Modernism Expressionism Cubism Dadaism Futurism Constructivism DeStijl International Style Bauhaus Various Expressionist movements Surrealism Abstract Expressionism Colour Field Modernism is an umbrella term for many different styles … All of these styles, and more, are referred to as Modernism.
Rudolph Schlichter, “ Blind Power” 1937 The rise of Fascism in Europe in the 1930s caused many Avant Garde artists to flee and move to New York City.
The land of be-bop! Europe was the Old World, the land of old ideas; the land of Fascism and totalitarianism. America was the land of freedom and new ideas! The Modern World had arrived!
Many refugee artists got jobs teaching in new art schools that embraced Avant Garde ideas.
They encouraged an interest in using exploring the power of juxtapositions; … employing chance in art-making; … and exploring the unconscious through art. Jackson Pollock, She Wolf, 1943
Jackson Pollock, Mural, 1943 The resulting work became known as Abstract Expressionism.
Jackson Pollock, Lavender Mist, 1950 Abstract Expressionism became all the rage in post-war America where ‘new’ meant improved! It became the Cold War symbol of the freedom of democracy, contrasting with the Socialist Realism of Communism.
Abstract Expressionism : Key Dates: Key Artists: Jackson Pollock Lee Krasner Mark Rothko Willem de Kooning c.1945 – 1960
Abstract Expressionism : Influenced by: - The psychoanalytical, chance techniques of the Surrealists (automatic painting in particular);; - The freedom and new possibilities of post-war America. - The personal expressiveness of Expressionism;
Abstract Expressionism : Characteristics: - The use of chance in the creative process (splattering, automatic painting, etc.); - Large-scale: big is better; - Action Painting: the act of making the art, not just the product, is central to its essence;