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Unleashing Potential through Multi-Intelligent Literacy Instruction

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1 Unleashing Potential through Multi-Intelligent Literacy Instruction
Benay Dara-Abrams, PhD Leslie Shelton, PhD

2 Welcome page Unleashing Potential through Multi-Intelligent Literacy Instruction Collage of three photos with captions: Caption: Pathway to Literacy (photo 1) Description: Learners created this three-dimensional model of their process of becoming literate. Caption: Teaching parts of speech (photo 2) Description: Tutors create a lesson activity using at least four intelligences. Caption: Teaching with cartoons (photo 4) Description: A tutor brings Spatial Intelligence into literacy instruction. Click on each image to see brief description

3 (Instructions for Course Objectives page)
The next two slides describe Understanding Goals and Performance Goals. We’d like to combine these two slides into one page We’d like to have a light bulb as a background for the Understanding Goals and each goal could appear one at a time out of the light bulb. We’d like to have an image of an egg cracking open for the Performance Goals and have each goal appear one at a time out of the egg image.

4 Understanding Goals We’ve designed this course to help you understand:
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) What MI theory tells us about learning preferences How to create more effective strategies for literacy instruction How to increase understanding and skills How to introduce concepts using strengths How to engage a blend of intelligences in learning activities.

5 Skill and Performance goals
At the end of the course, you’ll be able to: Design practical activities that apply MI Theory in literacy and adult education lessons Identify learner capabilities using MI assessment tools Develop new ways to introduce a topic Open doorways into learning experiences Present subject matter through various modes.

6 Course navigation We have boilerplate text that goes here, but will add in anything else they will need to know -- discussion board instructions, any media players they will need for the course, etc. Response: thank you for inserting course navigation information here.

7 Lesson 1 Focusing on Strengths Need Lesson objectives here
Response: These must have been lost from the previous version, so we have re-inserted them after this slide.

8 (Instructions for Lesson Objectives)
We’d like to include photos that show different activities in a way that represents various intelligences. Response: we have re-inserted the instructions for lesson objectives that were deleted in the re-organization. We have also revised the instructions based on our discussion.

9 Lesson 1: Focusing on Strengths Objectives
By the end of this lesson, you will be able to: Understand that all human beings have at least eight intelligence systems and use a blend of these to learn. Name and describe each intelligence. Assess one’s own intelligence preferences. Know how to identify student learning strengths.

10 Topic 1: Understanding How We Learn
How we learn is as unique as our faces. Even though every face has a nose, eyes, and ears, we all accept that every face is unique. The same holds true for how each of us learns. We all have the same human capacities to draw upon, but each of us expresses these in a unique way. From this perspective, it’s not how smart we are but how we are smart. Take a look at the faces on this page and notice the words each person uses to introduce himself. When people talk about themselves, we get clues about how they learn and use their smarts. The people we are discussing in this course are real people, the first three of whom are adult learners who have attended Project Read, a library literacy program in South San Francisco, California. Hi, I’m Patty. I love making crafts and party decorations. I enjoy talking to people and could sell you anything! I also like to spend time alone thinking about what matters to me. My name is Enrique. When I was a kid, my dream was to compete in the Olympics. I pack cargo planes faster than anyone else. I was pleased to speak out for adult learners when I testified before Congress about the importance of literacy. Hello, I’m Donna. When I was a kid, I loved to play kickball. I liked to spend hours outside playing in the dirt. One of my favorite activities today is tracking down my father’s Native American roots. I’ve been entering writing contests for adult learners for the last several years and won first place this year. My name is Benay. When I was a kid, I spent hours reading, playing the piano, and playing math games with my Dad. In the summer, I loved to go sailing by myself for hours, thinking about life. In college, I discovered another kind of keyboard -- on a computer. I love to plan technology projects that solve problems for people. Patty Enrique If these are real people and we will have pictures for all of them, we will need model releases for them to include their photos in the course. If they are stock photos, i just need to know where they came from to ensure that we can use them. I envision having the photos displayed and having each paragraph pop-up as they are clicked on. Response: These are real people, and Leslie sent releases from each of the learners. I’m sending a digital photo of myself to you. I sent a release form to you. We like the idea of the individual descriptions popping up when photos are clicked on. We have also modified the text slightly to state that these people are real. We’d like to highlight the distinction between “how smart we are” vs. “how we are smart” – we have used bold italics and spacing to highlight this concept, but feel free to use a more eye-catching way of highlighting the distinction between the two phrases. Donna Benay

11 How do I learn? Activity:
In order to understand how we learn best and learn differently, we’d like to begin the discovery process with you. Reflecting on your own talents and skills will offer a window into understanding how individuals prefer to learn and communicate ideas. Activity: Think about a quality you bring to tutoring (or teaching) or a strength you have. For example, Leslie thinks one of her strengths is vision to see possibilities. Now go to the draw program and create a symbol that represents the quality or strength you feel you bring to tutoring or to your work. Please avoid using words in your symbol. Here is the symbol Leslie created for her quality of vision. (symbol image) Leslie described what her symbol represents in the following way: “The symbol represents not only seeing, but also a breadth of vision that is expansive, taking in new ideas. It also reminds me a bit of an eagle, which can see great distances.” Now post your symbol and write a note describing what your symbol represents. Once you’ve posted your own symbol, take a look at other participants’ symbols and comments. You’ll see a wide variety of symbols representing many types of strengths. Note: Leslie ed a copy of the symbol image that should replace the parenthetical phrase (symbol image).

12 Reflection Questions We’ve found that periodic reflection helps solidify the learning process. It encourages us to think about how we think and how we do what we do. This is called meta-cognition. At this point, we’d like you to take a moment and sit back and think about the activity you just did. Please post your answers to the “How I learn” topic in the discussion forum. Reflection questions to answer: How did it feel to be asked to draw - a non-dominant or less-developed capability? (unless you’re an artist) What internal messages and feelings came up for you during this activity? How do symbols capture information differently than words?

13 Synthesis As you completed the activity to create a symbol, some of you may have found it challenging or uncomfortable to think in pictures and make a drawing of your ideas. In the same way, adults with reading and writing difficulties can often feel embarrassed or frustrated when asked to express themselves using the written word as a mode of expression. By examining your own experience of how you completed the activity as well as what it was like be asked to complete the task using a less-dominant mode of expression, we hope that you will gain a deeper appreciation not only of learning preferences, but also how learning preferences and differences can effect the learning process Please discuss the following: What process did you go through to come up with your symbol? Did you begin with pictures first? Did you make a list of ideas? Did you search for feelings? How has this experience changed your perspective of persons with literacy challenges? Please post your comments in the discussion forum under the “Synthesis” subtopic of “How I learn.”

