Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Communication and Nature of Communication"— Presentation transcript:
1Introduction to Communication and Nature of Communication Course Director: Pierre OuelletAmini Golestani, TaherA- Personal introductionB - Technical matters: • syllabus• lectures• tutorials - switching- attendance- assignments- enrollment and tuition in 0.6• teaching assistants• books and reading kit $ $ 87.00• First assignment• difference b/w foundations and ordinary courses• Looking at media texts on a daily basis -Individual exerciseNewspaper The Globemake notes - advertisements - structure
2Nature of Communication Communication is a dynamic process.Communication is systemic.A systemic view of communication has four (4) vital implication:a) Communication is contextual.b) A system has interrelated parts.c) The whole is more than the sum of its parts.d) Constraints within systems influence or affect meanings.
3Nature of Communication 3. Communication involves communicators.4. Communication is irreversible.5. Communication is proactive.6. Communication is symbolic interaction.7. Meaning in communication is individually construed.
4Communication Defined Communication is a dynamic, systemic or contextual, irreversible and proactive process in which communicators construct personal meanings through their symbolic interactions(Wood, 1964)
5MODELA model describes an object, event, process, or relationship. It attempts to represent the essential or major features of what it models.
6WHY MODELS?Presents the essential nature of what it describes by highlighting key features thought important by the model builder.Visualizes for us how certain features are related to another and provides a more orderly understanding that we might have without the model.At another level models have heuristic value; that is, they provide new ways to conceive of hypothetical ideas and relationships.
7The Aristotelian Model Was first developed among the Greeks in ancient timesGreek citizens thus placed a “premium” on one’s persuasiveness to his audience.This quality of persuasiveness is called “ethos.”Usually, a speaker’s ethos depends on his or her character however Aristotle’s Ars Rhetorica also mentioned the following factors to affect ethos:contentarrangementmanner of deliveryethosargumentslogospathos
9The Aristotelian Model (Message)(Listener)SPEAKERSPEECHAUDIENCE
10The LASSWELL Model Verbal model advanced by Harold Lasswell in 1948 WHOCommunicatorSAYS WHATMessageIN WHAT CHANNELMediumTO WHOMReceiverWITH WHAT EFFECTEffectVerbal model advanced by Harold Lasswell in 1948Sequential or linear pattern
11The LASSWELL ModelAs a social scientist, Lasswell premised his model upon three key functions of communication in human society:surveillance – a function of diplomats and political leaders to alert society to the dangers and opportunities it facescorrelation – a function carried out by institutions such as educators and poll-takers designed to gather, coordinate, and integrate into meaningful form the responses of society towards changes in the environment(3) transmission – a function carried out by institutions like the family, church, school, and community in order to hand down values, norms, customs, and traditions to the next generations
12The LASSWELL Model Lasswell: “Communication must perform its key functions to protect, fortify, and enhance a nation’s stability.”
14The SHANNON-WEAVER Model A model originally designed for telephone communication:EXAMPLE:phone call – information sourcetelephone – transmitter converts message into electronic signaltelephone – receiver that reconverts electronic signal into a messagemessage – heard by another person, destinationdistorting signals – noiseDepicts communication as one-way or of linear sequenceDepicts noise as an element found ONLY within the message and not throughout the communication process.Mechanical in nature, terms
151st and 2nd Models Field of Experience Field of Experience Source ENCODERSIGNALDECODERDESTINATIONField of ExperienceField of ExperienceSourceEncoderSignalDecoderDestination
18The schramm’s ModelWilbur Schramm tried many models to convey his insights and finally his fourth model was the charm!His fourth model emphasizes the “dynamism of human communication.”People interact in a constant, cyclical fashion.His model highlights the process AND interaction.
20BERLO’S ModelBerlo acknowledged the complexity of the communication process as evidenced by the influence of several factors on communication, to include an all-encompassing system --- the communicator’s socio-cultural framework.
