Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Investigation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to Investigation Mr. CappelloSir Robert Borden High School9-1-1 Specialist High Skills Major Program
2 Overview An Overview of Investigating 1. Defining an Investigation 2. Practices to follow during an Investigation3. Art or Science?Types of Investigations1. Criminal-Non criminal2. Reactive- Proactive3. Overt-CovertThe Investigating Questions1. Patterns, Leads, Tips, and Theories
3 Investigation Defined Investigation: the systematic and thorough examination or inquiry into something or someone (the collection of facts or information) and the recording of this examination or inquiry in a report.The word investigate can be traced back to the Latin word investigare, meaning "to search into.”Investigare is based on another Latin word, vestigare, meaning "to track or to trace."
4 Investigation, Art or Science? Both!Investigating is a science because there are certain rules that should be followed to conduct a successful investigation. Pure sciences and applied sciences play an increasingly important role in the investigating process.Investigating is an art because it depends on the human skills of the investigator, including interpersonal communication and creativity.
5 Practices to follow during an Investigation A logical sequence must be followedReal, physical evidence must be legally obtainedReal, physical evidence must be properly stored and preserved.Witnesses must be identified, interviewed, andprepared for any potential or actual litigationLeads must be developed.Reports and documentation must be collectedInformation must be accurately and completely recorded.Evidence collected must correlate tothe claim cause of action, or offence charged
6 Criminal vs. Non Criminal Criminal: jurisdiction of police/government agencies.Non-criminal investigations: involve the investigationof non-criminal incidents or events.Non-criminal investigations may be conducted by the public, police or private investigators. The main difference between non-criminal investigations by the public, police and by private investigators is that police investigations are funded by the government, whereas private investigations are paid for by individual clients or businesses.
7 Reactive Investigation vs. Proactive Investigation Reactive investigation is one that is instigated on the basis of a complaint registered by a victim or client. For example, a person is the victim of a robbery and reports this robbery to the police-the police then conduct a reactive investigation.2 Types of reactive: The preliminary investigation and the follow-up or latent investigation. The preliminary investigation is the initial inquiry into a reported crime and is generally conducted by a uniformed patrol officer.
8 Reactive Investigation vs. Proactive Investigation Proactive investigations are investigations conducted by the police based on their own initiative.The proactive investigation is:Designed to catch a criminal in the act of committing a crime, rather than waiting until a citizen reports a crime. The three main types of proactive investigations are:Decoy operationsRepeat offender programsUndercover drug operations
9 Overt vs. Covert Investigation An overt investigation is one that is conducted openly- investigators do not try to hide their true identity or hide the fact that they are conducting the investigation. Most reactive investigations are overt.A covert investigation, on the other hand, is conducted in secret-the investigator tries to hide his identity and the fact that he is conducting an investigation. Generally proactive investigations are covert.Covert investigations are more commonly called undercover investigations.
10 Basic Police Investigation 5 tasks during the preliminary reactive investigation by a patrol officer:Conducts a preliminary search of the area of crime: to determine if the suspect is still present;Renders first aid to any injured parties,Detains, separates, and interviews any possible suspects or witnesses;Restricts access to the area where the crime was committed to prevent the destruction of evidence.Prepares the first written report of the crime, which is generally called an incident or complaint report.
11 Patterns & LeadsA pattern is a series of similarities that may link particular cases or indicate that the same person is committing a series of crimes.Leads are clues or pieces of information that aid in the progress of an investigation. Leads can be physical evidence or information received by witnesses or other persons or through surveillances, undercover investigations, and record searches. A lead is anything that can assist an investigator in resolving an investigation.
12 Tips & TheoriesTips are leads provided by citizens that aid in the progress of an investigation. Generally tips involve the identity of the suspect (eg. Crime Stoppers)Theories are beliefs regarding the case based on evidence, patterns, leads, tips, and other information developed or uncovered in a case. Theories are important because they direct the investigation. Investigators have to be very careful in building theories about a case, because if the theory is wrong, it may lead them in the wrong direction.