14 Lesson 1, topic 2 What is Intelligence?
Response: We have moved the “Human Capacities” slide back to this location and renamed the slide to make the focus clearer. We think this slide can be used to help make the transition from how we learn to understanding intelligences and MI theory. We did this because we hadn’t yet talked about how people learn in any depth; participants only did an activity to explore their own learning strengths. We don’t see a shift at this point, so we would use different language to describe moving from topic 1 to topic 2. What we think we are doing is moving from an appreciation of individual learning strengths to a particular perspective on human cognition, that is, MI theory, so we’ll call topic 2 “What is Intelligence?” Then we’ll start by exploring human capacities as a lead-in to understanding what intelligence is.

15 Understanding Human Capacities in order to Understand How People Learn
The previous activity set the stage for us to begin to explore how people think, learn and carry out tasks. This is often referred to as cognition. Scholars in the fields of psychology and education have chosen to study human capacities as a doorway into understanding the complexities of the learning experience. Observing how children interact with and learn about their world informs us a great deal about our common human capacities and how we prefer to learn. Take a moment to think about how children interact with their worlds. They love to run, dance, sing, make music, move, climb, handle objects, tell stories, watch insects, notice patterns, put things in order, daydream, fantasize, talk to themselves and more. These actions are clues to the spectrum of capabilities that all individuals share, unless significantly disabled. Some of the key points that emerge from these studies are that: We are each uniquely gifted and challenged as human beings and as learners throughout our lives. Human beings learn and express their learning in a variety of ways. Learning relies on both innate talents (nature) as well as skills that can be developed (nurture). One of the best known researchers to study human capacities is Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner. He studied children and adults from cultures across the globe, including people with brain injures and those considered to be savants (geniuses). His research (1983) led to the Theory of Multiple Intelligences, which states that all human beings have a multiplicity of intelligence systems (at least eight), and we use a combination to learn and accomplish most tasks in our daily lives. Stefanie Weiss, from NEA (National Education Association) Today, spoke with Howard Gardner. For the condensed version of the interview, go to -- For the complete interview, go to --

16 A Different View of Intelligence
When we think of intelligence, the first person to come to mind is Albert Einstein, a brilliant scientist and mathematician. He was also a talented musician, but he he is not well-known for that skill. Notice the word talented. We don’t say he’s an intelligent musician, we call him talented. We recognize him as a genius for his scientific prowess, not his musical skill. In Western cultures, we have drawn a distinction between intelligence and talent The sports star, ball player, musician, dancer, and artist are talented. The scientist, computer whiz, college professor, and banker are intelligent. The bus driver, mechanic, and dishwasher probably aren’t called either talented or intelligent. As a society, we have valued some human skills and talents more than others. These perceptions have come about over the last century as the use of the IQ test became the commonly used benchmark for measuring “intelligence” and predicting school success. Albert Einstein playing with Benay’s cousin

17 How Intelligence has been defined
Interestingly, the IQ test was developed in the early 1900’s by French psychologist, Alfred Binet, in order to identify individual children who were at risk of having difficulty in school, so they could receive individualized help. The test was designed to predict school performance and measures only the ability to perform mathematical calculations and use good language skills. The test was never intended to label people as smart or dumb. But that is what happened as it became widely used in America to predict academic success. Despite the deference paid to IQ, it has never been an indicator of potential or success in life. The idea that there is a general intelligence (g) and one test (IQ) that measures how “smart” a person is or how successful he or she will be in life has been seriously challenged by several psychologists, based on recent brain/mind research. Leading the challenge is Harvard psychologist, Dr. Howard Gardner, the originator of the Theory of Multiple Intelligences.

18 Reflection – Signs of Intelligence
Let’s take a moment to reflect on the concept of intelligence. Please address each of these reflection questions in the discussion forum. 1. What kinds of skills or occupations in this society are viewed as signs of intelligence? 2. Which ones are considered signs of talent? 3. How do you view the similarities and differences between talents and intelligences? Note to Kristine: please provide some stock photos of people doing different types of jobs to illustrate this slide.

19 MI Theory Looking at how people solve problems and function in the real world, Gardner proposed a new view of intelligence that is now widely accepted as a more complete description of human capabilities. Gardner defines intelligence as: the capacity to solve problems or fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural settings. It is the ability to respond successfully to new situations and the capacity to learn from one’s past experiences. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences is the result of research that Gardner began in 1979 to investigate human capacities and cognition. He wrote Frames of Mind, published in 1983, to describe his findings and propose MI theory, which identified the different ways humans think and interact with the world. He was interested in creating a more complete understanding of the mind and intelligence. To do this he studied people with extraordinary talents (savants), gifted children, and “normal” people, as well as individuals who had suffered specific brain damage from strokes or accidents. In addition, he studied people from different cultures, ethnic backgrounds, types of education, and life experiences. What he found was seven distinct intellectual potentials (intelligences) that are common to all human beings across cultures, age groups,and biological traits. Recently, Gardner added an eighth intelligence (naturalist), and is considering several more. By proposing that human beings are smart in many different ways, Gardner emphasized his belief that our Western culture has defined intelligence too narrowly. Instead, he found a broad range of functional abilities that could be seen operating in people’s daily lives. He grouped these common areas of ability into categories, which he intentionally chose to call intelligences. Every human being has all eight intelligences. Each intelligence is relatively independent of the others. These intelligences are both innate and learned, and can be further developed in a nurturing environment. Individuals tend to be more developed in some intelligences than others. We tend to use a combination of intelligences in most things we do.

20 Discovering Learning Strengths
MI Theory can help educators and tutors to identify learning strengths. Engaging a student’s learning strengths has been emphasized for many years in terms of creating effective teaching strategies and addressing learning difficulties. But how do you discover your student’s strengths? Most teachers and volunteer tutors believe that the best way to identify learning strengths is by understanding and engaging a person’s learning styles. But this is not necessarily true. While the concept of learning styles is popular and well-known, it is most appropriately applied to understanding how a person prefers to access (take in) information and is less useful in actually identifying a person’s cognitive strengths and capabilities. The three most commonly described learning styles (also referred to as learning preferences) are: visual kinesthetic auditory. Each is sensory-based and describes how an individual prefers to take information in -- whether one prefers to see images, hear information, or feel and handle objects. While people may have a strong preference for one style, more often they use two or all three. Studies have shown that the most effective instructional strategies use a combination of all three. Learning Styles and MI Theory are complimentary but different theories and concepts. While learning styles are connected to the senses, intelligences are not. While learning styles describes how a person prefers to receive new information, multiple intelligence theory details how a person prefers to take in, synthesize (understand) and apply new learning. The beauty of MI Theory is that it helps one identify real-life strengths in such a concrete way that teachers and tutors can successfully tap into the specific skills and talents of their students in order to teach reading and writing more effectively. By understanding each intelligence, we discover a framework that recognizes and names all the ways a person may be smart. In this way, MI Theory supports a strength-based paradigm rather than a deficit-oriented paradigm.