22WHITE’S ModelEugene White gave his communication students a sequence of events that takes place in communication. These eight stages of oral communication are the following:Thinking – a desire, feeling, or an emotion provides a speaker a stimulus to communicate a needSymbolizing – before he can utter sounds, a speaker has to know the code of oral language with which to represent his ideas and in order to make his selection
23WHITE’S ModelEugene White gave his communication students a sequence of events that takes place in communication. These eight stages of oral communication are the following:3. Expressing – the speaker then uses his vocal mechanism to produce the sounds of language accompanied by facial expressions, gestures, and body stance4. Transmitting – waves of sound spreading at 1,000 feet per second and waves of light travelling at a speed of 186,000 miles per second carry the speaker’s message to the listeners
24WHITE’S Model5. Receiving – sound waves impinge upon the listener’s ears after which the resulting nerve impulses reach the brain via the auditory nerve; light wave strikes the listener’s eyes after which the resulting nerve impulses reach the brain via the optic nerve6. Decoding – the listener interprets the language symbols he receives and thinks further
25WHITE’S Model7. Feedbacking – the listener may manifest overt behavior like a nod, smile, or yawn or he may not show any behavior at all (covert behavior like fast heartbeat, a poker face, etc.)8. Monitoring – while the speaker watches for signs of reception or understanding of his message among his listeners, he is also attuned to what’s going on inside him; the speaker is receiving, and decoding messages about himself from his audience in order to adjust to the particular situation
26WHITE’S ModelImplies a step-by-step sequence that starts with thinking in the speaker and ends with monitoring with the speakerCommunication is a repetitive, cyclical event but the dynamic quality of interaction is not depicted.The speaker is the originator of the communication process and the listener is a passive reactor who does not initiate communication.
28DANCE ModelRepresented by a spiraling figure – helixThe process of communication progresses or moves forward in a cyclical fashionWhat we say now influences the future.No literal features or elements.Helix as a symbol for the dynamics of human communication is visually powerful.
30A SYMBOLIC INTERACTION Model Developed by WoodLanguage is a system of symbols and words are symbolic. In the course of interaction or shared experiences, people “generate, convey, and invest meanings and significance” in these symbols.Communication is a dynamic, systemic process.The model emphasizes the temporal dimension of communication.Highlights personal construction of meanings and constraints.
31Message has content, structure, and style THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al)CultureSituationMessagehas content, structure,and styleChannel limits or shapes messagesMessage is affected by speaker’s purpose, knowledge, skills, attitudes, and credibility.ListenersPurpose, knowledge, skills, and attitudes affect listeners’ interpretation of messageFeedbackListeners’ verbal / visual responsecauses speaker toalter messageSpeakerSpeaker
32THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al) Premised on speechmaking, this model is comprised of essentially the following components: a speaker, the primary communicator, gives a speech, a continuous, purposive oral message, to the listeners, who provide feedback to the speaker. The exchange occurs in various channels in a particular situation and cultural context.
33THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al) SPEAKERThe speaker must evaluate himself on four (4) key areas every time he communicates: a) purpose; b) knowledge of subject and communication skills; c) attitudes toward self, listeners; and subject d) degree of credibility.
34THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al) SPEAKERa) Speaker’s Purpose. Every speaker has a purpose or goal to achieve. It may simply be to befriend someone or it may be more complex, as in trying to change one’s beliefs and behaviors. A speaker may also wish to inform or add knowledge, entertain or amuse, impress, inspire or motivate.In all cases, a speaker has direction and, thus, acts in a goal-directed manner.
35THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al) SPEAKERb) Speaker’s Knowledge. Listeners generally await a speaker with high expectations. Does the speaker display deeper-than-surface knowledge of his subject? Does he share new, fresh, relevant, and significant insights? Is there depth and breadth in his message? Can he be considered an authority on the subject? Does his message make it worth their while?
36THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al) SPEAKERc) Speaker’s Attitude. A baseline source of a healthy attitude towards self and others is one’s self-concept, a term usually grouped together with self-worth, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and self-image.
37THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al) SPEAKERd) Speaker’s Credibility. When listeners judge a speaker to be high in trustworthiness, competence, sincerity, attractiveness, and dynamism, the speaker’s chance of success will be high. Otherwise, his speech communication transaction will be a failure.
38THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al) MESSAGEa) Content. Mere facts or descriptions do not make a content. Something more substantial is needed. A speech’s content is the substantive and valuative materials that form the speaker’s view of a topic, and of the world. Content can be likened to an umbrella in whose shade certain select ideas and information come under. Content is conceptualized by the speaker according to his purposes for a particular audience.
39THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al) MESSAGEb) Structure. Presenting ideas, facts, and information any which way is structure of some sort. But a speaker’s structure needs to be one in which his ideas, facts, and information can be properly and effectively understood through patterns or coherent arrangements or sequencing of ideas. Such arrangement gradually guides and leads listeners to grasp or comprehend the speaker’s message. At the end there must be unity of thought.
40THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al) MESSAGEc) Style. Personal and impersonal, intimate or distant, poetic or plain, reportorial or impressive, you communicate your speaking style when you select certain words and arrange them in some way. Style often refers to those aspects of language that convey impressions of your personality, your view of the world, and your individuality or uniqueness as a person.
41THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al) LISTENERa) Purpose(s). Often listeners come to listen with single or multiple expectations. Some want to hear the latest on a raging controversy, others simply want to see what a person looks and sounds like, and still others come to be entertained or humored. Speakers must match their listener’s expectations in order to succeed. It is important to know that listeners want their needs satisfied.
42THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al) LISTENERb) Knowledge and Interest. Do the listeners know little or much about the topic? Would they care to hear or be attracted to listen to the topic at hand?A thoughtful speaker would not initiate a message without first studying his audience on these two critical areas, areas of high impact.
43THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al) LISTENERc) Command of Listening Skills. Listeners vary in listening skills. Some are naturally receptive while others can’t wait to hear the speaker’s final “thank you” or “good day!” Others persevere through the long chains of reasoning while the rest are struggling to see the point.The degree of appreciation in a listener is a function of his listening skills. Training in the discipline of listening is vital to any form of human communication.
44THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al) LISTENERd) Attitudes. Since attitudes of persons are generally shaped by the values they hold, it would be unwise for a speaker to antagonize his audience with contrary opinions.Listeners tend to seek out speakers whose beliefs and views they already agree with, and retain longer those ideas they strongly approve of.A speaker who wishes to alter listeners’ views must start from familiar and common ground then slowly build up to his contrasting ideas.
45THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al) FEEDBACKTwo-way flow of ideas, feelings and information from listener to speaker;May be verbal or non-verbal like yawn, frown, nod or shake, smile or laugh.The speaker adapts, adjusts, alters, and modifies his speaking behavior in order to respond to such signals.It takes skill and sensitivity to spot cues in audience behavior.
46THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al) SITUATIONYour speech is affected and influenced by the physical setting and social context in which it occurs.A social context is a particular combination of people, purposes, places, rules and conventions that interact communicatively.Societies observe certain customs, norms, and traditions that form the framework for social interactions.
47THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION TRANSACTION Model (Gronbeck et al) CULTURAL CONTEXTElements of communication may have different meanings depending upon the culture, or society in which the communication takes place.The serious or thoughtful communicator needs to examine and analyze the culture he is in at the time.
48Communicatus, p.p. Communicare old meaningto impart - to share -to make common;initial sense of participation;idea of transmission;the effect of forces.new meaningthe act of transmitting;giving/exchanging information, signals of messages by talk,gesture or writing;a system for sendingand receiving messages.etymological roots can be revealing - have a sense of the origin of a term or concept - talk about this in terms of the course - exposure to all sortsof new words - example of tutorial “why do they have to use big words?words as conveyors of ideas - containers of knowledge which is specific and particularhelps understand words as “mental/abstract objects” with many possible meanings and not simply static signsalso system of association or connotationalso how a word changes meaning over time - we will address this concept more fully later when we do semiotics and speak of language as as a system of signs which is at once “open ended” and “dynamic”in French, the terms communicate enters the vocabulary in 1370
49Modes of Communication language;gestures, signs and signals;images and representations/symbolic structures;unconscious dimension/ideology;possibility of miscommunication/denotative fallacy.language: so natural as to become almost invisible or transparent - taken for granted - if asked “how did you learn to speak, you would say...idea of imitation - role of the parents - peers - mediaalso what distinguishes us from all other living creatures - form of symbolic representation which allows us to literally construct the worldwe will give you a theory of language in the second term - semiotics - based on the work of Ferdinand de Saussureseveral versions of the origin of language - evolutionary version: Chomsky and the nativist paradigm - which is about hardwiring in the brain based on cross cultural nature of the phenomenonthink about how we think in words - how we talk to ourselves - the idea of putting feelings and emotions into verbal form, i.e. therapygestures and signals:how and what we express without words - limits to expressionimages and representations / symbolic structures: distinguish between iconic representations and symbolic ones1) bears a resemblance to what it depicts or represents 2) only generates meaning through consensus regarding what it is - at the extreme, abstract artunconscious dimension - ideology: must also realize that we communicate without knowing it, in all sorts of waysnotion of miscommunication/ denotative fallacy
50A Brief History of Communication Ancient GreeksRomansMiddle AgesEnlightenmentModern Communication Theory
51Isocrates Communication is basic to all human life; We not only communicate with others but with ourselves;Communication develops the power to think and speak well;It is therefore fundamental to the development of social institutions.
