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The Nervous System.

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Presentation on theme: "The Nervous System."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Nervous System

2 Functions of the Nervous System
Sensory input – gathering information To monitor changes occurring inside and outside the body Changes = stimuli = sensory input Integration To process and interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed

3 Functions of the Nervous System
Motor output A response to integrated stimuli The response activates muscles or glands

4 Structural Classification of the Nervous System
Central nervous system (CNS) Brain Spinal cord Act as integrating & command centers (interpret sensory input & issue commands) Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Nerve outside the brain and spinal cord Spinal nerves carry impulses to & from spinal cord Cranial nerves carry impulses to & from brain

5 Functional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory (afferent) division Nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system Figure 7.1

6 Functional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous System
Sensory fibers that carry impulses from skin, skeletal muscle & joints = somatic sensory fibers. Those that carry impulses from the visceral organs = visceral sensory fibers

7 Functional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous System
Motor (efferent) division Nerve fibers that carry impulses away from the central nervous system to effector organs, the muscles & glands Figure 7.1

8 Functional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous System
Motor (efferent) division Two subdivisions Somatic nervous system = voluntary Autonomic nervous system = involuntary Figure 7.1

9 Functional Classification of the Peripheral Nervous System
Autonomic nervous system = involuntary 2 parts Sympathetic – mobilizes the body during extreme situations – called the “fight or flight” division Parasympathetic – allows us to “unwind” & conserve energy – called the craniosacral division

10 Organization of the Nervous System
Figure 7.2

11 Nervous Tissue: Support Cells (Neuroglia = literally “nerve glue”)
Astrocytes Abundant, star-shaped cells Brace neurons; anchor to capillaries Form barrier between capillaries and neurons Control the chemical environment of the brain Figure 7.3a

12 Nervous Tissue: Support Cells
Microglia Spider-like phagocytes Dispose of debris (dead brain cells, bacteria) Ependymal cells Line cavities of the brain and spinal cord Beating cilia circulate cerebrospinal fluid Figure 7.3b–c

13 Nervous Tissue: Support Cells
Oligodendrocytes Produce myelin sheath around nerve fibers in the central nervous system Unable to transmit nerve impulses Never lose their ability to divide Most brain tumors are gliomas - tumors formed by neuroglia Figure 7.3d

14 Nervous Tissue: Support Cells
Satellite cells Protect neuron cell bodies Schwann cells Form myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous system Figure 7.3e

15 Nervous Tissue: Neurons
Neurons = nerve cells Cells specialized to transmit messages Major regions of neurons Cell body – nucleus and metabolic center of the cell Processes – fibers that extend from the cell body

16 Neuron Anatomy Cell body
Nissl substance – specialized rough endoplasmic reticulum Neurofibrils – intermediate cytoskeleton that maintains cell shape Figure 7.4a

17 Neuron Anatomy Cell body Nucleus Large nucleolus
Lacks centrioles – confirms amitotic nature of most neurons Figure 7.4a–b

18 Neuron Anatomy Extensions outside the cell body – from microscopic to 3-4 feet in length Dendrites – conduct impulses toward the cell body – may number in the 100’s Axons – conduct impulses away from the cell body – only one Figure 7.4a

19 Axons and Nerve Impulses
Axons end in axon terminals Axon terminals contain vesicles with neurotransmitters – impulses stimulate their release Axon terminals are separated from the next neuron by a gap Synaptic cleft – gap between adjacent neurons Synapse – junction between nerves

20 Nerve Fiber Coverings Schwann cells – produce myelin sheaths in jelly-roll like fashion on axons outside the CNS Neurilemma – part of Schwann cell external to myelin sheath Nodes of Ranvier – gaps in myelin sheath along the axon Figure 7.5

21 Nerve Fiber Coverings Oligodendrocytes form CNS myelin sheaths
CNS sheaths lack a neurilemma Because the neurilemma remains intact (for the most part) when a peripheral nerve fiber is damaged, it plays an important role in fiber regeneration, an ability that is largely lacking in the CNS

22 Neuron Cell Body Location
Most are found in the central nervous system Gray matter – cell bodies and unmylenated fibers Nuclei – clusters of cell bodies within the white matter of the central nervous system Ganglia – collections of cell bodies outside the central nervous system Bundles of nerve fibers in the CNS are called tracts; whereas in the PNS they are called nerves

23 Functional Classification of Neurons
Sensory (afferent) neurons Cell bodies always found in the ganglion outside the CNS Carry impulses from the sensory receptors to CNS Cutaneous sense organs (skin) Pain receptors – bare dendrite endings – most numerous Proprioceptors – detect stretch or tension (muscles & tendons) – help maintain balance & normal posture

24 Functional Classification of Neurons
Motor (efferent) neurons Carry impulses from the CNS to viscera, &/or muscles & glands Cell bodies of motor neurons are always located in the CNS

25 Functional Classification of Neurons
Interneurons (association neurons) Found in neural pathways in the central nervous system Connect sensory and motor neurons Cell bodies are always located in the CNS

26 Neuron Classification
Figure 7.6

27 Structural Classification of Neurons
Multipolar neurons – many extensions from the cell body All motor & interneurons (association neurons) are multipolar Most common Figure 7.8a

28 Structural Classification of Neurons
Bipolar neurons – one axon and one dendrite Rare in adults - found only in some special sense organs (eye, nose) Figure 7.8b

29 Structural Classification of Neurons
Unipolar neurons – have a short single process leaving the cell body Figure 7.8c

30 Structural Classification of Neurons
Short, divides almost immediately into proximal (central) & distal (peripheral) processes Dendrite = small process at end of peripheral process; remainder = axon Axon conducts impulses both away from & toward cell body Sensory neurons found in PNS ganglia are unipolar

31 Functional Properties of Neurons
Irritability – ability to respond to stimuli Conductivity – ability to transmit an impulse The plasma membrane at rest is polarized Fewer positive ions are inside the cell than outside the cell

32 Starting a Nerve Impulse
Depolarization – a stimulus depolarizes the neuron’s membrane A deploarized membrane allows sodium (Na+) to flow inside the membrane The exchange of ions initiates an action potential in the neuron Figure 7.9a–c

33 The Action Potential If the action potential (nerve impulse) starts, it is propagated over the entire axon Potassium ions rush out of the neuron after sodium ions rush in, which repolarizes the membrane The sodium-potassium pump restores the original configuration This action requires ATP

34 Nerve Impulse Propagation
The impulse continues to move toward the cell body Impulses travel faster when fibers have a myelin sheath Figure 7.9d–f

35 Continuation of the Nerve Impulse between Neurons
Impulses are able to cross the synapse to another nerve Neurotransmitter is released from a nerve’s axon terminal The dendrite of the next neuron has receptors that are stimulated by the neurotransmitter An action potential is started in the dendrite

36 How Neurons Communicate at Synapses
Figure 7.10

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