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Alessia Tricomi University and INFN Catania on behalf of the LHCf Collaboration LHCf: a LHC Detector for Astroparticle Physics EDS07 - 12th International.

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Presentation on theme: "Alessia Tricomi University and INFN Catania on behalf of the LHCf Collaboration LHCf: a LHC Detector for Astroparticle Physics EDS07 - 12th International."— Presentation transcript:

1 Alessia Tricomi University and INFN Catania on behalf of the LHCf Collaboration LHCf: a LHC Detector for Astroparticle Physics EDS th International Conference on Elastic and Diffractive Scattering - Forward Physics and QCD Hamburg 21 – 25 May, 2007

2 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 The LHCf Collaboration ITALY Firenze University and INFN: O.Adriani,, L.Bonechi, M.Bongi, G.Castellini, R.DAlessandro, P.Papini Catania University and INFN: A.Tricomi JAPAN: STE Laboratory Nagoya University: Y.Itow, T.Mase, K.Masuda,Y.Matsubara, H.Matsumoto,H.Menjo,T.Sako,H. Watanabe Waseda University: K. Kasahara, Y.Shimizu, S.Torii Konan University: Y.Muraki Kanagawa University Yokohama: T.Tamura SPAIN IFIC Valencia: A.Fauss, J.Velasco FRANCE Ecole Politechnique Paris: M. Haguenauer USA LBNL Berkeley: W. Turner CERN D.Macina, A.L. Perrot

3 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Outline Introduction Introduction –Main problems in HECR physics: GZK cut off, chemical composition Idea of LHCf Idea of LHCf –Measurement of neutral particles emitted into very forward at LHC Simulation and test beam results Simulation and test beam results –Calibration of MC code Conclusions, plans and schedule Conclusions, plans and schedule –Toward the LHC operation

4 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 AGASA reports 18% systematic uncertainty in energy determination. 10% of systematic is due to interaction model. Accelerator calibration is necessary. Introduction: GZK cut off Huge experiment (Auger, TA) will solve the statistics, but not for interaction model. HOWEVER Different interaction models give different answers for the primary cosmic ray energy estimate. 29 th ICRC Pune (India) GZK cutoff: eV super GZK events?!? 20% correction on the absolute energy scale!!!

5 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Introduction: cosmic ray composition Not only GZK… Different interaction models lead different conclusions about the composition of the primary cosmic rays. IRON PROTON Knapp et al., 2003 Energy (eV) X max (g/cm 2 )

6 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Development of atmospheric showers Calibration of the models at high energy is mandatory Calibration of the models at high energy is mandatory The dominant contribution to the energy flux is in the very forward region ( 0) The dominant contribution to the energy flux is in the very forward region ( 0) In this forward region the highest energy available measurements of 0 cross section were done by UA7 (E=10 14 eV, y= 5÷7) In this forward region the highest energy available measurements of 0 cross section were done by UA7 (E=10 14 eV, y= 5÷7) Simulation of an atmospheric shower due to a eV proton. LHC We propose to use LHC, the highest energy accelerator 14 TeV in the center of mass E lab =10 17 eV (E lab = E 2 cm /2 m P ) Major LHC detectors (ATLAS, CMS, LHCB) will measure the particles emitted in the central region LHCf is a tool to calibrate MC code to energy relevant for CR physics. It will cover the very forward part May be also Heavy Ion runs????

7 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 The LHC ring 27 km ring ATLAS IP1

8 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 LHCf: location and experimental layout INTERACTION POINT IP1 (ATLAS) Beam line Detector II TungstenScintillator Silicon mstrips Detector I TungstenScintillator Scintillating fibers 140 m Detectors should measure energy and position of Detectors should measure energy and position of from 0 decayse.m. calorimeters with position sensitive layers Two independent detectors on both side of IP1 Redundancy Redundancy Background rejection (especially beam-gas) Background rejection (especially beam-gas)

9 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 LHCf location Detectors will be installed in the TAN region, 140 m away from the Interaction Point, in front of luminosity monitors Here the beam pipe splits in 2 separate tubes. Here the beam pipe splits in 2 separate tubes. Charged particle are swept away by magnets!!! Charged particle are swept away by magnets!!! We will cover up to y We will cover up to y

10 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Detector #1 16 scintillator layers (3 mm thick) Trigger and energy profile measurements Absorber 22 tungsten layers 7mm – 14 mm thick (W: X 0 = 3.5mm, R M = 9mm) 4 pairs of scintillating fiber layers for tracking purpose (6, 10, 32, 38 r.l.) Energy Impact point ( ) 2 towers 24 cm long stacked vertically with 5 mm gap Lower: 2 cm x 2 cm area Upper: 4 cm x 4 cm area