52From the Dark Ages to the Middle-Ages Collapse of the Roman Empire (300 AD);Augustine of Hippo ( );Return of the Moors to Europe ( AD)Fall of the library in Toledo (1100);Thomas Aquinas ( ).
53Two Distinct Approaches to Rhetoric The EnlightenmentTwo Distinct Approaches to Rhetorica- Conformity with the classical framework;b- the development of the elocutionarymovement• invention• organization• style• delivery
54The Elocutionary Approach Hugh Blair ( )Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles-Lettres (1783)George Campbell ( )The Philosophy of Rhetoric ( 1776)Richard Whately ( )Elements of Rhetoric (1828)
55Modern Rhetoric The early 20th century saw a synthesis of Rhetoric OratoryElocutionEnglishAdopted the term speech to identify the discipline1 - Concerned with the making of speeches- to be studied according to humanistic perspectives;2 - Concerned with the act of speaking- to be studied using the social science.Eventually becomes speech communication then simply communication.
57Argumentation Theory Elements of argument Steve Toulmin (1958) Philosopher of ScienceElements of argument- Data – specific facts known or evident;- Claim – conclusion drawn;- Warrant - the general principle or truth thatlinks data to claim.
58Hermeneutics Systematic analysis of message to explore its meaning – message is divided into Cortex andNucleus (surface structure and deep structure).- Littera – grammar - immediate meaning;- Sensus – semantics – historical sense;- Sententia – interpretation – 3 spiritual senses- sensus tropologicus- sensus allegoricus- sensus anagogicusI.A. Richards New Rhetoric – notion that meaning isnot in words but in thought.
59Dramatism Proposed by Kenneth Burke… Communication is not an appeal to emotions orreason/logic, but the creation of identity with theaudience.Act – communicating a message;Agent – person or entity communicating themessage;Agency – means of communicating the message – channel – institution;Scene - Context in which the act occurs;Purpose – intention of the act.
60Critical Theory- First identified with Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer and the Frankfurt School;- Jurgen Habermas and The Public Sphere;- uses Marxist theory for social analysis;- belief that quantitative methods are not suited for issues of social value;- Focus on Work;Language;Power.
61Postmodernism• A response to the perceived failures of modernity. Its most prominent theorists are Jean-François Lyotard, Jacques Derrida, Fredric Jameson, David Harvey, Michel Foucault, Jean Baudrillard and others.• Discusses the world and social practices in terms of discourses - fragmentation – deconstruction - power - illusion and the disappearance of the real and the loss of the Meta-narrative.
62EpistemicsEpistemics – the social construction of knowledge.
