"Image noise" is the digital equivalent of film grain. Most smaller more compact cameras produce high to very high camera noise. The higher the ISO, the more noise in the photograph. The amount of noise will vary from camera to camera.
Shooting with a higher ISO helps reduce the effect of camera shake when taking pictures in low-light. It allows you to take photos without using a flash, making images appear more natural.
Avoid using a high ISO unless you have a digital camera that is capable of handling it well. Instead, use a tripod and a long shutter on subjects that are not moving. When shooting in low light, it is better to select an ISO number than to let the camera decide for you.
Shutter speed selector controls the length of time that the shutter remains open Shorter time decreases the likely hood that a moving object will appear blurred
A fast shutter freezes action. (500 th ) A Slow Shutter blurs action. (8 th second) Fast ShutterSlow Shutter Shutter Speed Selector
Aperture selector adjusts the size of the lens opening (diaphragm) The smaller the aperture opening the greater the depth of field (the part of the scene from near to far that will be sharp) Large Aperture OpeningSmall Aperture Opening Aperture Selector
Interchangeable lenses let you select the lens focal length This controls the size of objects in the picture and the extent of the scene recorded on the film The longer your lens the worse your camera shake will be Interchangeable Lenses
The Shutter and Light Two controls adjust the amount of light that reaches the film. The shutter and the aperture. The shutter controls the amount of light that reaches the film by the length of time it remains open
The term “stop” in photography refers to a change in illumination whether the shutter speed or the aperture is changed to achieve it Adding one stop doubles the amount of light. Decreasing a stop, halves the light.
Cameras used to provide shutter speeds only at full stops, but many cameras today offer a wide variety of stops such as 1/2 stops and 1/3 stops The bulb setting keeps the shutter open as long as the release is held down If you are using a handheld camera, use a shutter speed faster than the focal length of the lens. EX- If you use a 50mm lens your shutter speed should be faster than 1/60 second.
The Shutter Cont. The faster the shutter speed the sharper a moving subject would be. Other factors besides shutter and subject speed also affect the amount of blurring in a photograph.
The Shutter Cont. Panning keeps a moving subject sharp while blurring the background.
Aperture and Depth of Field The area of acceptable sharpness is known as the Depth of Field. This is controlled by the aperture. The aperture is the size of the lens opening The aperture works like the pupil of an eye, enlarging and contracting to admit more or less light. The smaller the aperture opening, the more a scene will be sharp near to far.
The aperture controls the brightness of the light that reaches the film The size of the aperture is indicated by its f-number Lenses are often described as fast or slow.
The smaller the f stop (number) the larger the opening. For example f/2 has a large opening and f/32 has a tiny opening. Opening up one stop, lets in twice as much light. For example, from f/11 changing to f/8 makes the exposure twice as bright.
Using Aperture & Shutter Together Both of these elements affect the amount of light entering the camera. You need the proper combination of the two to get a properly exposed image. Both of these also affect the sharpness
Choosing a Camera You must first decide what kind of pictures you want to take. Compare prices, accessories, and service. SLR (single-lens reflex) cameras show you the scene directly through the lens. Rangefinder/Viewfinder cameras show you the scene through a small window. What you see through the viewfinder is not exactly what your lens will record, so you have to be particularly careful when shooting close -ups, as you might cut something off you want in your image. Some places to consider shopping for cameras and other equipment are Competitive Camera in Dallas and online at B&H.
Keeping Camera Steady You must keep your camera steady during exposure. Too much camera motion during exposure will cause sharpness problems ranging from slight image softness to hopeless blurring. The amount of camera movement that can occur without ruining your photo depends on several factors including, how much you plan to enlarge the image, the camera’s design, shutter speed, focal length, and aperture. Tripods and monopods can significantly help when it comes to keeping your camera still Cable releases or remotes can also help you avoid unwanted movement.