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the information superhighway the knowledge economy.

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Presentation on theme: "the information superhighway the knowledge economy."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 the information superhighway

3 the knowledge economy

4 just-in-time learning

5 the guide on the side

6 unbundling

7 bricks and clicks

8 the death of the university

9 anyone, anywhere, any time learning

10 digital diploma mills

11 hype

12

13 fallacies

14 hype fallacies spin

15 hype fallacies spin myths

16 hype fallacies spin myths

17 hype

18 hope

19 Learning Technologies in the Language Classroom: A Step Closer to the Future University of Cyprus Nicosia Cyprus 26 th – 28 th May 2006 Presented by Mark Pegrum Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia E-Learning: From Hype to Hope

20 Learning Technologies in the Language Classroom: A Step Closer to the Future University of Cyprus Nicosia Cyprus 26 th – 28 th May 2006 Presented by Mark Pegrum Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia E-Learning: From Hype to Hope

21 Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia Universities are in the information business, and the information railroad is coming … (Wulf 1998) Result: intense pedagogical opposition to … the technologically prepackaged course (Noble 2002) education in a box (Werry 2002) canned education (Dreyfus 2001) university.com (Katz 2000) Emerging recognition that well-designed e-learning is: labour-intensive – for staff & students more expensive than f2f teaching/learning Recommendation: Our focus should be reaching different audiences in different ways rather than saving money or time E-learning saves money.

22 Allowing the administrative and economic benefits of hybrid teaching to drive the implementation of the model risks destroying the pedagogical benefits. Marjorie Kibby (2006) Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia

23 Technology can be turned to very different ends: transmission pedagogies (CAI) methodologically regressive? (Stanford 2006) progressive pedagogies (CMC) dialogic pedagogy constructivism critical pedagogy postmodernism Recommendation: Take responsibility for our methodology & pedagogy E-learning is a methodology

24 Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia Constructivist principles: active construction of knowledge personal knowledges sharing of multiple perspectives Dialogue is central: cyber learning has electronic dialogue at its heart (Maeroff 2003) online interaction facilitates dialogue across difference (Lauzon 1999) Differentiate: information delivery – representational communication – relational (Hamilton & Feenberg 2006) Recommendation: Link methods (how) to goals (what) E-learning is constructivist

25 [VLE screen captures shown.]

26 Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia Dangers: active learning … engagement with technology? (Lauzon 1999) student-centred … covers lack of interaction with teachers? (Werry 2002) … smokescreen for corporatisation? (Samuels 2006) … excuse for downsizing of expertise of faculty? (ibid.) … excuse for deskilling of faculty? (cf. Apple 1986) Recommendation: Link pedagogy to (social) aims Constructivism is a liber* pedagogy

27 [VLE screen captures shown.]

28 The asynchronous discussion board is one of my favorite tools […] It allows both students and tutors to reflect on each others contributions and better articulate a response. It gives us time to think more in depth than on [sic] a face-to-face interaction and most importantly it allows all the students to participate. TMLA Diploma Student (Module 09 Discussion Board, 2006) Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia

29 Hype: everyone, every place, all the time (Duderstadt 2000) Dangers: digital divide socioeconomic – geographical – age cultural capital autonomous individual/reason discourse models (Cameron 2002) – debating style masculinity (cf. Butler 1990, Ellsworth 1989, Ess 2006, Herring 2000) Western culture (Ess 2006, Goodfellow 2003) Western educational models (Atkinson 1997) Recommendation: Be sensitive to learners backgrounds E-learning is for anyone, any place, any time

30 [t]he very notion of dialogue is culturally specific and historically bound, and while one speaker may feel secure that a conversation is happening, another may be sure it is not (Judith Butler 1990) Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia

31 CMC has the potential to provide a means for the weaving together of ideas and information from many peoples minds... (Anthony Kaye 1989) Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia

32 What does it replace? Representational: replaces teacher Relational: replaces classroom Does can mean should? technology typically additive, not subtractive emergence of blended paradigm (bricks and clicks) Recommendation: Capitalise on strengths of f2f & e-learning E-learning can replace f2f learning

33 Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia Dangers: information overload (Pegrum 2005) burden of selection (Heim 1999) fragmentation of attention (Herring 1999) communication overload waste limited attentional budget (Levy 2001) lack of convergence (Hewitt 2001) Benefits: facilitates interaction facilitates weaving of individual & cultural perspectives Recommendation: Build in time & space for reflection E-learning is about speed

34 Slow and electronic are not antithetical. Surely there is a place in academia for slow writers, many of whom embrace new technologies … [W]e must … be respectful of the slow writing process (hypotext) that can in turn make hypertext the best it can be. (Rosemary Feal 2003) Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia

35 The historical divide between speech and writing has been overcome with the interactional and reflective aspects of language merged in a single medium. (Mark Warschauer 1999) Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia

36 Questions: how much flexibility is enough? how many important learning experiences are flexible? (Brabazon 2006) Recommendation: Structure learning experiences appropriately E-learning is about flexibility

37 Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia Questions: how much understanding does just-in-time learning bring? how much reflection does just-in-time learning allow? would less just-in-time education necessitate less just- in-time educational intervention? Recommendation: Students should reflect on the bigger picture – from the start E-learning is just-in-time

38 Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia Pro: the sage on the stage the guide on the side Anti: teachers as digital butlers (Brabazon 2002) Reality? progressive pedagogies require democratisation - everyone is a teacher and a learner online teaching is ACTIVE and DEMANDING E-learning is facilitated, not taught

39 Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia The Online Teachers Tripartite Role (Pegrum & Cook 2003; Pegrum & Spöring 2004) Teacher: structuring learning experiences and initiating discussion, which he/she must then guide and facilitate, offering direct input where factual issues arise but for the most part supporting students in developing and synthesizing their own ideas; Monitor: knowing when to step back and observe from a distance, allowing students to interact with each other in the creation of new patterns of understanding built on the foundation of shared individual perspectives (Belanger & Jordan 2000: 23); Learner: knowing when to step back in as a peer among peers, i.e. where he/she is also a learner, thereby approximating the Freirean (1996) ideal of everyone being simultaneously a teacher and a student E-learning is facilitated, not taught

40 Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia Online teacher: role requires forethought, planning, preparation subject knowledge and experience offers more to ss than they would gain simply from interacting with other ss Recommendation: Avoid downplaying our own experience or expertise E-learning is facilitated, not taught

41 Technology is not a destiny but a scene of struggle. Andrew Feenberg (1991) Graduate School of Education, University of Western Australia

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