# Atomic Matter.

## Presentation on theme: "Atomic Matter."— Presentation transcript:

Atomic Matter

Matter Matter is the term used to describe anything that has mass and takes up space. Four states of matter: gas, liquid, solid, and plasma Examples: Gas: hydrogen, oxygen Liquid: water, magma Solid: rocks, metals Plasma: Lighting, stars, and fire!!

Mass Mass is the amount of matter in an object or how much it material is inside and outside the object. When we talk about elements from the periodic table we talk about their atomic mass, or how much mass the atom has.

All matter is made of atoms and the structure of an object is based on the atoms quickness and densely.

Changing States Changing states requires energy in the form of heat. Changing states may also be due to the change in pressure in a system. Heat of formation, Hf. Heat of vaporization, Hv

Kinetic Molecular Theory
Solids Have a definite shape Have a definite volume Kinetic Molecular Theory Molecules are held close together and there is very little movement between them.

Liquids Have an indefinite shape Have a definite volume Kinetic Molecular Theory: Atoms and molecules have more space between them than a solid does, but less than a gas (ie. It is more “fluid”.)

Gases Have an indefinite shape Have an indefinite volume Kinetic Molecular Theory: Molecules are moving in random patterns with varying amounts of distance between the particles.

Kinetic Molecular Model of Water
At 100°C, water becomes water vapor, a gas. Molecules can move randomly over large distances. Between 0°C and 100 °C, water is a liquid. In the liquid state, water molecules are close together, but can move about freely. Below 0°C, water solidifies to become ice. In the solid state, water molecules are held together in a rigid structure.

Have an indefinite shape Have an indefinite volume
Plasma Have an indefinite shape Have an indefinite volume Plasma is distinct from a gas because it possesses unique properties. Free electrical charges (not bound to atoms or ions) cause plasma to be electrically conductive. Plasma may be formed by heating and ionizing a gas.

STATES OF MATTER LIQUID PLASMA SOLID GAS
Tightly packed, in a regular pattern Vibrate, but do not move from place to place Close together with no regular arrangement. Vibrate, move about, and slide past each other Well separated with no regular arrangement. Vibrate and move freely at high speeds Has no definite volume or shape and is composed of electrical charged particles

What is inside an atom? What makes up an atom?

Atomic structure Nucleus is the center of the atom
Protons + Neutrons = Nucleus Protons are a particle with a positive charge Neutrons are a particle with a no charge at all. Electrons are a particle in an atom with a negative charge. It is the smallest part of the atom.

Rules about electrons Electrons travel around the nucleus in (2) two, the next level is eight (8), and the third is eighteen (18).

The structure of all atoms are the same, the only thing that changes are the number of particles within the atom. Atoms are defined by the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus.

Let’s build an atom

So all charges must balance to create an element

Elements Elements are matter made up of only one type of atom (remember this is based on the amount of protons and neutrons.) Gold is an element made up of only gold atoms, and iron is only made up of iron atoms. Elements are the primary colors of matter!

Bonding: Come together now!
Bonding happens due to is the number of electrons needed to fill the outermost shell of an atom. Electrons travel around the nucleus in (2) two, the next level is eight (8), and the third is eighteen (18).

Bonding: Come together now!
Valence is the number of electrons needed to fill the outermost shell of an atom. This is how an atom generally bonds or number of bonds an atom can form. Show you a rule for a few elements! How many people can be seated? Odd rule; there can only be a total of eight bonding sites, so there are rules called the octet rule.

Periodic Table The periodic table is a chart that organizes elements by the number protons in each element’s nucleus.

Compounds A compound is a form of matter that is make when two or more elements combine chemically. Put oxygen and hydrogen together and you get the compound water.

Chemical formulas Chemical formulas are made up of symbols and numbers that tell what elements are in a compound. Examples H2O NaCl NH3 C6H12O6

Mixtures If two or more substances are put together by a physical change but do not combine to make a compound the result is called a mixture.

NOTES AS A TABLE ELEMEMENT COMPOUND MIXTURE
One kind of atom due to the amount of protons and neutrons Atoms of two or more elements bound together chemically Element + Element = Compound Two or more different elements and/or compounds physically combine Can not be broken down into a simpler type of matter (physically or chemically) Can be broken into simpler forms, by chemical, not physical Can be separated into parts by physical means Can exist as an atom or molecule (atom = argon Molecule = nitrogen) Contains the same # of atoms of both elements, but is sharing particles Retains properties of its parts EXAMPLES Elements Compound Mixture Oxygen, Copper, Gold Water, Salt, Sugar Air, Soil, Granite Rock