an uneven distribution of shared electrons within a molecule causing slight opposite charges on opposite ends of the molecule
Hydrogen Bonds a weak chemical attraction between polar molecules –the attraction between the positively charged hydrogen of water and the negative charge that exists on other polar molecules including water itself –due to water’s polarity
How are hydrogen bonds different than ionic and covalent bonds? Ionic and covalent bonds hold together substances Hydrogen bonds are attractions between separate molecules
Universal Solvent “like dissolves like” –water is able to dissolve compounds with charges –water is able to dissolve ionic compounds and other polar compounds, but not nonpolar compounds
Universal Solvent Solution –mixture of two or more substances in which the solute molecules are evenly distributed in the solvent Ex: salt water, sugar water, antifreeze Solute –substance that is dissolved Ex: salt, sugar, food coloring Solvent –substance that does the dissolving Ex: water, acetone
Water & Ionic Substances Why is water able to dissolve salt?
Water & Ionic Substances Salt is ionic (made of charged particles) and water is polar (has charged ends).
Capillary Action process in which water molecules move up through a narrow tube –the attraction of water to the walls of the tube and to the other water molecules around it pulls the water up more strongly than gravity pulls it down –caused by adhesion and cohesion
High Specific Heat water has a high specific heat (heat capacity) –specific heat – the amount of heat required to raise 1 gram of a substance 1 degree Celsius it takes a lot of energy to heat up or cool down water
Neutral pH Pure water will ionize in the following way to create hydrogen, and hydroxide ions. H2OH2OH+H+ + OH - water hydrogen ion hydroxide ion
Neutral pH because of this, water has a neutral pH –pH – a system to measure the concentration of H+ ions in a solution acids and bases can be harmful to life