2 Preparation (Pre-Production) Producer – oversees logisticsExecutive Producer – the moneyLine Producer – on-set liaisonScreenwriter – writes the scriptTreatment – initial script proposalShooting script – writer’s intended screenplay, often changes during shooting
3 Shooting (Production) Director – oversees all aspects of shootingProduction Designer – oversees the visual creationCinematographer (director of photography) – oversees camera distance, angle, etc., as well as lightingActors – bring the script to life
4 The Director’s Team Casting Director – recommends/selects actors Script Supervisor – oversees continuityDialogue Coach – feeds lines to actorsSecond Unit Director – shoots at secondary locationsRecordists – capture live soundClapper Boy – marks scenes and takes before each run of the camera
5 Production Designer’s Team Art Director – another term for production designerSet Decorator – selects objects/props for setSet Dresser – places objects/props on setCostume Designer – creates the vision for clothingStoryboardists – draw or otherwise draft intended shotsSpecial Effects Teams (matte artists, model makers) – create visual effects that don’t exist in the natural world
6 Cinematographer’s Team Camera Operator – actually photographsKey Grip – lead stage handGaffer – lead electricianBest Boy – gaffer’s assistantLoader – puts film in the camera
8 Assembly (Post-Production) Editor – oversees cutting and compiling shots into a coherent wholeComposer – creates musical scoreDailies – each day’s recorded shotsRough Cut – the first compiled version of the film, often much longer than the final cutFinal Cut – the trimmed version to be releasedOuttakes – leftovers between Rough & FinalSpotting – identifying places for sound to be edited inADR – automated dialogue replacement
10 Content/Meaning/Theme Content = (Subject Matter + Form) + ContextContent is also known as Meaning or ThemeSubject Matter is what the film is about.Form is how the subject matter is presented.Context is when, where and how the filmmaker’s creation meets its perceiver.
11 Levels of Meaning Referential, a.k.a. Literal observation of the recognizableExplicit, a.k.a. Textual/Connotative directly stated meanings (lines of dialogue)Implicit, a.k.a Universalthematic inference drawn from implicationSymptomatic, a.k.a Culturalbroader social/symbolic meaning
12 Elements of Film Form Narrative Elements Plot Character Setting Point of ViewMetaphorStylistic ElementsMise-en-SceneCinematographyEditingSound
15 Plot vs. StoryPlot is everything seen and heard by the perceiver of the film – everything that is presented, whether it’s a part of the story or not.Story is everything that happens in the lives of the characters – everything they experience, whether it is explicitly presented to the perceiver or not.
17 Plot and Time Temporal Duration – passage of time for the characters Screen Duration – passage of time for the perceiverTemporal Order – chronology (Flashbacks, flashforwards)Temporal Frequency – repetition of eventsBeats – major events in the plot
18 CharacterProtagonist – central, dynamic character with whom the perceiver identifies/sympathizesAntagonist – obstacle to the protagonistRound – well-developed character whose motivations are clearFlat – opposite of roundDynamic – character who changes significantlyStatic – opposite of dynamicCharacteristics (character traits)Catalyst (goal vs. investigation)Causal relationships – action/reaction
19 Setting Location – authentic, artificial, interior, exterior, etc. Screen space – everything we seeDirected attention – director’s/ cinematographer’s control of what we see/hearImagery – meaningful objects, colors, sounds
20 Point of View Restricted Narration – a character’s POV Unrestricted Narration – omniscient POVPerceptual Subjectivity – we perceive what the character perceivesMental Subjectivity – we perceive what the character is thinking
21 POV and the PerceiverCues – sights & sounds that cause expectations in the perceiverSuspense – delay in fulfilling expectationSurprise – incorrect, or cheated, expectationCuriosity – cue causes perceiver to wonder about past eventsIrony – disparity between characters’ & perceiver’s POVHierarchy of Knowledge – who knows what?
22 Metaphor Symbol – both literal and figurative Iconography – symbol whose meaning transcends an individual film/storyMotif – repeated symbol or image (often related to temporal frequency)Allusion – reference to another work of art