and pictorial representations Check to see if your results are realistic

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**Freely Falling Objects**

A freely falling object is any object moving freely under the influence of gravity alone It does not depend upon the initial motion of the object Dropped – released from rest Thrown downward Thrown upward

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**Acceleration of Freely Falling Object**

The acceleration of an object in free fall is directed downward, regardless of the initial motion The magnitude of free fall acceleration is g = 9.80 m/s2 g decreases with increasing altitude g varies with latitude 9.80 m/s2 is the average at the earth’s surface

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**Acceleration of Free Fall, cont.**

We will neglect air resistance Free fall motion is constantly accelerated motion in one dimension Let upward be positive Use the kinematic equations with ay = g = m/s2 The negative sign indicates the direction of the acceleration is downward

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Free Fall Example Initial velocity at A is upward (+) and acceleration is g (-9.8 m/s2) At B, the velocity is 0 and the acceleration is g (-9.8 m/s2) At C, the velocity has the same magnitude as at A, but is in the opposite direction The displacement is –50.0 m (it ends up 50.0 m below its starting point)

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**Free Fall Terminal Velocity**

AF_0518 terminal speed.swf

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