Presentation on theme: "USING THE RIGHT TO FOOD TO ASSESS POLICY CHOICES Kristin Sampson April 19, 2010 - Washington, DC."— Presentation transcript:
USING THE RIGHT TO FOOD TO ASSESS POLICY CHOICES Kristin Sampson April 19, 2010 - Washington, DC
Scope of the Crisis - Global In 2010, over 1 billion people are considered to be food insecure. World population is estimated to reach 9 billion by 2050 and, as diets change and incomes increase, demand for food is likely to grow by 70%.
Scope of the Crisis - Africa More than 218 million live below the poverty line; more than 70% of them live in rural areas and depend on agriculture The proportion of undernourished population in SSA, decreased from 32% (1990-92) to 29% in 2008 – but has risen since then Nearly 80% of malnourished people live in fragile countries Women account for around 80 percent of farmers and produce 60 to 80 percent of Africa’s food These small producers face numerous challenges hampering their ability to improve their circumstances, such as: declining and fragmented landholdings; low input use; declining soil fertility; changing climate; poor access to financial services including rural credit, and poor functioning or unreliable output markets; HIV and AIDS crisis which is causing significant demographic changes among the farming population.
Scope of the Response In 2003, African governments committed to increase public investment in agriculture to a minimum of 10 per cent of their national budgets and to raise sector growth by at least 6 per cent by 2008. In 2008 the World Bank’s World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development called for increased investment and putting agriculture at the heart of the development agenda. In 2009, countries represented at the L’Aquila Summit committed to mobilizing mobilizing $20 billion over three years
Scope of the Response – Part II 1 billion over 3 years – EU Food Facility World Bank doubled funding for agriculture in 2009 - $1.5 billion US allocated 770 million supplementary funding in 2008/09 to address food crisis World Bank multi-donor trust fund Global Agriculture and Food Security Program expected to reach 1 billion in 2010
Competing Strategies What needs to be done to increase food security and meet future food demand? National – U.S., EU, CAADP Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa United Nations International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology for Development Private Sector
Underlying Values Food Security – The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as existing “when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life”. Right to Food – the right to food is the right to have regular, permanent and unrestricted access, either directly or by means of financial purchases, to quantitatively and qualitatively adequate and sufficient food corresponding to the cultural traditions of the people to which the consumer belongs, and which ensure a physical and mental, individual and collective, fulfilling and dignified life free of fear. Food Sovereignty - Food sovereignty is the right of peoples to healthy and culturally appropriate food produced through ecologically sound and sustainable methods, and their right to define their own food and agriculture systems.
Applying the Right to Food "Over the next fifty years, it is estimated that the world's food needs will be greater than the cumulative food needs of every person throughout human history. To meet this demand for food it is imperative that we use our land, water and other resources wisely and efficiently. And it is equally important that we continue to embrace innovation and adopt new technologies that boost agricultural productivity. "Some of the most difficult trade issues we face are regulatory barriers that interfere with trade in the products of new production technologies such as plant biotechnology, cloning and nanotechnology. So…we are working hard to develop an effective dialogue with our counterparts in other countries to develop policies that support trade in products that are the result of new technologies and innovation. Because if we are going to meet the world's food needs over the next fifty years, we have to make sure that every ounce of what is grown on a farm or raised on a ranch can be transported, marketed, and sold efficiently around the world.
Applying the Right to Food By 2050, this crop area will need to expand by 61 million hectares in order to meet global food demand. On average across all global crops, yields must grow nearly 25 percent faster than historic levels in order to keep global acreage flat. Biotech products "are critical to growth in yields" in developed agricultural economies, study author John Kruse said at a briefing for reporters. For developing countries, genetic modification and engineering of plants will work in tandem with modernized farm and transportation networks to encourage greater output, he said.
Applying the Right to Food The scope of activities that could be financed through the private sector sub-account “window”…will have the same end purpose and scope to the public sector ones, but will concentrate on those functions best carried out by private agents. Investments will include loans, credit guarantees and equity financing and will be guided by the policies, procedures and guidelines of the supervising financial institution. As appropriate, the private sector window will seek to finance local and regional private sector agents. Initially, the IFC will be the sole eligible supervising entity for the private sector window. It is expected that the Steering Committee will endorse the IFC’s annual investment plan submitted through the Coordination Unit and thereafter the IFC would approve projects under the Investment Plan in accordance with its own guidelines, policies and procedures. All investment projects will follow the investment, social and environmental standards and criteria of the IFC. The procedures for allocating resources from the private sector window will be determined by the IFC.
Applying the Right to Food Comprehensively addressing the underlying causes of hunger will advance the following three key objectives: Increase sustainable market-led growth across the entire food production and market chain: from the lab to the farm to the market to the table. Prevent and treat under-nutrition. Increase the impact of humanitarian food assistance and social safety-nets (i.e. temporary assistance that allows those who are poor to protect their assets during unexpected shocks).
Applying the Right to Food Our goals are to sustainably reduce chronic hunger, raise the incomes of the rural poor, and reduce the number of children suffering from under-nutrition 1) A targeted focus on agricultural development as a primary means of driving economic growth and reducing poverty in partner countries; 2) Embracing a community and country-led approach where partner countries decide on their own needs, solutions, and development strategies; 3) Building local capacity across central governments and communities and farm organizations; 4) Coordinating donor and other stakeholder investments through a multi-stakeholder process that invests in country-led plans; 5) Focusing on improving the productivity and market access of small-scale producers, particularly women, who make up the majority of small farmers in developing countries; 6) Catalyzing private sector economic growth, finance, and trade with necessary investments in public goods as well as policy, legal, and regulatory reforms; 7) The use of science and technology to sustainably increase agricultural productivity; 8) Protecting the natural resource base upon which agriculture depends; 9) Investing in improving nutrition for women and young children as a foundation for future growth; and 10) Committing to a whole-of-U.S.-government approach that improves efficiency and increases the coordination and accountability of our investments.
Applying the Right to Food In general, access to food can be improved by applying the "Right-to-Food" approach,…[We] should support its further application in developing countries, including "right-to-food" based political and legal frameworks. This means supporting strategies which tackle the root causes of hunger, and empowerment of marginalized groups in the design, implementation and monitoring of national programs, as well as establishing and strengthening redress mechanisms. Therefore, sustainable small-scale food production should be the focus of [our] assistance to increase availability of food in developing countries. It has multiple effects of enhancing incomes and resilience for rural producers, making food available for consumers, and maintaining or enhancing environmental quality. When supporting small-scale agriculture [our] assistance should prioritize intensification approaches that are sustainable and ecologically efficient, respecting the diverse functions of agriculture. This means inter alia optimizing agri-inputs, integrated pest management, improved soil and water management and stress resistant crop varieties.