63Disciplinary Approaches linguistics;sociology;psychology;philosophy;anthropology;education;everyone.Linguistics: structural linguistics - de Saussure lectures - arbitrariness of language - also the notion of structural rules that guide any enunciationdescriptive linguistics - Franz Boas - record native American speech - largely mimetic in naturemove to American structuralist Edward Sapir - believes that there exists an inherent structuring agent in language itself - relationship between the phonetic utterances and what is terms a phonemic structuresociology: symbolic interaction - how symbolic structures stand for the world an serve to create and maintain itpsychologists: the therapeutic encounter - expression of thought processesanthropologists: Claude Lévi-Strauss - social relationships are structured like a languageeducation: is about reproducing social values/beliefs/ etc - about what is worth knowing and what is socially valuable as knowledge - ex: computersnot historyeveryone: at the most basic of levels, we are all concerned with understanding and being understood
64Types of Communication interpersonal communication;mediated communication;mass communication;Types of Communication• Interpersonal communication - communication between 2 or a few people, usually occurs face-to-face• mediated communication - communication between a few or many people which employs a technology as a mediumcan therefore be understood as existing in a continuum b/w interpersonal and mass communication• mass communication occurs when a source, typically an organization or corporate entity employs a technology as a medium to communicate with a large audience
65Interpersonal Mass Communication TechnologyTelegraph Newspaper/ PrintTelephone Broadcast TV/CableRadio FilmsInternet• different media occupy different positions on the continuum between interpersonal communication and mass communicationtelegraphtelephoneRadioInternetnewspaper/printbroadcast tv/cablefilmsCriteriaa matter of number of participantabout the control over the communication ( what is said)Criteria: • number of participants;• control over communicationi.e., what is said? To whom?Why? When? Where
66Two Approaches to Communication Research Procedural/Material ApproachThe Transmissive Model*Phenomenological/Subjective ApproachThe Ritual Model
68The Transmissive Model Belief that messages can be analyzed;understands communication as a process;interested in how messages affect behaviour or state of mind of the receiver;relationship between sender-message- receiver - with emphasis on receiver;accuracy/efficiency of communication;1-The Procedural/Material Approach - The transmissive model - concerns itself with the transmission/dissemination of messagesbelief that these messages can be analyzed and understood, both at the level of the sender and of the receiver.sees communication as a process and is interested in social interaction and how any given message might affect the behaviour or state of mind of others
69Transmissive Model Received Signal Signal Noise Source Source TransmitterReceiverDestination“common sense version” which can look at failure in communication as well as divide the act or event into stagesexample of the Shannon and Weaver model developed in 1949Concerns: Sender - Message - Receiverencoding and decoding of messagesstructure i-e channels of communicationeffects of communication -accuracy/efficiency of communicationemphasis therefore is placed on the senderthis approach to communication can be found in the social sciences -psychology - sociology - which look at acts of communicationNoiseSourceShannon and Weaver’s model
70Transmissive Model R /R1 S M Sender Message Receiver/Effect Explain this simplified version of the model as the one to be used in the coursewe will see it with Innis and later with Careyconcern with behavioural effectbasis for research dominant mass media research paradigmSenderMessageReceiver/Effect
71Concerns Applications The Ritual ModelConcernsApplicationsThe Phenomenological/Subjective Approach - The Ritual Model- understands communication as the production - exchange - interpretation of meaning within a given culture or society - understands communication research as the study of the relationship between culture and texts
72Ritual ModelInterest in interaction between people as well as people and texts;concern with cultural role of texts;meaning is the effect of the encounter with the text;process of negotiation between Sender and Receiver is dynamic;failure of communication is significant i.e., meaningful.Interests: in the interaction between people and texts or messagesconcerned with the role and play of texts within any cultural environmentdeals with signification as both and effect of the encounter with the text and the product/effect of a contingent relationship between many objects or aspects of any given cultural practicethe failure of communication - denotative fallacy - is significant as a cultural event because it highlights/foregrounds the uniqueness ofindividual expression and the differences which can result fromSocial interaction, at its most basic level, is understood as that which constitutes any individual as a member of a given or chosen culture
73Message Text Producer Reader Meaningexplain the diagram - notice the flow of meaning and the relationships between producer - text and referentreferent is that which is being referred tobased on the fundamental assumption that meaning occurs as the result of a process of negotiation between a system of signs - the sender and the receiver - this is a dynamic practice - which places emphasis on the receiver rather than the sender - and allows us to understand communication both as dominant and oppositional practiceProducerReaderReferent
74Assumptions Regarding Mass Communication Research: interdisciplinary approach;structural dimension;transmission;relationships;social interaction.- requires and interdisciplinary approach- all communication is carried out using some form of structure of system of signs and codessigns: artifacts or acts/gestures/utterances that refer symbolically to something other than themselvescodes: systems of organization of signs which determines the types of relationships which are possible amongst them and which are productive of meaning- signs and codes are transmitted/made available to others - this transmission/reception should be understood as a social practice which is at one fundamental and necessary- culture and communication can be understood as constituted by in terms of a mutual relationship wherein each can be further conceived of as an effect of the other- Finally, one might propose that all communication be conceived as a form of “social interaction” between individuals through messages
75Some Forms of Mass Media Print: books - newspapers - magazines - postersand billboardsTelevision - Film & Video;Radio;Audio recordings;the Internet.Types of Mass Media• Books and other written texts• Telegraph• Radio• Films• Television - Broadcast and cable• InternetIn a more general historical sense, any device or technology which allows the movement of information over space such as:- messengers - carriages - boats - trains - planes - satellitesor the storage of information over time- architecture - tablets - parchment - paper - tape (computers)- digital media (disks - Cds - CDRs - DVDs ...)
