Presentation on theme: "The Nervous System The master controlling and communicating system of the body Method of communication? Electrical impulses."— Presentation transcript:
1 The Nervous SystemThe master controlling and communicating system of the bodyMethod of communication? Electrical impulses
2 The Three Overlapping Functions It uses millions of sensory receptors to monitor changes called stimuli inside and outside the body.It processes and interprets this gathered information called sensory input and makes decisions on what should be done. This process is called integration.It effects a response by activating muscles or glands via motor output.
4 Organization of the Nervous System Structural ClassificationCentral Nervous System (CNS) – brain and spinal cord. They interpret incoming sensory information and issue commands in responsePeripheral Nervous System (PNS) – mainly nerves that extend from the CNS and act as communication lines.Spinal nerves carry impulse to and from the spineCranial nerves carry impulse to and from the brain
5 Functional Classification (PNS only) Sensory or afferent division – nerve fibers that carry impulses to the CNS from sensory receptorsSomatic sensory fibers come from the skin, skeletal muscles and jointsVisceral sensory fibers or visceral afferents come from the visceral (internal) organs
6 Functional Classification (PNS only) Motor or efferent division – go from CNS to effector organs (muscles and glands)Somatic nervous system – the voluntary nervous system. Allows us to consciously control skeletal musclesAutonomic nervous system – the involuntary nervous system. Regulates events that need to be automatic and has two complimentary parts called Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
9 Neurons Also known as nerve cells Highly specialized to transmit messages from one part of the body to anotherThe neuron has several important parts.
10 Cell Body Metabolic center of the neuron. Contains the normal organelles except centrioles.The neuron’s shape is the result of the rough ER (called Nissel substance) and the intermediate filaments (called neurofibrils)
11 Armlike Processes or fibers Dendrites – many processes that carry information to the cell bodyAxon – the one process that carries information away from the body. The axon arises from the conelike region called the axon hillock. It may have an occasional collateral branch (a split of the axon), but all axons branch profusely at their ends.
12 The Axon Terminals (Ends) The end of the axon can branch hundreds or thousands of times. Each branch is known as an axon terminalThese contain hundreds of tiny vesicles that contain neurotransmitters.When a signal reaches the end of the axon, the neurotransmitters are released across the synaptic cleft or synapse (a space between the axon and the next cell)
13 Myelin A whitish, fatty material that covers nerve fibers It helps insulate and increase the transmission rate of nerve impulses
14 Types of Supporting Cells Known as neuroglia (“nerve glue”) or glia or glial cells
15 AstrocytesAbundant star-shaped cells (make up almost 50% of neutral tissue)Their numerous projections have swollen ends that cling to neurons. They then brace and anchor the neurons next to blood capillaries.They form a living barrier between the capillaries and the neurons that keeps out harmful materials from the blood.They also pick up extra ions and released neurotransmitters
16 MicrogliaSpiderlike phagocytes that dispose of debris, including bacteria and dead brain cells
17 Ependymal Cells Line the cavities of the brain and spinal cord. Their beating of their cilia helps to circulate the cerebrospinal fluid.This fluid fills the cavity and cushions the CNS
18 OligodendrocytesCells that create a myelin sheath around axons inside the CNSIt has several cell extensions that wrap themselves around many different neurons.
19 Schwann cellsCells that create a myelin sheath around axons outside the CNSThey roll around the nerve cell like a Swiss Cake RollMost of its cytoplasm is squished to the outmost part of the cell. This is called the neurilemmaThe spaces in between the Schwann cells are called the nodes of Ranvier
20 Picture TimeFrom Page 225 and 227Now on the SMART Board
21 Interesting factMost brain tumors are the result of glial cells forming the tumor. This is because neurons have lost their ability to divide. This is also why nerve damage can be so catastrophic for a person.
22 Cluster TermsNuclei – well protected clusters of cell bodies in the CNSGanglia – small collections of cell bodies found outside the CNSTracts – bundles of nerve fibers running through the CNSNerves – bundles of nerve fibers running in the PNSWhite matter – dense collection of myelinated fibersGray matter – contains mostly unmyelinated fibers
23 Classification of Neurons Functional classificationSensory or afferent – carry messages from sensory receptors to the CNS. Have dendrite endings associated with specialized receptorsMotor or efferent – carry message to muscles or glandsAssociation – connect the motor and sensory neurons in neutral pathways
24 Classification of Neurons StructuralMultipolar neuron – most common type. It has several processes branching from the neuronBipolar – only has two processes, axon and a dendrite.Unipolar – have a single process emerging from the cell body. But this process doesn’t go too far before it splits into a peripheral (distal, dendrite) and central (proximal, axon) branch
25 Draw types from 231And physiology of the nerve assignment