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Presentation on theme: "ADSORPTION ION EXCHANGE RESINS BIOCHEMISTRY Dr. Nasim A P Biochem."— Presentation transcript:


2 Lecture format Introduction to Topic (5mins) Details of the Topic (30 mins) Class Test (15 mins) ▫(Marks will added to Internal assessment)

3 ADSORPTION Adsorption, the binding of molecules or particles to a surface. Absorption, the filling of pores in a solid.

4 Examples: Activated carbon, silica gel, and alumina

5 Activated carbon is produced by roasting organic material to decompose it to granules of carbon Commonly used materials: coconut shell, wood, and bone.

6 Adsorption is a term which is completely different from Absorption. While absorption means uniform distribution of the substance throughout the bulk, adsorption essentially happens at the surface of the substance.

7 Sorption When both Adsorption and Absorption processes take place simultaneously, the process is called sorption.


9 Physical adsorption is caused mainly by van der Waals forces and electrostatic forces between adsorbate molecules and the atoms of adsorbent surface.

10 Adsorbents are characterized by surface properties such as surface area and polarity

11 1. Surface area: A large specific surface area is preferable for providing large adsorption capacity

12 The size of the micropores

13 2. Surface polarity adsorbents having affinity for polar substances such as water or alcohols are called as “hydrophillic”. Examples: aluminosilicates such as zeolites, porous alumina, silica gel or silica-alumina.

14 adsorbents having affinity for polar substances called as "hydrophobic" adsorbents. Carbon, polymer adsorbents and silicalite are typical nonpolar adsorbents.

15 Depending on the nature of attractive forces existing between the adsorbate and adsorbent, adsorption can be classified as: i) Physical adsorption ii) Chemical adsorption

16 Physical adsorption the forces of attraction between the molecules of the adsorbate and the adsorbent are of the weak van der Waals' type. Since the forces of attraction are weak, the process of physisorption can be easily reversed by heating or decreasing the pressure of the adsorbate (as in the case of gases).

17 Chemical adsorption (Chemisorption) In chemisorption, the forces of attraction between the adsorbate and the adsorbent are very strong; the molecules of adsorbate form chemical bonds with the molecules of the adsorbent present in the surface.

18 Factors Influencing Adsorption 1. Surface Area

19 2. Nature of the Adsorbate Adsorption of a solute is inversely proportional to its solubility in the solvent. The greater the solubility, the stronger the solute- solvent bond and the small the extent of adsorption.

20 In general, the solubility of any organic compound in water decreases with increasing chain length.

21 3.Molecular sizes.

22 4. Charge (Ionic species): minimum for the charged species maximum for the neutral species.

23 Decreasing adsorption with increasing ionization has been observed for many organic acids. Adsorption of propionic acid on carbon decreases markedly with increasing pH to a minimum in the range pH 3.5 to 5.5

24 Studies on amphoteric compound indicate an adsorption maximum at the isoelectric point, or that pH at which both the acidic end and the basic end of the compound are ionized and the compound bears a net charge of zero.

25 5. pH Because hydrogen and hydroxide ions are adsorbed quite strongly, the adsorption of other ions is influence by the pH of the solution. In general, adsorption of typical organic pollutant from water is increased with decreasing pH.

26 6. Temperature increases with decreasing temperature.

27 7. Adsorption of Mixed Solutes The degree of mutual inhibition of competing adsorbates should be related to the relative sizes of the molecules being adsorbed, relative adsorptive affinities, relative concentrations of solutes.

28 8. Nature of the Adsorbent

29 APPLICATIONS Purification of water

30 Charcoal is used as a decoloriser Treatment of Diahroea

31 Silica and alumina gels are used as adsorbents for removing moisture and for controlling humidity of rooms.

32 Activated charcoal is used in gas masks as it adsorbs all the toxic gases and vapours and purifies the air for breathing.



35 Quiz Definition of Adsorption Difference between Absorption and Adsorption What are different types of adsorption Enlist factors affecting adsorption Applications of Adsorption


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