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© 2013, 2009, 2006, 2003, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. William L. Heward Exceptional Children An Introduction to Special Education.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2013, 2009, 2006, 2003, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. William L. Heward Exceptional Children An Introduction to Special Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2013, 2009, 2006, 2003, 2000 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. William L. Heward Exceptional Children An Introduction to Special Education Tenth Edition

2 Chapter 6 Emotional or Behavioral Disorders

3 Focus Questions  What are the points of agreement and disagreement between the definition of emotional disturbance in IDEA and the definition of emotional or behavioral disorders by the CCBD?  Who is more severely disabled: the acting-out, antisocial child or the withdrawn child?  What factors might account for the disparity between the number of children receiving special education under the ED category and researchers’ estimates of the prevalence of EBD?  How can research findings about the cumulative interplay of risk factors for behavior problems in adolescence and adulthood guide the development and implementation of prevention programs? Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-2

4 Focus Questions (cont.)  Although screening and assessment tools for EBD are becoming increasingly sophisticated and efficient, schools seldom use them. Why?  What are the most important skills for teachers of students with EBD?  Why might the inclusion of children with EBD in general education classrooms be more (or less) intensely debated than the inclusion of children with other disabilities  What are the largest current impediments to children with EBD receiving the most effective education possible? Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-3

5 IDEA Definition of Emotional Disturbance One or more of the following characteristics displayed over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects educational performance: Inability to learn not related to other factors Inability to build or maintain satisfactory peer or teacher relationships Inappropriate feelings or behavior under normal conditions A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems Definition does not apply to children who are “socially maladjusted” unless they have an emotional disturbance but the definition includes schizophrenia Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-4

6 Problems with IDEA Definition Definition is vague and subjective What are “satisfactory” peer and teacher relationships? What does “inappropriate” behavior look like? The definition, as written, excludes children on the basis for which they are included How does one differentiate between “socially maladjusted” and true “emotional disturbance”? Individual teacher expectations and tolerances make identification a difficult and subjective process Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-5

7 CCBD Definition of Emotional or Behavioral Disorders Behavioral or emotional responses so different from appropriate age, cultural, or ethnic norms that they adversely affect educational performance including academic, social, vocational or personal skills More than temporary, expected responses to stress Consistently exhibited in two different settings, at least one of which is school related Unresponsive to direct intervention in the general education setting Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-6

8 Common Characteristics of Children with EBD Two primary behavioral excesses Externalizing behaviors (most common behavior pattern) – Lying – Temper tantrums – Stealing – Property destruction – Threats of violence or violence toward peers and/or teachers Internalizing behaviors – Overly shy or immature – Withdrawn – Hypochondria – Easily upset and difficult to c alm Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-7

9 Common Characteristics (cont.) Academic Achievement – Low GPA-one or more years below grade level academically – Difficulty passing competency exams for their grade level – High absenteeism – At risk for school failure and early drop out – Reciprocal relationship between behavior problems and low academic achievement – Many have learning disabilities and/or language delays – Achievement deficits tend to worsen as students grow older – Many score in the slow learner or mild intellectual disabilities range on IQ tests Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-8

10 Common Characteristics (cont.) Social Skills – Less participation in extracurricular activities – Lower quality peer relationships – Lower levels of empathy towards others – Higher rates of juvenile delinquency – High rates of recidivists as juvenile delinquents Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-9

11 Prevalence Estimates vary, but range from 3% and 6% of school-age children During school year, children ages 6 to 21 who received services under the category of EBD represented less than 1% of the school age population Given prevalence data, there are many students not receiving specialized services A survey of principals of juvenile corrections facilities found that 40% of all committed youth were classified with a disability Gender The vast majority are boys with externalizing disorders in the form of antisocial, aggressive behaviors Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-10

12 Causes Biological factors Brain Injury or Dysgenesis Genetics Temperament Environmental factors Home – Relationship with parents, inconsistent parenting practices School - Teacher actions, ineffective instruction Community - Drug and alcohol abuse, gangs, deviant sexual behavior Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-11

13 Identification and Assessment Screening tests – Used to determine if intervention is warranted – Behavior rating scales or checklists – Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI) Direct observation and measurement – Directly focuses on the child’s problems – Useful for educational planning Functional Behavioral Assessment – Used to help understand the why of challenging behavior – Indirect and direct measures – Functional Analysis Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-12

14 Curriculum Goals Academic skills Direct, explicit, and effective instruction High rates of teacher praise Social skills Cooperation skills Appropriate ways to express feelings Responding to failure Learning the social and nonacademic skills that match teacher expectations Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-13

15 Curriculum Goals (cont.) Behavior Management School-wide Positive Behavior Support – Tier1-Primary Prevention: Universal Supports for all Students – Tier2-Secondary Prevention: Targeted Interventions for Students with at-risk Behaviors – Tier 3-Tertiary Prevention: Intensive, Individualized Interventions for Students with high-risk Behaviors Self-Management Self-Monitoring and Self-Evaluation Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-14

16 Curriculum Goals (cont.) Proactive, Positive Classroom Management Strategies Structuring the physical environment of the classroom Establishing clear rules and expectations Planning lessons and managing transitions Providing opportunities for making choices Presenting instructions in a way to increase compliance Keeping students actively engaged Using praise and positive reinforcement Anticipating and addressing problem behaviors before they occur Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-15

17 Curriculum Goals (cont.) Peer Mediation and Support Peer monitoring Positive peer reporting Peer tutoring Peer support and confrontation Group contingencies Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-16

18 Fostering Strong Teacher-Student Relationships Differential acceptance Witness or be the victim of acts of anger without responding similarly Empathetic Relationship Recognize and understand the nonverbal cues reflective of children’s individual needs Help replace antisocial and maladaptive behaviors with socially appropriate behaviors Focus on alterable variables Teachers should focus effort on only those variables that make a difference in student learning and can be affected by sound teaching practice Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-17

19 Educational Placements During the school year, about 40% of students with EBD received their education in general education classrooms ○ 23% in separate classrooms ○ 13% in special schools ○ 2% in correctional facilities ○ 2% in residential schools ○ 1% in home or hospital placement Most students with emotional or behavioral disorders have serious problems that require intensive intervention A major challenge is arranging an environment in which academic and social skills can be learned at acceptable rates while protecting the safety of all children Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-18

20 Challenges, Achievements, and Advocacy  Revising the federal definition of this disability so all eligible children receive needed special education and related services  Establishing a national resolve and commitment of resources sufficient for large scale programs of early detection and prevention  Closing the gap between what is known about effective special education for students with EBD and what those students experience each day in the classroom Heward Exceptional Children, 10e © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 6-19


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