21 (Link to Paradigm characteristics)
A Deficit-oriented paradigm … Labels Diagnoses Remediates Separates Mystifies Segments A Growth-oriented paradigm… Describes Assesses Nurtures Includes Demystifies Celebrates Thomas Armstrong, Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, 1994.

22 Intelligences in Action
Remember meeting Patty, Enrique, Donna, and Benay earlier in the course? Now let’s take a look at what they said about their interests in order to discover how these translate into learning strengths and intelligences. Patty’s interest in making crafts and party decorations shows her spatial and body movement skills. Her sales skills show her social smarts. Patty also has a high level of self awareness or self smarts. Enrique’s athletic skills show his body smarts. His ability to pack cargo planes so well relies on his spatial, logic and body smarts all working together. When Enrique agreed to testify before the U.S. Congress he demonstrated his strong self and social smarts. Donna’s love of playing games outdoors reflects her nature and body movement intelligences. Her drive to understand her roots reflect her deep self-awareness, and her recent writing achievements show her language smarts. Benay’s math games and technology interests demonstrate her logic-math aptitude. As a bookworm, pianist, and self-reflecting person, she shows her strong language, musical, and self smarts.

23 video Take a moment to watch this discussion between three of the adult learners as they talk about their interests and skills and the ways that they are “smart.”

24 Reflection and Discussion
Based on Gardner’s definition of intelligence, how does this change how you view the intelligence of adults with literacy challenges? After hearing the learners describe how they see themselves as intelligent, how would you tap those intelligences in your own approaches to literacy instruction?

25 Learning More about MI Theory
For more information on MI Theory, take a look at the following sites -- Howard Gardner’s answers to frequently asked questions about MI Theory -- Howard Gardner’s presentation to the Wisconsin Education Association Council (WEAC) -- Harvard University Project Zero and Howard Gardner’s work – Thomas Armstrong’s explanation of Multiple Intelligences – Note to Kristine: These resources should be included along with the reflection questions.

26 Our Many Intelligences
Lesson 1, topic 3 Our Many Intelligences Sue and I spoke and felt that this really deserves a topic of it’s own, where the participant can explore the eight intelligences that have been mentioned in the previous topic, and spend a little time thinking about the descriptions of them and the ways those intelligences manifest themselves in our daily activities. It would be a good place to introduce the images that will correspond to each intelligence, if we’re going to carry those through the rest of the course. Response: It’s fine with us to have a separate topic. However, we’d like to give this topic a different name since Gardner specifically states that there are multiple intelligences, but the exact number continues to expand based on evidence he is gathering (at one time there were thought to be only seven). The point isn’t that there are eight intelligences, but rather that all human beings have many different intelligences. How about if we rename this topic Our Many Intelligences.

27 Lesson 1, Topic 3: Intelligences In-depth
In this section, you will have an opportunity to learn more about each individual intelligence. The following eight intelligence systems meet Gardner’s criteria. We have changed some of his names to make them more tutor and learner-friendly. If changed, his names appear in parentheses. Gardner is continuing to investigate two others – the spiritual and existential intelligences, but has not designated them as intelligences at this time. Click on the icon to explore each intelligence further. Body movement (Bodily-Kinesthetic) Language (Linguistic) Spatial Musical Logic-Math (Logical-Mathematical) Naturalist Social (Interpersonal) Self (Intrapersonal)

28 Spatial Intelligence Characteristics Careers Photographer Artist
The ability to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately and to perform transformations upon perceptions. Characteristics A person who is spatially smart is: a keen observer able to think in three dimensions uses metaphors in speech good at drawing pictures and diagrams good at taking things apart and putting them back together again has a strong visual memory for shapes, colors and patterns. Interests Likes to read posters, photographs, and diagrams Is good at drawing, cartoons, designing patterns, making models, building things. Likes to doodle, play with puzzles, and navigate through space. Careers Photographer Artist Mechanic Carpenter Interior Designer Seamstress Craftsperson Pilot Packer or organizer

29 Language Intelligence
The capacity to use words effectively, whether orally or in writing. Characteristics A person who is language smart is: Sensitive to language, meanings, and the relationship of words to each other. Able to manage syntax and the structure of language. Comprehends the phonology or sounds of language. Tends to be articulate, loves to play with the way words work together and is precise about choice of vocabulary to express ideas. Interests Interested in books, magazines, all types of written materials including poetry an plays. Likes to learn using word games, vocabulary activities, poetry, essays, and plays. Often enjoys writing, speaking, debating, and discussing ideas. Careers Storyteller Teacher Editor Writer Poet or Playwright Librarian Marketing specialist Speech therapist

30 Body Movement Intelligence
The capacity to use the whole body to express ideas and feelings and the facility to use one’s hands to produce or transform things. Characteristics A person with is body smart has: Good body control, coordination, balance and fine motor skills. Dexterity, strength, flexibility, and speed Often active, needs to move around a lot, and is animated when speaking. May be misidentified and labeled as ADD Interests Likes to be physically active with sports, martial arts, building objects or models. Reads body language well and listens to their own inner body intelligence . Likes making crafts, sewing, sculpting, making objects. Likes to handle or manipulate objects while learning. Careers Athlete, Dancer Mechanic Carpenter Surgeon Craftsperson or sculptor Cargo handler Model Seamstress Typist

31 Naturalist Intelligence
The capacity to recognize and classify the numerous species in one’s environment, whether plants, animals or objects such as sneakers and CD’s. Characteristics A person who is nature smart: Is sensitive to nature and one’s environment Is able to discriminate between similar species. Knows the names and precise characteristics of their particular interest, whether rocks, flowers, birds, etc. Enjoys being in nature, and understands the rhythms and patterns of the natural world or one’s environment. Interests Often likes to garden, farm, work outdoors Enjoys hiking, camping, trekking, skiing Learns by making connections, observing patterns, seeing the whole picture. Likes to care for, tame or interact with animals and other living creatures. Careers Gardener Landscape Architect Park Ranger Veterinarian Fisherman Biologist, Botanist Zoo keeper Environmental scientist Farmer Herbalist

32 Logic-Math Intelligence
The capacity to use numbers effectively, work in sequence, and reason well. Characteristics A person who is logic/math smart: Is good at counting, organizing, and abstract thinking Is sensitive to logical patterns and relationships such as cause and effect. Prefers to work in logical structures such as categorizing, working with hypotheses, inference and generalizations. Interests Likes to make lists, work from outlines, put things into categories. Enjoys critical thinking activities and solving word problems and puzzles. Likes to break things down into smaller parts and reassemble them. Enjoys computational activities such as balancing the check book, making a budget, organizing the closet. Careers Computer Scientist Warehouseman Mathematician Inventory clerk Scheduler Accountant Bookkeeper Planner Secretary Chef