78International Communication Theory Tomasz Płudowski, Ph.D.Collegium Civitas, October 20, 2005
79GlobalizationProcess Whereby World Is Made into Single Place with Systemic DifferencesElements: Transborder Capital, Labor, News, Images, Information FlowsMain Engines: TNCs, TMOs
80Media Globalization Aspects Space-time CompressionChanging Working HabitsInformation Accessibility in Most Remote PlacesImpact on Local CulturesMedia Events Providing Common Experience and Uniting Globe
84Unbalanced Flow of Information World’s News AgenciesMonopoly Control over Flow from and to Developing CountriesNorth-NorthNorth-SouthSouth-South
85Structure of Global News Flow NorthNorthSouthSoth
86New International Information and Communication Order UNESCO Conference, Belgrade, 1980 Elimination of Present Inbalances and InequalitiesElimination of Negative Effects of Certain Monopolies & Exessive ConcentrationsRemoval of Obstacles to Balanced Dissemination of Information
87New International Information Order, contd. Plurality of Sources & Channels of InformationFreedom of Press & of InformationFreedom of JournalistsDeveloping Countries to ImproveSincere Will of Developed Countries to Help
88New International Information Order, contd. Respect for Each People’s Cultural Identity and Right of Each Nation to Inform World about its Interests, Aspirations and ValuesRespect of Right of All Peoples to Participate in International Exchanges of Information on Basis of Equality, Justice and Mutual Benefit
89NWICOIn the past, much of the IC debate focuse on the NWICO, which respresents:An evolutionary process seeking a more just and equitable balance in the flow and content of informationA right to national sefl-determination of domestic communication policies
90NWICO3) At the international level, a two-way information flow reflecting more accurately the aspirations and activities of less developed countries (LDCs)
91NWICOUltimate goal:restructured system of media and telecommunications priorities in order for LDCs to obtain greater influence over their media, information, economic, cultural, and political systems
92Conflict over NWICOLDCs postulate measures that clash with strongly held journalistic traditions and practices in the West:Government control of the mediaLimited reporter access to eventsJournalistic codesLicensing of reportersTaxation of the broadcast spectrum
93Balanced Flow of Information Approved by UNESCO in the 1970sEven that idea criticized as interference with free flow and free market mechanisms. Only an open and free flow of information is consistent with the goals of a truly free press
94NWICO Not merely a theoretical issue Used to legitimize a governmental role in disseminating information in several states, notably in Africa (in Liberia journalists need permits to cover information, no permit ever given to use the Internet)
95International News in Western Media The average mass circulation newspaper in the West carries less international news than ten years ago (with the exception of time around 9/11)
96Reasons for less international coverage Costs ($250,000 per year to place an equip one)Restrictions from censorship to jailingHigh turnover of foreign correspondentsTrend toward ”parachute journalism”-flocks descending in scenes of conflict to trivialize and sensationalize complex issuesLack of public concern, as reflected in the trend toward light, fluffy, and trendy journalism
97Changes in International Media in 1980s and 1990s
98American Media Background Deregulation Unprecedented Corporate Growth -Mergers-Concentration-Conglomeration-Monopoly
99Media Research Most research looks at micro issues such as: agenda-settingViolenceOwnershipOr a specific medium such as:PrintTelevision
100NWICO offers a macro approach, so do the following theories:
101Theories of International Communication Electronic Colonialism Theory (ECT)World-System Theory (WST)Free Flow of InformationModernization TheoryDependency TheoryStructural Imperialism
102Theories of International Communication, cntd HegemonyCritical TheoryThe Public SphereCultural Studies perspectivesTheories of the Information SocietyDiscourses of GlobalizationA Critical Political-economy of the 21st century
103Electronic Colonialism Theory Throughout history there have been few successful efforts at empire building:Military Colonialism (B.C.-1,000 A.D.)The expansion of the Roman empire throughout most of what is today Europe during the Greco-Roman period
