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periodic table of elements

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Presentation on theme: "periodic table of elements"— Presentation transcript:

1 periodic table of elements
non metal some a gas metals/solids metalloids lanthanide actinide

2 Metals malleable (bendable), shiny, and good conductors of electricity
aluminum gold copper iron lead

3 Nonmetals brittle (breaks easy), dull, and poor conductors of electricity
sulfur carbon phosphorus

4 Metalloids similar properties to both metals and nonmetals
silicon boron arsenic

5 Families or Groups have: similar properties and behaviors, located in vertical columns, example-highlighted area is a family or group H Li Na K Rb Cs

6 Rows or Periods: atomic number increases as move right ending with a noble gas, every element has same number of core electrons, ex row 2 all have 2 electrons on 1st energy level Li 2 Li Be B C N O F Ne

7 Element sulfur phosphorus carbon
Element is matter made up only one kind of atom. Atoms are so small that it would take 1 million of them lined up in a row to equal the thickness of a human hair. carbon

8 All atoms consist of: Nucleus is the positively charged, central part of the atom. Protons are the positively charged particles IN the nucleus. Neutrons are the uncharged particles in the nucleus. Electrons are invisible, negatively charged particles. Electrons are scattered in the mostly empty space around the nucleus call the Electron Cloud.

9 Identifying Characteristic of Elements
Chlorine Identifying Characteristic of Elements Look up the element Chlorine on the Periodic Table of elements. The symbol is CL. The top number 17 is the element’s atomic number. It tells you the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of that element. So every atom of chlorine has 17 protons in its nucleus. What is the number of protons for the elements C ___, Ne __, Pb ___, and U ____.

10 Chlorine Isotopes Although the number of protons changes form element to element, every atom of the same element has the same number of protons. However, the number of neutrons can vary for on element. For example Chlorine atoms have 18 neutrons in their nucleus while others have 20. They are called Isotopes – atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. For example two types of chlorine atoms are chlorine-35 and chlorine-37

11 Atomic Mass An atom’s mass number is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons it contains. The atomic mass is the weighted average mass of the isotopes of an element. The atomic mass is the number found below the element symbol.

12 Electrons To find the number of electrons on the periodic table look at the atomic number. Atoms have the equal amounts of protons and electrons, therefore the atomic number is both the number of protons and electrons.

13 Neutrons To find the number of neutrons of an element on the Periodic Table you take the atomic mass and round it (if needed greater than >.5) and subtract the atomic number. For example look at Calcium on the Periodic Table. The atomic mass is and the Atomic number is 20. So you would subtract 20 from 40. 40 (atomic mass rounded) - 20 (atomic number) 20 neutrons

14 Noble Gases: inert -meaning they don’t combine with other elements because their outer electron level is filled; last family see highlighted He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn

15 Valence: number of electrons in outer shell (cloud level)
1 8 2 3 4 5 6 7

16 Periodic Table Review Quiz
Directions: Read the following questions. Answer the questions on your own paper in a complete sentence. For Example: Hydrogen’s atomic number is 1. How many protons does it have? Hydrogen has 1 proton.

17 Question # 1 Find the element Calcium (Family 2, Period 4) on your periodic table. How many electrons does it have? Answer: Calcium has _____________ electrons.

18 Question # 2 Sulfur has an atomic # of 16 and an atomic mass of 32. How many protons does it have? Answer: Sulfur has ____________ protons.

19 Question # 3 Find Potassium (Family 1, Period 4) on your periodic table. How many neutrons does it have? Answer: Potassium has __________ neutrons.

20 Question # 4 4. Based on the number of protons in the four elements below, which of the following elements is a metal? Answer: _________________ is a metal.

21 Question # 5 Based on the atomic number of the following elements, which one is a Noble Gas? Answer: _____________ is a Noble Gas.

22 Question # 6 Answer: ____________ represents a Boron atom.
Which drawing represents a BORON atom? Drawing A Drawing B 6 Protons Protons 6 Neutrons Neutrons 6 Electrons Electrons Answer: ____________ represents a Boron atom.

23 Question # 7 This element contains 10 protons. Which element is it?
Answer: ______________ contains 10 protons.

24 Question # 8 Fluorine has an atomic number of 9. How many protons does it have? Answer: Fluorine has __________ protons.

25 Question # 9 Based on these atomic numbers below, which of the following is a nonmetal? Answer: ____________ is a nonmetal.

26 Question # 10 Answer: ____ represents neutrons.
Based on the diagram below, which letter represents neutrons? D A B C Answer: ____ represents neutrons.

27 Answers 1. Calcium has 20 electrons. Sulfur has 16 protons.
Potassium has 20 neutrons. Manganese (at. # = 25) is a metal. Argon (at. # = 18) is a noble gas. Boron is answer choice B. Neon contains 10 protons. Fluorine has 9 protons. Chlorine (at. # 17) is a nonmetal. Answer choice C represents neutrons.

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