11 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Arm 1 Arm1 was fully assembled in Japan in July 2006 (scintillators + fibers + Tungsten) and fully tested at CERN in August 2006 beam test

12 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Detector # 2 4 pairs of silicon microstrip layers (6, 12, 30, 42 r.l.) for tracking purpose (X and Y directions) We used LHC style electronics and readout 16 scintillator layers (3 mm thick) Trigger and energy profile measurements Absorber 22 tungsten layers 7mm – 14 mm thick (2-4 r.l.) (W: X 0 = 3.5mm, R M = 9mm) 2 towers 24 cm long stacked on their edges and offset from one another Lower: 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm Upper: 3.2 cm x 3.2 cm Energy Impact point ( )

13 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Arm 2 oArm2 was partially assembled in Florence in July 2006 and brought to CERN for the Beam Test of August 2006 oArm2 was fully assembled in Florence in April 2007

14 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 LHCf Physics performance 1.Single photon spectrum 2. 0 fully reconstructed (1 in each tower) 0 reconstruction is an important tool for energy calibration ( 0 mass constraint) 0 reconstruction is an important tool for energy calibration ( 0 mass constraint) Basic detector requirements: minimum 2 towers ( 0 reconstruction) minimum 2 towers ( 0 reconstruction) Smallest tower on the beam (multiple hits) Smallest tower on the beam (multiple hits) Dimension of the tower Moliere radius Dimension of the tower Moliere radius Maximum acceptance (given the LHC constraints) Maximum acceptance (given the LHC constraints) Simulation Beam Test

15 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Detectable events 140 Beam crossing angle LHCf performances: acceptance on P T -E plane A vertical beam crossing angle > 0 will increase the acceptance of LHCf

16 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 LHCf performances: single geometrical acceptance Some runs with LHCf vertically shifted few cm will allow to cover the whole kinematical range

17 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 LHCf performances: shower in Arm #2 Fluka based simulation 7 m for 1.8 TeV 7 m for 1.8 TeV Position resolution of detector # GeV shower

18 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Arm #1 E/E=5% E/E=5% 200 m spatial resolution m/m = 5% m/m = 5% LHCf performances: 0 mass resolution

19 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 LHCf performances: Monte Carlo -ray energy spectrum (5% Energy resolution is taken into account) 10 6 generated LHC interactions 1 Minute 29 cm -2 s -1 luminosity Discrimination between various models Discrimination between various models is feasible is feasible Quantitative discrimination with the help of a properly defined 2 discriminating variable based on the spectrum shape (see TDR for details)

20 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 LHCf performances: model dependence of neutron energy distribution Original n energy 30% energy resolution

21 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 SciFi Position Resolution Energy Resolution Measured at the SPS Beam Test in 2004 LHCf can measure (and provide to LHC) the center of neutral flux from the collisions If the center of the neutral flux hits LHCf << 1 mm resolution << 1 mm resolution Performances of the LHCf Detector

22 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Now the real installation in LHC… Pre-Installation dates have been fixed in Fall 2006 –LSS1L (Arm1) 8/01/2007 to 26/01/2007 FINISHED!8/01/2007 to 26/01/2007 FINISHED! –LSS1R (Arm2) 23/04/2007 to 11/05/2007 FINISHED!23/04/2007 to 11/05/2007 FINISHED! Final installation dates are still under discussion The idea is that installation takes place in 2 steps: Pre-installation Final installation In between the 2 installation the baking out of the beam pipe will be done (200 o C), so the detectors should be removed

23 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 LHCf – Installation

24 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Transport and insertion in the TAN

25 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007

26 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 LHCf possible running scenario Phase-I Phase-I – Parasite running during the early stage of LHC commissioning (end of 2007 – beginning of 2008) –Remove LHCf when luminosity reaches cm -2 s -1 for radiation reason Phase-II Phase-II –Re-install the detector at the next opportunity of low luminosity run Phase-III Phase-III –Future extension for p-A, A-A run with upgraded detectors???

