Food-safety system: … to reduce or eliminate risk of hazards Standards set by –FDA (Food and Drug Administration) set national sanitation standards –State and local standards H- A- C- P- Hazardous Analysis of Critical Control Points
Inspections –Food-safety audit by local health department –Inspected areas Foods and supplies Grooming and hygiene of staff Temperatures for holding/serving Cleaning and sanitation Water supply Waste disposal Pest control The HACCP System
7-step system for food safety Step 1: Conduct a Hazard Analysis –Examine flow of food –Watch for possible points of contamination –Of particular concern: perishable goods Step 2: Determine Critical Control Points –Specific points during food handling can cause health risk –Examples: temperatures for storing, holding, cooking, serving
Step 3: Establish Critical Limits –Measurements of time/temperature that indicate when food is at risk and needing corrective action –Limits established by local health department or food-service establishment Step 4: Establish Monitoring Procedures –Enter accurate measurements of time/temperature in log book –Determine what is measured, how often, and by whom Sec. 1
Step 5: Identify Corrective Actions –Bring food to a safe temperature –Discard food held at an unsafe temperature for too long Step 6: Establish Procedures for Record- Keeping and Documentation –Time/temperature logs, checklists, Easy-to-understand format The HACCP System
Step 7: Develop a Verification System –Have someone double-check the recorded information to verify the system Time/temperature measurements might not be accurate Forms might be too difficult Person recording information might need more direction The HACCP System
The flow of food….. The route from the point of receiving to time it is served. Learn where risks might be. Purchasing – must be from approved source– (why we can’t bring in food to sell to others) Receiving– then it is restaurant responsibility.
Perishable Goods Stored in refrigerator - meats,milk – Be sure the foods come in at a safe temperature. Stored in freezer – come in completely frozen – no rips/tears (ice crystals mean it has started to thaw)
Perishable Goods – flour, tea, sugar, rice, pasta Arrive well-wrapped, no rips/tears – cans should have no bulges, dents, rust, leaks. Reject food if not clean, intact or at the right temperature. Storing – avoid cross-contamination & spoilage (Store using FIFO)
Ideal Storage Temperatures – the temperature that is the safest and will give best quality Meat & Poultry – 32-26 degrees Fish & Shellfish – 30-34 degrees Eggs – 33-38 degrees Dairy Products – 36-41 degrees Produce (refrigerated) – 32-50 degrees
Cooking Food Safely Clean/sanitize thermometers after every use. Colored cutting boards? P. 24 Take food from refrigerator < hour. Use sanitizer solution (with single use towel) Bring food quickly to safe temperature Don’t mix leftovers with new foods. Stir & rotate food frequently if in microwave
Cooling Food Safely Depend on a thermometer One-Stage Method – cool below 41 degrees within 4 hours. Two-Stage Method – cool below 70 degrees within 2 hours---then cool below 41 degrees within another 4 hours. (total < 6 hours)
Thawing Foods Safely Never leave out at room temp. Use thawed foods as soon as possible. Thaw: 1) IN REFRIGERATOR – best but slowest method – use bottom shelf in a container 2) UNDER RUNNING WATER – water is <70 degrees, sanitize sink afterwards 3) IN THE MICROWAVE – for individual portions
SERVING Foods Safely – the final step Holding – steam tables / refrigerator ( 140) – use thermometer Discard food if in DANGER ZONE > 4 hours (time temperature abused food) Reheating – frequently causes food illness. Reheat > 165 degrees for 15 seconds within 2 hour period.