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CRIS 2008 - Cosmic Ray International Seminar Origin, Mass Composition and Acceleration Mechanisms of UHECRs Malfa, Salina Island, Eolian Islands, Italy,

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Presentation on theme: "CRIS 2008 - Cosmic Ray International Seminar Origin, Mass Composition and Acceleration Mechanisms of UHECRs Malfa, Salina Island, Eolian Islands, Italy,"— Presentation transcript:

1 CRIS 2008 - Cosmic Ray International Seminar Origin, Mass Composition and Acceleration Mechanisms of UHECRs Malfa, Salina Island, Eolian Islands, Italy, September 15 - 19, 2008 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze 1 CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 Physics goalsThe LHCf detectorDetector performanceRunning plan

2 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 2 Compared to the usual HEP ones. Mainly a Japanese – Italian endeavor. CERN D.Macina, A.L. Perrot USA LBNL Berkeley: W. Turner FRANCE Ecole Politechnique Paris: M. Haguenauer SPAIN IFIC Valencia: A.Fauss, J.Velasco ITALY Firenze University and INFN: O.Adriani,, L.Bonechi, M.Bongi, G.Castellini, R.DAlessandro, P.Papini, S. Ricciarini, A. Viciani Catania University and INFN: A.Tricomi JAPAN: STE Laboratory Nagoya University: K.Fukui,Y.Itow, T.Mase, K.Masuda,Y.Matsubara, H.Menjo,T.Sako, K.Taki, H. Watanabe Waseda University: K. Kasahara, M. Mizuishi, Y.Shimizu, S.Torii Konan University: Y.Muraki Kanagawa University Yokohama: T.Tamura Shibaura Institute of Technology: K. Yoshida

3 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 3 Energy and composition, two of the main issues that concern cosmic ray physics today. Astrophysical parameters - source type - source distribution - source spectrum - source composition - propagation From LHC: Nuclear Interaction - Monte Carlo used for shower simulations Forward Physics - cross section - particle spectra (E, P T, θ, η, X F )

4 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 4 Events have been observed by the AGASA collaboration which upset our understanding of the physics at the GZK cutoff. GZK cutoff: 10 20 eV p (2.7K) N p (2.7K) N

5 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 5 The details at the tail of the spectra. Berezinsky 2007 AGASA x 0.9 HiRes x1.2 Yakutsk x 0.75 Auger x1.2 (insufficient) AGASA Systematics Total ±18% Hadron interaction (QGSJET, SIBYLL) ~10% (Takeda et al., 2003)

6 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 6 Also an issue with cosmic ray composition IRON PROTON Knapp et al., 2003 Plotting the air-shower maximum vs. the energy, gives indication on the primary composition.

7 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 7 X max vs. anisotropy. Favours iron. Do you accept AGN correlation ? Favours proton.

8 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 8 Very simulation dependent. Very different results, depending on models and input parameters (KASKADE RESULTS).

9 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 9 Composition: inferred from X max Energy Spectrum: inferred from the number of secondaries. The dominant contribution to the energy flux is in the very forward region ( 0). Simulation of an atmospheric shower due to a 10 19 eV proton. No cut : X F <0.05 : X F <0.05, K: X F <0.1, K: X F <0.1 X F Feynman var.

10 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 10 In this forward region the highest energy available measurements oft he 0 cross section were done by UA7 (E=10 14 eV, y= 5÷7) LHC Tevatron A 100 PeV fixed-target interaction with air has the cm energy of a pp collision at the LHC AUGER Cosmic ray spectrum LHCf first proposed using LHC, the highest energy accelerator available (14 TeV E CM equiv. to E lab =10 17 eV ) to calibrate MC simulation code

11 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 11 Placed after the beam pipes split. Reaches down to θ =0. Detectors installed in the TAN region, 140 m away from the Interaction Point, in front of luminosity monitors.

12 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 12 In the end, it was decided to put it around interaction point 1. ATLAS. LHC

13 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 13 Detectors should measure energy and position of from 0 decays e.m. calorimeters with position sensitive layers INTERACTION POINT IP1 (ATLAS) Beam line Detector II TungstenScintillator Silicon strips Detector I TungstenScintillator Scintillating fibers 140 m Two independent detectors on both side of IP1 Redundancy Redundancy Background rejection (especially beam-gas) Background rejection (especially beam-gas)

14 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 14 2 towers 24 cm long stacked vertically with a 5 mm gap Lower: 2 cm x 2 cm area Upper: 4 cm x 4 cm area Absorber 22 tungsten layers 7mm – 14 mm thick (W: X 0 = 3.5mm, R M = 9mm) 16 scintillator layers (3 mm thick) Trigger and energy profile measurements 4 pairs of scintillating fiber layers for tracking purpose (6, 10, 32, 38 X 0.)

15 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 15 2 towers 24 cm long stacked on their edges and offset from one another Lower: 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm Upper: 3.2 cm x 3.2 cm Absorber 22 tungsten layers 7mm – 14 mm thick (W: X 0 = 3.5mm, R M = 9mm) 16 scintillator layers (3 mm thick) Trigger and energy profile measurements 4 pairs of silicon microstrip layers (6, 10, 30, 42 X 0 ) for tracking purpose (X and Y directions)

16 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 16 Japanese – Italian endeavour. Detector #1 assembled in Japan. Detector #2 assembled in Italy. Arm#1 Detector Arm#2 Detector

17 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 17 Silicon modules and calorimeter briquettes.