104Christianity Colonialism (1,000-1,600) Militant Christianity of the Crusades that sought to control territory from Europe to Middle East. Beginning 1095, 200 years of crusades led to the establishment of new European colonies in the ME. The territories were seized from Muslims as Western civilization became the dominant international force
105Mercantile Colonialism (1,600-1,950) Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and the Americas became objects of conquest by European powers that sought markets, raw materials, and other goods unavailable at home in return sending colonial administrators, immigrants, a language, educational system, religion, philosophy, high culture, and a lifestyle that frequently were inappropriate for the invaded country. International status was a function of the number and location of one’s foreign colonies
106Electronic Colonialism (1950-Present) In 1950s and 1960s rise of nationalism in developing countries and a shift to a service-based, information economy in the West set the stage for the fourth and current era of empire expansion
107Electronic Colonialism Represents the dependent relationship of LDCs on the West established by the importation of communication hardware and foreign-produced software, along with engineers, technicians, and related information protocols, that establish a set of foreign norms, values, habits, values, and expectations that, to varying degrees, alter domestic cultures, habits, values, and the socialization process.
108Electronic Colonialism Theory The concern is that this new foreign information will cause the displacement, rejection, alteration, or forgetting of native or indigenous customs, domestic messages, and cultural history. LDCs fear EC as much as MC. Whereas MC sought cheap labor, EC seeks minds. It is aimed at influencing attitudes, desires, beliefs, lifestyles, and consumer behavior.
109Electronic Colonialism Theory As the citizens of LDCs are increasingly viewed through the prism of consumerism, control of their values and purchasing patterns becomes increasingly important to multinational firms. Tools: Western media messages, e.g. at its peak in mid-1990s, Baywatch was watched by more than 1 billion people a week in nearly 150 countries.
110Electronic Colonialism Theory EC relies on the long-term consequences of exposure to these media images and messages to extend the West’s market’s, power, and influence.
111World-System TheoryProvides the concepts, ideas, and language for structuring international communication. WST was proposed and developed by Immanuel Wallerstein.WST proposes that global economic expansion takes place from a relatively small group of core zone nation-states out to two other zones of nations-states, these being in the semi-peripheral and peripheral zones
112World-System TheoryIt is assumed that the zones exhibit unequal and uneven economic relations, with the core nations being the dominant and controlling economic entity.Core nationsexert control and define the nature and extent of interactions with the other two zonesprovide technology, software, capital, knowledge, finished goods, and services to the other zones which function as consumers and markets
113World-System Theory Core Periphery Semi-periphery Capital-intensive, high-wage,high-technology production involving low labor exploitation and coercionPeripheryLabor-intensive, low-wage, low-technology production involving high labor exploitation and coercionSemi-peripheryCore-like actiivties, periphery-like activities
115Free Flow of Information The concept reflected Western, and specifically US, antipathy to state regulation and censorship of the media. It was part of the liberal, free market discourse designed in the post-WWII bi-polar world of free market capitalism and state socialism. As such it was part of the Cold War discourse. The FFI doctrine assisted the West in advertising and marketing their goods in foreign markets, in ensuring continuing influence of Western media on global markets, and in strengthening the West in its ideological battle with the Soviet Union. Also helped communicate, in subtle rather than direct ways, US government’s points of view to international audiences
116Modernization TheoryComplimentary to the doctrine of free flow in the post-war years was the view that international communication was the key to the process to the modernization and development of the so-called ‘Third World.’Daniel Lerner, MIT, The Passing of Traditional Society (1958)- early 1950s research into audience exposure to radio in Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iran. Hypothesis: exposure to the media made traditional societies less bound by tradition and made them aspire to a new and modern way of life.