Presentation on theme: "Chapter Two Part 1 Classifying Matter Properties of Matter."— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter TwoPart 1Classifying MatterProperties of Matter
2 Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. The Nature of MatterMatter is anything that takes up space and has mass.The word matter comes from the Latin word materia, meaning “material” or “stuff”First we need to ask . . .What is matter?Examples of Matter:You can observe matter easily with your senses rocks, trees, bicycles, air Basically everything and anything!The only thing that wouldn’t be matter would be energy (sunlight, heat, electricity). - no mass or volume so they can’t be matter!
3 Elements, Molecules, and Compounds Elements and compounds make up all the different kinds of matter in the universe.Elements are the simplest form of matterCannot be broken down into simpler substances.Each element is made of atoms of the same type.Each has a unique set of physical and chemical properties.117 known elements in the universe.Approximately 92 are found naturally on Earth.Six elements make up 99% of all living matter!SulfurPotassiumOxygenExamples of Elements:goldsilveroxygenhydrogenNitrogenCarbonHydrogenaluminumnitrogentincalcium
4 Soft metal explodes in H20 Poisonous greenish gas Compounds, Molecules, and ElementsCompounds are two or more elements combined chemically together.Properties are different from the properties of the elements that make them up.Elements in a compound have a fixed ratio.Example:Most matter in the universe is in the form of compounds!H(hydrogen)Explosive gasNa(Sodium)Soft metal explodes in H20+Cl(chlorine)Poisonous greenish gasO2(oxygen)Explosive gas==SaltWater+
5 Molecules, Elements, and Compounds When two or more atoms combine, they form a molecule.Most molecules are made of two or more atomsA molecule is the smallest particle of a substance with the same properties of the substance.NOTE: Compounds are different than molecules because compound is used to describe the substance in general, while molecule describes the smallest particle of the substance.
6 Mixtures, Solutions, and Suspensions A mixture is a combination of two or more substances NOT combined chemically.May be a mixture of both elements and compoundsSubstances keep their unique properties and can be separated by physical means.
7 Mixtures, Solutions, and Suspensions There are two types of mixtures . . .Heterogeneous – the parts of the mixture are noticeably different from one another.Homogeneous – the parts (substances) are evenly distributed. It is difficult to tell one substance from another.
8 Solutions, and Suspensions and Colloids A solution is a mixture that looks like a single substance and has the same properties throughout.Solute ~ The substance that dissolves in a solution.Solvent ~ The substance into which the solute dissolves.
9 Solutions, and Suspensions and Colloids A colloid is a mixture that contains both small particles in solution and larger particles in suspension.Colloids do not separate into layers.Colloids, like suspensions scatter light.Milk is an example of a colloid.In a suspension components are dispersed, but large enough to see and settle out.
10 Chapter TwoPart 2Physical PropertiesProperties of Matter
11 Physical PropertiesPhysical property is a property that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance.Examples:viscosityconductivitymalleabilityhardnessmagnetismmelting pointboiling pointdensitycolor
12 Examples of Physical Properties Viscosity of a substance is its resistance to flow.Examples: water = low viscosityhoney = high viscosityConductivity is a material’s ability to allow heat to flow.Examples: metal = high conductivity wood = poor conductivity
13 Examples of Physical Properties Malleability of a substance is its ability to be hammered into a thin sheetMelting and Boiling points are the temperatures at which a solid becomes a liquid and a liquid becomes a gas.Density of a substance is the ratio of its mass compared to its volume.
14 Physical Properties to separate mixtures Two common separation methods:Filtration – process that separates materials based on the size of their particles.Distillation – process that separates the substances in a solution based on their boiling points.
15 Physical Change It is a physical change if . . . A change in the appearance, without changing the composition of the material.It is a physical change if . . .Can be reversible, or irreversibleSubstance may seem different, but the way the atoms link up is the same.It dissolves.It changes shape or sizeOr the substance changes phase.
16 Chapter TwoPart 3Chemical PropertiesProperties of Matter
17 Chemical PropertiesChemical property is any ability to produce a change in the composition of matter.Examples of chemical properties . . .flammabilityreactivityMaterial’s ability to burn in the presence of oxygen.How readily a substance combines chemically with other substances.
18 Chemical ChangesChemical changes occur when a substance reacts and forms one or more new substances.You know a chemical change has occurred when . . .A change in color.Production of a gas.Formation of a precipitate.