33 Musical Intelligence Characteristics Careers Musician Singer
The capacity to perceive, discriminate and transform musical forms. Characteristics A person who is musically smart: Is sensitive to rhythm, pitch, melody and intonation. Can remember tunes and rhythms easily. Often has perfect pitch. Likes to tap along or beat out rhythms while learning something new. Can have a global, intuitive understanding of music or a more formal “bottom up” technical understanding of musical structures or both. Interests Enjoys listening to music and creating musical pieces. Likes to listen to and write poems and/or plays. Learns well by setting new learning to music or creating jazz chants, rap songs, or mnemonics. Enjoys guided imagery set to music. Careers Musician Singer Auto Mechanic Disk Jockey Sports Announcer Speech Therapist Audiologist Dancer

34 Social Intelligence Characteristics Careers Counselor/therapist
The ability to perceive and make distinctions in the moods, intentions, motivations, and feelings of other people. Characteristics A person who is socially smart: Is sensitive to facial expressions, voice and gestures. Is able to discriminate among many different kinds of interpersonal cues and is able to respond appropriately. Is often outgoing and interactive. Is effective in working with groups of others to influence group behavior. Is a good listener and responds in helpful ways. Interests Enjoys helping others and being of service. Likes working in teams and interacting with others. Enjoys discussion groups and social events. Likes to organize social activities and lead groups. Is good at problem solving with others. Can be effective in mediating difficult situations and resolving conflict Careers Counselor/therapist Social Worker Nurse or Doctor Teacher Sales person Marketing Specialist Human Resources staff Group Facilitator Mediator

35 Self Intelligence Characteristics Careers Interests Self-employed
The capacity to know oneself and be able to adapt and act based on that knowledge. Characteristics A person who is self smart: Has an accurate picture of one’s strengths and limits. Is able to understand and access one’s own feelings. Is aware of inner moods, intentions, and desires. Has self-discipline, self-understanding, and a grounded sense of self worth. Interests Enjoys time alone for reflection and contemplation. Likes to learn by connecting new learning to one’s own experience. May enjoy listening to poetry and music that provide self-awareness, as well as keeping a journal. Is inspired by other’s personal stories. Often prefers to work alone or manage one’s own work. Enjoys contemplative practices such as meditation or prayer. Careers Self-employed Entrepreneur Poet Performing Artist Athlete Religious Contemplative Consultant Counselor Writer

36 Reflection and Discussion
Reflection question: Think about your own skills and interests. Which three intelligences do you rely on the most to do your work or enjoy in leisure time? This is a great reflection questions to transition to the next topic!

37 Identifying and Assessing Intelligences
Lesson 1,Topic 4: Identifying and Assessing Intelligences

38 How to assess intelligence
Now that you’ve had an opportunity to learn about the different intelligences, in this section, you’ll learn how to identify the intelligences that you and your learners are using. Educators and others tend to envision assessment as a process of giving “objective” tests. However, Gardner feels that a person’s intelligences are best reflected in the real-life tasks that one performs every day. He believes that observation of how a person accomplishes a variety of activities and solves problems is a more accurate and thorough indication of intelligences than a paper and pencil test. For example, think about trying to parallel park a car. It takes an acute spatial intelligence to judge the relationship of the car to the curb, determine the angle to use while backing up, and know when to start turning the wheel back in order to fit the car into the space. The body movement intelligence is needed to turn the wheel and “feel at one” with the car as it moves. People who are spatially smart and body smart usually succeed the first time. But those who don’t think in three dimensions often make two or three tries. Noticing how someone approaches and accomplishes real life tasks at home and at work will give you many clues to the intelligences that can be tapped for successful learning and mastery. We agree with Gardner that finding a variety of ways to observe performance and analyze how we do what we do is the best way to assess all of our intelligences. While paper and pencil inventories can be helpful, they are a less specific to you. If you are curious about taking a brief MI Inventory, follow this link to: In summary, self-reflection, analysis of performance, and MI inventories are all methods for assessing intelligences. In this topic, we’ll have them take what they have now read about the intelligences, and go through the i can exercise for themselves to apply that background knowledge. Response: we’ve added an introductory sentence to let them know where we’re going.

39 Self-Assessment Discovering intelligence preferences
As an adult educator or tutor, it is critical that you explore your own ways of knowing before you try to help your student do the same. To help you understand the process, we’d like you to use the I CAN cards as a starting point to discover your own intelligence preferences -- to see which are more developed and which are less. One of the best ways to gain a well-rounded picture of our most developed or preferred intelligences is to analyze how we do the activities that we like or do well in our work and daily lives. The I CAN cards are designed to help you uncover intelligences in the every day activities that we all do. Response: we have modified the text since we’re using I CAN cards instead of the SMARTS inventory. We have also cleaned up the text to make it clearer and make the transition smoother.

40 Model of I CAN card Remember Benay, whom we met at the beginning of the course? Let’s look at the I CAN card Benay filled out to uncover her intelligences. I can develop and use new technology to solve problems for people. I like to play the piano, play African drums, and dance. I like creating unusual concoctions with a wide variety of foods. I like to read and think about life while listening to waves breaking on the beach. I can plan and organize anything. The previous slide provided an example, and now we’ll have the participant try it on for size. On this slide, have the participant select one activity they enjoy, and ask then to think through all the skills they need to accomplish that activity, then identify the intelligences that support those skills. You can ask them to view their results in relation to what they identified in their reflection on slide 22 above. Do they support what they believe are their strengths, or do they have additional intelligences that they hadn’t thought of before? Response: we’d like to have participants think about their own “I can’s” first and then see a model using Benay as an example (we’ll use Donna later as a student example).

41 Model of Skills Analysis Card
Now we’re going to analyze the skills involved in one of Benay’s preferred activities – creative cooking. We compiled this list by asking Benay to reflect on the skills and tasks that are involved in the activity of creative cooking. Creative Cooking I think about what my family and I might be in the mood to eat. I think about the food on hand in the kitchen and figure out the quantities I need for dinner. I dream up combinations of different foods and play with the ideas in my mind. I visualize what a concoction will look like and imagine what it will taste like. I read recipes in my cookbooks or on the web for new ideas. I make a plan for dinner depending on who is home and figure out how to include protein, carbohydrates, and fresh veggies and fruit. While I’m planning, I turn on some classical music to listen to as I cook. Then I envision how the meal will look on a plate and modify my plan if my vision doesn’t appeal to me. I take foods out of the refrigerator, assemble them on the counter, get bowls out, and measure ingredients. As I’m going along, I check to see if the concoction is turning out the way I want it to – does it look right? Does it taste right? Is it too dry? Is the consistency right? Does it need something else added? Once I’m satisfied that the concoction is turning out the way I want it to, I plan how to serve and present the food on the table. What bowls and plates do I want to use? How do I want the meal to look on the table? I sit down and enjoy eating dinner with my family. Note to Kristine: we’d like the skills analysis card to come up first and then have the following slide pop up next to it to show the intelligence checklist.

