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Chapter 2 What Is Continuous Performance-Based Assessment? 2 What Is Continuous Performance-Based Assessment? C H A P T E R.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 What Is Continuous Performance-Based Assessment? 2 What Is Continuous Performance-Based Assessment? C H A P T E R."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 What Is Continuous Performance-Based Assessment? 2 What Is Continuous Performance-Based Assessment? C H A P T E R

2 Grant Wiggins: Performance-Based Assessment Testing should represent central experiences in learning. Give students an opportunity to showcase learning in areas where they should be competent. Wiggins and McTighe (1998): Three basic types of assessment: 1.Quiz and test items 2.Academic prompts 3.Performance tasks and projects (continued)

3 Grant Wiggins—Performance-Based Assessment (continued)

4 Characteristics of Performance-Based Assessment Open-ended Complex Authentic Require the presentations of worthwhile tasks designed to be representative of performances in the field Emphasize higher-level thinking and more complex learning Expect students to present their work publicly (continued)

5 Characteristics of Performance-Based Assessment (continued) Articulate criteria in advance so that students know how they will be evaluated. Involve the examination of the process as well as the products of learning. Embed assessments so firmly in the curriculum that they are practically indistinguishable from instruction.

6 Worthwhile Tasks Performance-based assessments can include game play, dance or gymnastics routine, track meet or swim meet, and projects (e.g., design a fitness center). The tasks that physical activity experts (e.g., announcers, officials) are required to do can provide ideas for possible performance-based assessments.

7 Higher-Level Thinking and Complex Learning Successful assessments make students analyze, synthesize, and evaluate. Many complex decisions for choice of skill or strategy during game play. Game play assessments evaluate the students’ ability to make choices. Assessments using higher-level thinking are more challenging and meaningful.

8 Articulate Criteria in Advance Providing students with criteria helps demystify the assessment. Allows them to focus on important factors while completing assessment. Writing down expectations helps students understand what exactly is expected of them.

9 Assessments Are Firmly Embedded in Instruction Performance-based assessments have an instructional component, so learning and assessing can work simultaneously. Reciprocal teaching style requires students to analyze the performance of a partner with criteria from the teacher. Peer teaching instructional model requires students to take the information provided by the teacher and teach someone else.

10 Student’s Work Is Presented Publicly When Possible Game play and athletic activities are done with an audience. Audience affects assessment in two ways: –Holds people accountable for their best work. –May change the focus for the assessment. An audience, real or simulated, provides an element of authenticity (Wiggins 1989a).

11 Process and Product of Learning Are Both Important The process of learning is just as important as the final product. The process students use to complete the task and assessment task must be included in the evaluation criteria.

12 Types of Performance-Based Assessments Teacher observationEssays Peer observationOpen-response questions Self-observationJournals Game play and modified game play Student projects Role-playsStudent performances Event tasksStudent logs InterviewsPortfolios

13 Teacher Observations Observing students and providing oral feedback is not an assessment. Assessments must result in a written record that documents students’ learning. Focus on varying ability levels when assessing large classes. Use observations for parent–teacher conferences.

14 Peer Observation With peer observation, students have their own personal teacher to do an evaluation of performance. Checklists or simple rubrics can be used to provide feedback. Teach students how to do assessments in which criteria are important. Encourage students to evaluate honestly. Peer observation should not contribute to the observed student’s grade.

15 Self-Observation Self-observations can improve performance and develop a skill important for adult learning. Teachers must educate students about doing this type of assessment. Specific criteria are necessary for guidance. Self-observations are not appropriate for student grades.

16 Game Play and Modified Game Play A performance-based evaluation done while students are playing a sport or activity. Various aspects can be evaluated: psychomotor skills, knowledge of rules, use of strategy, teamwork. Provides the first step in improving game play performance. Small-sided games are easier to evaluate because there are fewer people to observe.

17 Role-Plays Scenarios developed by teachers to assess some components of physical activity. Great for assessing the components of affective domain. Teachers can present challenging real- world problems and evaluate decisions made. They may be live, videotaped, or written. Can be used in student portfolios.

18 Event Tasks Performance tasks that can be completed within one class period (NASPE 2004). Include psychomotor activity. –Example: Have students create a game with certain equipment and assess their knowledge of the elements and strategies of a game. Adventure education event tasks can evaluate problem solving, cooperation, and team building.

19 Interviews Interview students to evaluate knowledge. Can be used to sample student knowledge rather than assess every student. Information gained can be used in planning future lessons. Benefits students for whom English is a second language, those with learning disabilities, and those with writing deficiencies.

20 Essays Used to evaluate cognitive knowledge. Students are given a realistic task and an audience, and a product is created. Tasks are open-ended so students have a variety of ways to answer them. Allow for student creativity.

21 Open-Response Questions Students are presented with a real-world scenario or problem and given an opportunity to solve it. Assess how students apply knowledge in the real world. The answer tends to depend on the situation and there are several ways to respond correctly. Requires higher-order thinking to respond.

22 Journals Provides an excellent opportunity to assess the affective domain. –Used to self-assess skills. –Can help a teacher become aware of a student’s struggles, competence, sense of teamwork, or fair play. –Requires students to write critical elements of a skill and assess cognitive knowledge. Do not evaluate or grade affective domain.

23 Student Projects Require time outside of class to complete. Students use knowledge gained in class and apply to real-world setting. Use higher levels of thinking by creating a new product, analyzing a situation or performance, or making an evaluation. Teachers should not penalize students for limited resources.

24 Student Performances Used as culminating events in performance- based assessment. Teachers design parameters for culminating performance before the unit begins. Examples are gymnastics routine, class tournament, training for a run. Students are required to use higher-level thinking skills.

25 Student Logs Method of recording results from practice sessions. Students can document improvement. Logs can document practice or out of class activity. Teachers can use information in logs to help students. Used to document effort.

26 Portfolios Collections of materials or artifacts that demonstrate competence. Used to document growth over time. Working portfolios involve a place where students gather diverse information about mastery. Evaluation portfolios are turned in for assessment and should include narrative or reflections.

27 How Performance-Based Assessments Change Instruction Main purpose of assessment should be to document student learning. Teachers encouraged to coach students to reach a level of excellence. Changes in teaching philosophy are necessary.

28 Teacher Becomes a Coach Teacher becomes a coach who brings out optimal performance. Teachers and students work together to enhance student learning. Assign projects and assessments and coach students to excellence.

29 Greater Use of Formative Assessment Provides information teachers use to adapt instruction for meeting students’ needs. Students are given additional chances to demonstrate mastery. Formative assessment functions as excellent feedback throughout instruction. Summative assessments do not allow any second chances to improve.

30 Assessments Are Progressively More Difficult In progressive assessments, students evolve from the performance and assessment of simple to more complex skills. –Must be authentic. –Can be used to track students’ performance. Checkpoints: Teacher can monitor student performance across trials and time.

31 Learning and Progress Seen Through Multiple Lenses Multiple assessments are needed in order to see a clear picture of students’ ability. Single assessment form is not sufficient to measure complex material in units. Several types of assessments give complete idea of students’ learning.

32 Advantages of Performance-Based Assessment Direct observation of student learning Good instructional alignment Interesting assessments Instructional feedback Measures multiple objectives and concepts Active student learning Higher-order thinking skills Multiple chances to get it right Enjoyable for students

33 Issues When Using Performance- Based Assessments Concerns about reliability and validity Failing to set criteria for an assessment Teaching to the test Assessment is time consuming Parents completing the assessment Focusing assessment on irrelevant content


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