18 LHCf Luminosity Monitor (BRAN) Monitor (BRAN) ATLAS ZDC Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 18 Installation performed in two phases: 1. Pre-Installation (Jan/Apr 2007) Baking out of the beam pipe (200 °C) Baking out of the beam pipe (200 °C) 2. Final Installation (Jan 2008)

19 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 19 1. Single photon spectrum 0 fully reconstructed (1 in each tower) 0 reconstruction is an important tool for energy calibration ( 0 mass constraint) Basic concept: Minimum 2 towers ( 0 reconstruction) Smallest tower on the beam (multiple hits) Dimension of the tower Moliere radius Maximum acceptance (given the LHC constraints) Simulation is used to understand the physics performances Beam tests in 2004, 2006 and 2007 Energy resolution Spatial resolution of the tracking part DPMJET3 QGSJET QGSJETII SIBYLL Used as Examples Of the models

20 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 20 Two tower geometry. LHC beam pipe LHC collimators Detector #1 Detector #2

21 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 21 Some runs with LHCf vertically shifted by few centimeters will allow us to cover the whole kinematical range.

22 Beam crossing angle Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 22 A vertical beam crossing angle > 0 will increase the acceptance of LHCf

23 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 23 Monte Carlo ray energy spectrum (5% Energy resolution is taken into account) 10 6 generated LHC interactions 1 minute exposure@10 29 cm -2 s -1 luminosity Discrimination between various models is feasible Quantitative discrimination with the help of a properly defined 2 discriminating variable based on the spectrum shape (see TDR for details)

24 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 24 Energy spectrum of π 0 expected from different models (Typical energy resolution for is 3 % at 1TeV) 0 geometrical acceptance

25 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 25 0 mass resolution Arm #1 E/E=5% 200 m spatial resolution m/m = 5%

26 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 26 Neutron energy distribution depends heavily on the model adopted Raw neutron energy 30% energy resolution

27 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 27 PICCO, EPOS Drescher, Physical Review D77, 056003 (2008) Neutron 0

28 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 28

29 LHCfDetector Silicon Tracker Tracker Moving Table TriggerScintillator Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 29 CERN : SPS T2 H4 CERN : SPS T2 H4 2004, 2006, 2007 2004, 2006, 2007 Incident Particles Incident Particles Protons150,350 GeV/c Protons150,350 GeV/c Electrons 100,200 GeV/c Electrons 100,200 GeV/c Muons150 GeV/c Muons150 GeV/c Final Detectors Final Detectors

30 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 30 Tests have been successful Analysis is still ongoing Energy calibration of the calorimeters Energy calibration of the calorimeters Spatial resolution of the tracking systems Spatial resolution of the tracking systems σ x [mm] σ [mm] Number of events σ x =0.172[mm] σ y =0.159[mm] x-pos[mm] y-pos[mm] E[GeV] Detector #1 position resolution (Scintillating Fibers)

31 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 31 Implantation pitch 80. Read out pitch 160. 6, 10, 30, 42 X o. 50 GeV electron X0 42 30 10 6 200 GeV electron X0 42 30 10 6

32 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 32 Alignment in progress, very preliminary results. Silicon detector. 200 GeV electrons σ x =40 m σ y =64 m

33 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 33 Energy with the silicon part only! 200 GeV electrons. E/E ~ 12% E/E ~ 12%

34 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 34 Energy resolution of the calorimeter. Corrected for leakage.

35 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 35 Essential. We invented a special beam to test it. >10 7 proton on target (special setting of the SPS ) 9.15 m Carbon target (6 cm) in the slot used for beam monitor Detector #1 Not in scale! Dedicated trigger on both towers of the calorimeter was used Main problems: –low photon energy ( 20 GeV) –Direct protons in the towers –Multi hits in the same tower 250 0 events were triggered (amidst background) E gamma =18GeV Shower Profile @ First SciFi Layer Calorimeters 20mm X 40mm X Y Y E gamma =46GeV

36 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 36 PRELIMINARY!

37 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 37 Phase-I 900 GeV collision before ramping in 2008 (hope in a week from now!) 10 TeV run in 2008 during the LHC commissioning (low luminosity) 14 TeV run in 2009 during commissioning Remove LHCf when luminosity reaches 10 30 cm -2 s -1 for radiation damage reasons Phase-II Re-install the detector at the next opportunity of low luminosity run Dedicated runs (crossing angle, etc.) Phase-III Future extension for p-A, A-A run with upgraded detectors are under study Beam parameter Value # of bunches 43 Bunch separation > 2 sec Crossing angle 0 rad 140 rad downward Luminosity per bunch < 2 x 10 28 cm -2 s -1 Luminosity < 10 30 cm -2 s -1 Bunch intensity4x10 10 ppb ( *=18m) 1x10 10 ppb ( *= 1m)

38 Raffaello DAlessandro Università & INFN - Firenze CRIS 2008 - Malfa, Salina Island, September 15 - 19, 2008 38 Beam Test in 2004/6/7: Full detector #1 & #2 tested Installation already finished ARM1&ARM2 already successfully pre-installed in 2007 Final installation successfully done in January 2008 Running conditions: Three foreseen phases Phase I: first runs during LHC commissioning Phase II: parasitic mode during TOTEM run? Phase III: Heavy Ion runs? Now we are waiting for the first collisions.... And of course............. many sincere thanks to the organizers of this beautiful and extremely interesting conference.


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