42 Checklist of Intelligences
Based on Benay’s description of tasks, a check mark appears by each intelligence involved in each step of her cooking process. INTELLIGENCES checklist Language a Spatial aaaa Logic/math aaa Musical a Body Movement aa Social aa Self aaa Nature Note to Kristine: please have the intelligence checklist pop up on the previous page next to the skills analysis card.

43 I CAN Card I can … I like to … I like to ….
Think about what you like to do or do well, such as make gourmet meals, paint pictures, play basketball, or knit scarves. After reflecting on what you do well, list up to five “I can’s” or “I like to’s” that give a well-rounded picture of your strengths. I can … I like to … I like to …. Instead of the favorite activities slides (previously 30-33) let’s model the i can card exercise they can do with their students. (i think this is what we agreed on in lieu of presenting all the activities, or using an already prepared survey online.) On this slide, introduce the i can card by going back to one of the people from that initial photo collage and follow through an activity they enjoy, through the skills it requires and the intelligences that support them. Response: we have inserted a sample I CAN card. We would like the card to display with the five lines of “I can” or “I like to” and then allow the participant to type in the response to complete each sentence. The letters show up as the participant types in the response. Please make sure that responses can be changed if they make mistakes or want to add something.

44 Your Skills Analysis Now that you have seen Benay’s example, select one of your favorite “I Can’s” to break down into specific task and intelligences. I Can or Like to ______________________________ Now, list the activities that you actually perform as part of what you like to do. Note to Kristine: please make this a form that can filled out online with participants being able to type in what he/she can or likes to do and then with a place for participants to list the individual steps and activities that are part of the overall activity.

45 Intelligence checklist
INTELLIGENCES checklist Language Spatial Logic/math Musical Body Movement Social Self Nature Note to Krisitine: please set up the intelligence checklist so that they can insert check marks (as we did for the examples) and the check marks will show up. As with Benay’s intelligence checklist, please have the participant’s intelligence checklist pop up next to their skills analysis card (previous slide).

46 Reflection and Discussion
What did you learn about yourself? What, if anything, surprised you? How do your preferences show up in the way you teach? Which intelligences do you underutilize or avoid in teaching? 5. How do the inventory results compare with your own discovery process? Response: We moved this reflection and discussion up after the intelligence checklist so that participants will take time to reflect before they move on to assessing their student’s intelligences.

47 Discovering your students’ intelligences
Now that you’ve explored your own intelligences, how can you work with a student to identify his or hers? We suggest starting with a conversation that explores how she does what she does well or loves to do. Tutors and teachers usually have good insights into their students. We previously met Patty, Enrique, and Donna and learned a bit about their interests and favorite activities. This understanding helped us begin to uncover the intelligences they’re using in their daily lives. For example, Enrique works for an airline carrier where he used to pack cargo planes. When we asked him how he did this, he responded that he looked at the size, shape, and weight of each of the boxes. Then he computed the weights and shapes and packed the plane in his head in about 30 seconds. His ability to visually arrange the boxes to best fit the space shows his high level of spatial intelligence. His is ability to compute the weights of the boxes and distribute them evenly across the plane shows his logic/math intelligence. You can see how he uses a blend of intelligences to complete a complex work task. Let’s take a look at Donna’s I CAN card and skills analysis as a model for you to use in working with your student.

48 Donna’s I CAN Card I love playing dominoes and Bridge.
We asked Donna what some of her favorite activities were. We also asked her what she felt she did well at work and at play. She responded: I love playing dominoes and Bridge. I like to create beadwork on leather items. I can do bookkeeping and financial work well. I like leading workshops for other adult learners and speaking to groups. I enjoy doing geneology research about my family. Instead of the favorite activities slides (previously 30-33) let’s model the i can card exercise they can do with their students. (i think this is what we agreed on in lieu of presenting all the activities, or using an already prepared survey online.) On this slide, introduce the i can card by going back to one of the people from that initial photo collage and follow through an activity they enjoy, through the skills it requires and the intelligences that support them. Response: yes, we’re following the approach you’ve suggested by providing an example of a student, Donna.

49 Donna’s Skills Analysis
I Can or Like to create beadwork on leather, such as my purse. The way I do it is: First I think about what I like in terms of feelings, colors, shapes and patterns. Then I make a drawing of my idea and see how I feel about it. Next I pick out the colors I want to use and check my supplies. Then I make a list of beads or other things I might need, such as leather for the purse, needles or the right kind of thread. I draw out a pattern for the size and shape of the purse and where I want the design to go. Once I have all my supplies organized, I begin by sewing the beads onto a cloth, working with the colors in the order pattern that I want them. When the beadwork is done, then I sew the design onto the leather purse. The final step is then sewing the leather bag together and putting a trim on it. When it is finished I look at it, feel it, and reflect on the final product to see how I feel about it. Note to Kristine: as with Benay’s and participant’s skills analysis, please have the intelligence checklist on the following slide pop up next to the skills analysis card.

50 Donna’s Checklist of Intelligences
INTELLIGENCES checklist Language Spatial aaaaaa Logic/math aaa Musical Body Movement aaaa Social Self aaa Nature Note to Kristine: please have this checklist pop up next to the skills analysis card (previous slide).

51 Uncovering Your Student’s Intelligences and Strengths
Print a copy of the I CAN card and Skills Analysis card to use while interviewing your student. In working with your students, it is important to analyze the skills involved in several of their activities in order to get a well-rounded picture of their learning strengths. Here are the directions for using the I CAN and Skills Analysis cards with your student. 1. Make a list of all the things your student enjoys doing, loves to do, or does well at work or at home. This can include hobbies. 2. Then select one activity to break down into smaller steps. Ask your student questions that help them describe how they accomplished this activity. Try to discover everything involved in accomplishing the feat. 3. Now check off each intelligence that is involved for each aspect describing how they accomplished the activity. See if there is a pattern that emerges. 4. Do this for several different types of activities. Note to Kristine: would you provide a PDF of the “I CAN” and Skills Analysis cards for participants to print out at this point.

52 Reflection and Discussion
What did you like or dislike about using the I CAN cards? What might be the stumbling blocks in this process? How would you set the tone to present the I CAN and Skills Analysis cards? How can you help a person talk about what they do and how they do it if the person doesn’t feel that he/she can do anything well? How do you see this discovery process in relation teaching literacy skills? Response: We moved this reflection and discussion up after the intelligence checklist so that participants will take time to reflect before they move on to assessing their student’s intelligences.