27 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 LHCf: conclusions and plans LHCf approved in June 2006 by the LHCC LHCf approved in June 2006 by the LHCC Physics performances: Physics performances: –able to measure π 0 mass with ±5% resolution. –able to distinguish the models by measurements of π 0 and γ –able to distinguish the models by measurements of n –Beam crossing angle 0 and/or vertical shifts of LHCf by few cm will allow more complete physics measurements Detectors: Detectors: –ARM1 and ARM2 fully ready –Performance measured in Test Beams Installation well advanced Installation well advanced –ARM1 successfully pre-installed in January 07 –ARM2 successfully pre-installed in April-May 07 –Final installation date under discussion Running conditions: Running conditions: –Three foreseen phases Phase I: low luminosity run during LHC commissioningPhase I: low luminosity run during LHC commissioning Phase II: low luminosity runs and possibly LHCf dedicated runsPhase II: low luminosity runs and possibly LHCf dedicated runs Phase III: Heavy Ion runs ?Phase III: Heavy Ion runs ? Waiting for LHC beams!!!

28 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Back-up slides

29 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 The TAN and LHCf marble shielding manipulator boxes for DAQ electronic box ~ (15 × 15 × 40) cm 3

30 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Transverse projection of detector #1 in the TAN slot

31 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Transverse projection of detector #2 in the TAN slot

32 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Front scintillator: Fixed position wrt to TAN Silicon + Tungsten + Scintillator: Silicon + Tungsten + Scintillator: +/- 5 cm vertical excursion PMTR7400 Front scintillator Lateral view of ARM #2 Si Tracker + Hybrid Beam axis

33 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 rate rate

34 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 rate rate

35 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 QGSJETII: used model QGSJET: c 2 /DOF=107/125 DPMJET3: c 2 /DOF=224/125 SYBILL: c 2 /DOF=816/125 ray energy spectrum for different positions ray energy spectrum for different positions

36 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 e,, p beam Silicon Calorimeter Before correction After correction 2 mm The CERN test beam on August 2004

37 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Leak Correction Monte Carlo Prototype Experiment MC predicts that the leakage is energy independent! correction Distance from Edge N Particles

38 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Estimate of the background beam-beam pipe beam-beam pipe E γ (signal) > 200 GeV, OK E γ (signal) > 200 GeV, OK background < 1% beam-gas beam-gas It depends on the beam condition It depends on the beam condition background < 1% (under Torr) beam halo-beam pipe beam halo-beam pipe It has been newly estimated from the beam loss rate It has been newly estimated from the beam loss rate Background < 10% (conservative value) Background < 10% (conservative value)

39 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 SPS Beam Test LHCfDetectorSilicon Tracker Tracker Moving Table TriggerScintillator CERN : SPS T2 H4 CERN : SPS T2 H Aug. 28 – Sep Aug. 28 – Sep. 4 Incident Particles Incident Particles –Proton 150,350GeV/c –Electron 100,200GeV/c –Muon 150GeV/c Setup Test was successful Analysis is under way for Energy calibration of the calorimeters Energy calibration of the calorimeters Spatial resolution of the tracking systems Spatial resolution of the tracking systems

40 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Effect of LHCf on BRAN measurement The effect of LHCf on BRAN measurements has been studied in the last months by simulation –Reduction of shower particles at BRAN –Position dependence on beam displacement (question from machine peoples: if we shift by 1 mm the real beam, does the center of the measured neutral energy shifts by 1 mm?) LUMI monitor (BRAN) inside TAN is beyond LHCf (replacing 4th copper bar) LHCf Lumi Cu Bar / ZDC IP1 LHCf Lumi

41 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Arm #1Arm #2 H.Menjo Relative change of the reduction factors for BRAN with respect to the nominal value (center of the beam: nominal one) BRAN response vs beam position If the position of beam center stays within a few mm from the beam-pipe center, the reduction factors do not change more than 10% 1 x 1 cm 2 1 x 1 cm 2

42 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 LHCf performances: 0 geometrical acceptance Arm #1 Arm #2

43 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 LHCf performances: energy spectrum of 0 Typical energy resolution of is 3 % at 1TeV

44 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 Beam parameters used for commissioning are good for LHCf!!! Beam parameters used for commissioning are good for LHCf!!! Beam parameter Value # of bunches Bunch separation > 2 sec Crossing angle 0 rad 0 rad 140 rad downward Luminosity per bunch < 2 x cm -2 s -1 < 2 x cm -2 s -1 Luminosity < 0.8 x cm -2 s -1 < 0.8 x cm -2 s -1 Bunch intensity 4x10 10 ppb ( *=18m) 1x10 10 ppb ( *= 1m) ( No radiation problem for 10kGy by a year operation with this luminosity ) Optimal LHCf run conditions

45 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 From R. Bailey presentation at January 2007 TAN workshop Stage 1 Optimal conditions for LHCf running!

46 Alessia Tricomi University & INFN Catania The LHCf experiment at LHC EDS07, Hamburg May 2007 From R. Bailey presentation at January 2007 TAN workshop


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