53 Summary Key points that were discussed in lesson 1 include the following: To help all kinds of students learn, it is important to focus on their strengths rather than on their difficulties or deficiencies. By discovering what our students like to do and are good at doing, we can identify their capacities, which can be used for learning different types of skills and material. Multiple intelligence types of approaches can be used to effectively introduce, reinforce, and demonstrate learning to all different kinds of learners. MI helps identify strengths and skills more effectively than other learning theories, enabling educators to tap into their learners’ strengths in instruction. Intelligence cannot be defined simply as an Intelligence Quotient (IQ); rather, all humans possess many intelligences, which are inborn and can be developed over time. This lesson summary needs to be written… Response: lesson summary provided on this slide.

54 Lesson 2: Making Literacy Instruction multi-intelligent
Harnessing Learning Strengths Lesson Objectives To understand and practice educational methods that deepen understanding To entice learners into a new learning experience through a variety of intelligences To reach different types of learners with multi-intelligent presentations To design a lesson activity that integrates these methods in practice To create a multi-intelligent lesson plan that integrates at least three different intelligences

55 Topic 1: Creating multi-intelligent lesson activities
In the first lesson we explored ideas about the different ways the human beings think and learn. We learned about MI theory and discovered how it can help us to identify the learning strengths and capabilities of our students. Now, in this lesson, we turn our attention to applying that new knowledge to the creation of lessons that are more engaging and effective because they tap into student strengths and make learning rich and fun. This is especially critical in literacy instruction because people who have literacy difficulties are often less skilled in language processing and logical thinking. They may have auditory or visual perception problems that affect decoding or comprehension, yet they are often highly gifted in other intelligences. I have often found that the learners I worked with at Project Read were very gifted spatial thinkers, musically smart, good with their bodies and had excellent fine motor skills. Many used their social smarts to hide their literacy challenges, and most were very self smart. But sadly, their strongest smarts are often not used in the methods to teach reading and writing skills. That is why making literacy instruction more multi-intelligent is essential for increasing success and self-esteem. Now it’s time to focus on how to do tap into your student’s blend of intelligences. If you don’t have a student yet, think of an adult you know for the following activity. ACTIVITY First, determine what your student wants to learn about or be able to do. Some typical goals that learners express are to: Write a letter to a family member Improve their spelling in reports at work Read a bedtime story to a child Read voter information materials Now, reflect on the three top intelligences that you see your student using. Add an intro paragraph here, that describes a little more explicitly what they’ll be learning in this topic. Response: we’ve added and modified text to describe more explicitly what they’ll be learning in this topic.

56 Using MI Tip Cards Once you have selected one of your student’s goals, we’d like to you to use the following tip cards to find ideas that you can use to engage at least three of your student’s intelligences in your lessons. Take a look at these MI Tip Cards for adult literacy (click on the card to see the tips). Review ideas on the tip cards for your student’s top three intelligences. Select several ideas from each tip card that you can bring into a lesson. Spatial Body Movement Musical Logic-Math Language Social Self Nature Pop-up to next several pages…

57 Engaging Spatial Intelligence
Color code words so that each syllable is a different color. Study and create maps, diagrams, and graphs. Cut out pictures from a magazine and use them from a magazine to create a story. Cut up cartoons and put them in the right sequence. Visualize spelling words. Read grocery picture ads, discuss how images are used to sell the item. Characteristics Remembers things visually, including exact size and shape of objects. Likes posters, charts, graphics. Likes to doodle or draw. Likes visual clues.

58 Engaging Body Movement Intelligence
Use magnetic letters, scrabble tiles, or letters on colored sticky notes to spell words. Take a walk while discussing a story or gathering ideas for a story. Place a koosh ball or small leather ball on the table for the student to handle while doing reading or writing activities. Spell out words with the whole body and feel the letters that are difficult to remember. Act out a difficult passage or complicated series of events to increase reading comprehension. Characteristics Likes to move, dance, wiggle, walk, swim. Is often good at sports. Has good fine motor skills Likes to take things apart and put them back together again.

59 Engaging Musical Intelligence
Use a familiar tune, song or rap beat to teach spelling rules or remember words for a test. Clap out or stamp out the beat of syllables. Play music in the background when trying to memorize information or learn pronunciation. Make up rhymes to remember spelling rules. Read and study the lyrics of music. Write poetry and read it aloud. Characteristics Likes rhythm and sounds of words. Likes poems, songs, jingles. Enjoys humming or singing along with music. Likes to tap out rhythms on the table while thinking

60 Engaging Logic-Math Intelligence
Sort, categorize, and characterize words and word lists. Write directions for completing a simple task in the student’s real life. Work with scrambled sentences. Talk about what happens when the order is changed. Arrange cartoons and other pictures in a logical sequence. Make outlines of what you are going to write or of material you have read. Read grocery picture ads, discuss how images are used to sell the item. Characteristics Enjoys exploring how things are related. Likes to understand how things work. Likes mathematical concepts. Good at critical thinking.

61 Engaging Language Intelligence
Look at different kinds of dictionaries. Read poetry and plays aloud. Read books or stories written by adult learners. Write a story for the newsletter or write a letter to a favorite author. Trade tall tales and attend story telling events and workshops. Research the meaning of your name and write a story about it. Keep a journal. Characteristics Enjoys saying, hearing and seeing words. Likes telling stories. Motivated by books, records, dramas, and opportunities to write Enjoys speaking to groups.

62 Engaging Social Intelligence
Take part in group discussions or talk about ideas aloud with tutor. Read a dialogue or play with your tutor. Do team learning projects and report back on the results. Create a survey and administer it. Set up interview questions and interview your family and friends. Then write a summary. Write notes instead of talking. Characteristics Likes to develop ideas and learn from others. Enjoys talking and engaging others. Has good social skills. Likes group learning.

63 Engaging Self Intelligence
Create and lead guided imagery experiences. Set aside time to reflect on new ideas and information. Encourage journal writing. Relate new learning to personal experiences Focus writing activities on real-life experiences and interests. Read biographies and “inspirational” books. Characteristics Has a good sense of self. Likes to think things over. Likes independent projects. Likes learning by trial and error.

64 Engaging Nature Intelligence
Take walks outdoors as a part of your lesson and read nature as well as signs. Study objects from nature that are of interest to the learner. Write stories about your favorite adventure in the outdoors. Make charts, graphs or research reports about an environmental issue. Create a special learning environment that is nurturing for studying and reading. Plant a flower or vegetable garden and keep a log of how it grows and changes. Characteristics Enjoys nature and being outdoors. Likes to learn about birds, animals, rocks, plants, flowers, bugs. Sensitive to their surroundings and environment.

65 Discussion and Reflection
What are some of the ideas you selected? How do you think you can use these with your student? How do you think this would change your lesson? Insert a slide before this that allows them to practice identifying appropriate activities for different types of people (maybe 3 or 4 matching items, using some people from the photo collage in the beginning of the course?) The course participants need some way to verify that they are thinking along the right track… Response: we don’t feel that this fits with the approach of the course.

66 Lesson 2, topic 2 Pathways to understanding

67 Topic 2: Pathways to Understanding
With the tip cards, we’ve shown you how you can introduce and explain new ideas through different intelligence doorways to deepen understanding. Howard Gardner states that the greatest gift of multi-intelligent instruction is that it provides multiple ways to present and integrate new learning so that understanding is strengthened and deepened. This happens because tapping into a variety of intelligences opens doorways in all three phases of the learning cycle, which are: Input – taking in new information Synthesis – making sense of and “digesting” new learning Output -- demonstrating and applying new learning You and your student can use various intelligences in each phase. For example, using music, movement, storytelling and examples from nature to teach spelling rules offers different entry points into the topic during the input phase. During the synthesis phase, your presentation of ideas in many different ways and formats helps to activate as many intelligences as possible. In Gardner’s work with educators, he refers to this method as using multiple representations. Making symbols, acting out ideas, bringing in rhythm and tone to teaching spelling rules are examples of this concept. When you allow students to demonstrate their understanding by using various intelligences, you create multiple exit points and improve the chance for success in the output phase. The illustration above demonstrates how a group of adult learners used objects, colors and space to demonstrate their mission to create a “pathway to literacy.” This needs some simplification, or at least, some definition of the three phases of the learning cycle for those who might not be familiar with this particular model of learning theory. Response: we have simplified and explained these terms in more detail.

68 Bridging to Literacy By using a rich blend of intelligences in the instructional process we can build a bridge to literacy, as shown in the attached photo. This model was constructed by a group of student leaders in an adult literacy program who were given a pile of supplies and materials and asked to create a visual mission statement for their leadership team. With permission to think and work with all of their intelligences, this group was able to conceptualize and communicate their ideas more powerfully than by simply using words. Once the model was built, then they could find words to articulate their purpose and put it in writing. This demonstrates that creating learning activities that engage your students’ most developed intelligences is an effective way for them to master challenging literacy skills. Following are two examples that illustrate the use of different multi-intelligent approaches to introduce new subject matter, present new concepts, and provide opportunities for students to demonstrate their learning. Maybe having the photo here would help my understanding of this slide, but i don’t know what is in photo 5… Response: photo 5 is the photo of the pathway that the students created. We’ve modified the text to clarify and simplify the terms and have inserted the photo.

69 Example– Spelling h u n h u n d h u n d r e d
Many students with spelling difficulties have a hard time distinguishing letter sounds. This is called auditory perception. This is why emphasizing how a word sounds is frustrating for these adult learners. Let’s take a look at a more multi-intelligent approach. (Insert photo of learners.) One day at a workshop we asked if someone had a word they always struggled to spell. Ray jumped in, “I can never remember how to spell hundred when I’m writing checks.” Patty asked, “how much of it can you spell?” Ray replied “hun” Leslie wrote on a flipchart (put in image of flipchart and have each letter one at a time in blue) h u n “The rest of the word is dred” Leslie replied. “What is the first letter in dred?” Ray replied “it’s a d!” Leslie wrote a d in a different color. (have d show up in green after hun) h u n d Then Patty chimed in, “oh, the rest is red” and Leslie wrote the rest of the word in red. h u n d r e d Case study implies something a bit more comprehensive in scope that what we do in these courses, i think it would suffice to call these examples… Response: okay with us to call this an example.

70 Example– continued (note: this is a continuation of the previous page)
Then, we made a little chant: Hun dee red, Hun dee red Ray repeated the word only once and had it firmly in his memory. Now, he could see and hear the letter that stumped him, the d in dred. He replied “hun—d—red, I’ll never forget how to spell it again!”

71 Observe and Reflect (Post responses to discussion forum under Lesson 2, Topic 2) Which intelligences did we use to teach Ray how to spell hundred? How was bridging used to help Ray remember how to spell this word? Why do you think this approach worked? What other approach could you have used to help Ray learn how to spell hundred? I’d add another reflection on “what else could you have done?” to start them thinking of multiple approaches to accomplishing the same thing. Response: reflection question added.

72 Example – Teaching to Interests
Betty is in her late 30’s. She was bored by the standard literacy textbooks. Betty was thinking about dropping out, but she and her tutor had a good working relationship. While talking about what Betty could do well and loved to do, her tutor discovered that she had a real knack for raising beautiful house plants. The tutor, on the other hand, did not have a green thumb at all, so she decided to get several books from the library. The books had beautiful colored pictures as well as instructions for caring for and growing plants. Betty and her tutor had lots of fun in their tutoring sessions learning from one another while working on reading and writing at the same time.

73 Observe and Reflect (Post responses to discussion forum under Lesson 2, Topic 2) What intelligences do you think Betty is using in her indoor gardening and in sharing her knowledge? What are two other ideas that you could use in a lesson knowing her strongest intelligences? How has change in approach increased her motivation to stay in the program? I’d strike the blue text here, since you’re asking them for some other ideas beyond what was presented. Response: that’s fine, we’ve deleted the text.

74 Resources Literacy Works: Multiple Intelligences for Adult Literacy and Education. Shelton, L., Fulghum-Nutters,H., Conan, J. – Adult Multiple Intelligences – National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) – Education with New Technology: Networked Learning Community – Active Learning Practices for Schools (ALPS) – Note to Kristine: resource links appear on the previous page.

75 Lesson 2 topic 3 Integrating MI approaches into practice

76 Lesson 2, Topic 3: Integrating MI Approaches into Practice

77 Integrating MI Approaches into Practice
In the previous topic, we introduced you to a number of examples and strategy cards to help you to begin thinking about how to make your lessons more multi-intelligent. Now it’s time for you to apply these ideas in your own lesson planning. One of the best ways to do this is to create your very own MI Took Kit and bring it along to your lessons. Our learners and tutors often refer to this as a treasure chest that they’ve filled with fun materials such as magazines, colored markers, crayons, glue sticks, colored sticky notes, a koosh ball, letter tiles, scissors, music tapes, colored clay, yarn, photographs, charts and more. We need to give them an example first…present the first bullet on one slide and introduce the concept of a MI toolkit of ‘things’ We’re going to talk to our IT dept to see if we can make this exercise a little more interactive, as you originally envisioned it… On a new slide, give two examples of ways people have used it in other situations. (did you say you have a few pictures of these, if so, those would help.) On the third slide, used bullets two and three here…then present them with a virtual paper bag (again, we’re checking on how we can do this online effectively on our end here) Response: we have followed your recommendations in the replacement slides.

78 Creating an MI Tool Kit Making your lessons lively and engaging
When we began introducing tool kit items into a training for tutors and educators to teach them how to apply MI theory in practical teaching strategies, the participants were most surprised by how creative they were and how much fun they had. Suddenly, what seemed like a daunting task became easy and engaging for our tutor and learner pairs as they worked as “learning partners.” Because many adult learners are very body smart, spatially skilled, and musically adept, we found that it was essential to create literacy lessons that engaged these intelligences more effectively. As you can see in the photos, tutors had fun using photos, letter tiles, and clapping activities to help reinforce a spelling lesson.

79 Creating MI Lesson strategies
One of the best ways to start thinking about how to make your lessons more multi-intelligent is by choosing something that is challenging or difficult for your student to remember. So what is an instructional challenge you are facing right now? __________________________________________ (Such as teaching punctuation, improving spelling, grammar, or comprehension.) For example, Patty found that certain words – especially little words – would trip her up all the time. Words like but, the, of would always stop her in her tracks. Patty is dyslexic and found that she is great at thinking in pictures. However, if you think about it, there are no images for these little words. So she would be reading along in a book with ease and then all of the sudden she would hit the word but and everything would go out of her mind. It was like a breaker switch. Then her tutor Ethel suggested she make a clay scene for but. Now she had an image for the word so it never stopped her again. Ethel’s tool kit included the following ingredients: Different colors of Play Dough to engage her spatial and body intelligences A conversation for Patty to talk about how the word stumps her, engaging her language and social intelligences A space for Patty to create her own scene to illustrate the word, using her self, spatial, and body intelligences An opportunity to enact her scene and describe it to Ethel, which activates her body, social, and language intelligences.

80 Creative Solutions for Literacy Instruction
Paper Bag Kit Lessons Creative Solutions for Literacy Instruction During tutor training, we passed out bags full of fun items – newspapers, color paper, magazine photos, cartoons, yarn, glue, scissors, letter tiles – to simulate the idea of creating your own MI Tool Kit Then we asked tutors to work in teams to create at lesson activities that activated three or more intelligences to address a real-life instructional challenge. A group of tutors was working on how to teach grammar and sentence structure more effectively. One pair decided to cut up cartoons (spatial) and have the student read the cartoon captions (language), put them in the order (logic-math), make up different captions, and add or change the illustrations (spatial). Another group cut out pictures (spatial, body movement) to illustrate the story, created color-coded words for the different parts of speech (spatial, language) and moved the order and sequence of words around the sentence (body movement). Yet another group led everyone around the room while setting the story to music (body and musical).

81 Paper Bag Lesson Planning
Now that you’ve seen how Ethel used her MI tool kit to help Patty, we’d like to give you an opportunity to create and use your own MI tool kit. We envision an MI tool kit as a paper bag of objects that you can use to make your lesson more spatial, kinesthetic, musical, logical, or natural. Look into this virtual “paper bag” of objects to see what you have and what might be useful to engage your student’s different intelligences. Select the materials and objects that you want to work with from in paper bag. Now begin to create several multi-intelligent activities to will engage at least three or more intelligences to address your challenge. When finished, post your creations to the discussion board. Then describe what your challenge was, which intelligences you included, and how your strategies are designed to work. Will they have enough time, within the context of the course, to leave the course, make their creation, take a photo of it, and post it? I’d be concerned you’d lose students at this point unless you keep them here… Response: with the new approach, they shouldn’t have to take a photo and post it. Note to Kristine: we are concerned about how participants will actually be able to use the objects in the paper bag.

82 Paper Bag (Note: The virtual bag should contain objects such as colored paper, sticky notes, paper clips, string, magazine photos, colored markers, scissors, etc. ) Either use photos or more drawings to illustrate.

83 Reflection Questions Which intelligences did you try to engage?
Which materials and supplies did you use? What did you find fun? What did you find challenging? What surprised you about this process? I wouldn’t ask for four intelligences, I’d leave it open ended and just say “which intelligences did you try to engage?” Response: fine, we’ve changed the text accordingly. You should also add a slide to provide some closure to this lesson; a text based lesson summary. Response: summary added.

84 Lesson Summary Key points explained in lesson 2 include the following:
There are practical educational methods based on the Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI theory) that can be used to increase students’ understanding. Multi-intelligent instruction is not a curriculum in and of itself, but it provides an approach that should be integrated into the design of all learning activities. Educational methods based on MI theory can be used to entice learners into a new learning experience through a variety of intelligences. Multi-intelligent presentations of content can be used effectively to reach different types of learners, especially those with language processing challenges. This lesson includes an opportunity to design a lesson activity that integrates these educational methods in practice so that participants will begin to feel comfortable applying MI theory and using MI theory-based educational methods. In this lesson, participants learned how to create a multi-intelligent lesson plan, integrating at least three different intelligences. We need a brief lesson summary here… Response: done.

85 Resources Active Learning Practices for Schools (ALPS) – Adult Multiple Intelligences – Armstrong, T. (1993/1999) 7 Kinds of Smart: Identifying and Developing Your Multiple Intelligences, Revised and Updated with Information on 2 New Kinds of Smart. NY: Plume. Armstrong, T.  (1994). Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom.  Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1994. Armstrong, T. (2003) The Multiple Intelligences of Reading and Writing: Making the Words Come Alive. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Armstrong, T. -- Education with New Technology: Networked Learning Community – Gardner, H. (1983/1993). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. NY: Basic Books.. Gardner, H. (1997) - presentation to Wisconsin Education Association Council - Gardner, H. (1999). The Disciplined Mind: What all students should understand. NY: Simon & Schuster. Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st century. NY: Basic Books. Gardner, H. (2004) – Frequently Asked Questions - Harvard University Project Zero and Howard Gardner’s work – National Center for the Study of Adult Learning and Literacy (NCSALL) – NEA Interview with Howard Gardner (condensed version) -- NEA Complete interview with Howard Gardner -- Shelton, L., Fulghum-Nutters,H., Conan, J. Multiple Intelligences for Adult Literacy and Education – Shelton, L., Fulghum-Nutters, H., Conan, J. (1992). Honoring Diversity: a multidimensional learning model for adults,  Sacramento: California State Library Foundation.

86 Review Questions What does it mean to have multiple intelligences? A high IQ Many ways of learning Various human capacities All of the above b and c None of the above We can assess multiple intelligences accurately and objectively through standardized tests. (true or false). Educational methods based on MI theory can be used in both adult learning and kindergarten through twelfth grade education (true or false). Educational methods based on MI theory include the following: Multiple ways to present content One best way to introduce a new topic Bridging from strengths to learn difficult skills and material a and b a and c There is boilerplate text that will go here, but we do need you to write 6 or 7 review questions. The original powerpoint template has the format that they final questions need to be in – I know it’s not a great way to check knowledge, especially given the activities in your course, but this is the one thing that the LMS needs to trigger course completion for the student. Response: we did not find the format for the final questions, so we are not clear what format (multiple choice? True/false?) to use for review questions. We have provided some multiple choice and some true/false questions.

87 Review Questions (cont.)
It is better to have a high IQ than to have multiple intelligences (true or false). Asking our students what they like to do, can be used to accomplish the following: Increase their IQ Help discover their capacities Make them feel bad about what they don’t do well

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